Designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill and built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in 1891, it is one of the most prestigious venues in the world for both classical music and popular music. Carnegie Hall has its own programming and marketing departments. It is rented out to performing groups, the hall has not had a resident company since 1962, when the New York Philharmonic moved to Lincoln Centers Philharmonic Hall. Carnegie Hall has 3,671 seats, divided among its three auditoriums, Carnegie Hall presented about 200 concerts in the 2008–2009 season, up 3 percent from the previous year. Its stages were rented for an additional 600 events in the 2008–2009 season, Carnegie Hall contains three distinct, separate performance spaces. The Isaac Stern Auditorium seats 2,804 on five levels and was named after violinist Isaac Stern in 1997 to recognize his efforts to save the hall from demolition in the 1960s, the hall is enormously high, and visitors to the top balcony must climb 137 steps. All but the top level can be reached by elevator, the main hall was home to the performances of the New York Philharmonic from 1892 until 1962.
Known as the most prestigious concert stage in the U. S. almost all of the classical music. After years of wear and tear, the hall was extensively renovated in 1986. The Ronald O. Perelman Stage is 42 feet deep, the First Tier and Second Tier consist of sixty-five boxes, the First Tier has 264 seats at eight seats per box and the Second Tier seats 238, with boxes ranging from six to eight seats each. Second from the top is the Dress Circle, seating 444 in six rows, at the top, the balcony seats 837. Although seats with obstructed views exist throughout the auditorium, only the Dress Circle level has structural columns, Zankel Hall, which seats 599, is named after Judy and Arthur Zankel. Originally called simply Recital Hall, this was the first auditorium to open to the public in April 1891, following renovations made in 1896, it was renamed Carnegie Lyceum. The completely reconstructed Zankel Hall is flexible in design and can be reconfigured in several different arrangements to suit the needs of the performers, the 599 seats in Zankel Hall are arranged in two levels.
The Parterre level seats a total of 463 and the Mezzanine level seats 136, each level has a number of seats which are situated along the side walls, perpendicular to the stage. These seats are designated as boxes, there are 54 seats in six boxes on the Parterre level and 48 seats in four boxes on the Mezzanine level, the boxes on the Parterre level are raised above the level of the stage. Zankel Hall is accessible and its stage is 44 feet wide and 25 feet deep — the stage occupies approximately one fifth of the performance space, the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Recital Hall seats 268 and is named after Sanford I. Weill, a chairman of the board, and his wife Joan
A nightclub is an entertainment venue and bar which serves alcoholic beverages that usually operates late into the night. Another distinction is that whereas many pubs and sports bars aim at a market, nightclubs typically aim at a niche market of music and dancing enthusiasts. The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities, nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry. Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with ripped jeans or other clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Friday and Saturday night, most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as house music or gothic rock. A nightclub may be called a discothèque, disco, or dance club, from about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox. Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a hall, originally functioning as a home for dance.
During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capones involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New Yorks 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, in Germany, possibly the first discothèque was Scotch-Club. These discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous, there were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connies Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences, before 1953 and even some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or mostly live bands. The Whisky à Gogo set into place the elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabels, in Berkeley Square, in 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated.
However, the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs, disco has its roots in the underground club scene. It brought together people from all walks of life and backgrounds and these clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. Disco allowed patrons to explore sexuality and push the envelope on the dance floor, disco clubs acted as an escape from such depressing environments and acted as the fantasy marginalized peoples could escape to forget oppression and racism. Disco clubs originally functioned as liberated party spaces and were seen as places of political statement, a smooth mix of long single records to keep people dancing all night long
The Nicholas Brothers were a team of dancing brothers and Harold, who performed a highly acrobatic technique known as flash dancing. With a high level of artistry and daring innovations, they were considered by many to be the greatest tap dancers of their day. Their performance in the musical number Jumpin Jive featured in the movie Stormy Weather is considered by many to be the most virtuosic dance display of all time, Fayard Antonio Nicholas was born October 20,1914, in Mobile, Alabama. Harold Lloyd Nicholas was born March 17,1921, in Winston-Salem, the Nicholas Brothers grew up in Philadelphia, the sons of college-educated musicians who played in their own band at the old Standard Theater—their mother at the piano and father on drums. The brothers were fascinated by the combination of tap dancing and acrobatics, Fayard often imitated their acrobatics and clowning for the kids in his neighborhood. Neither Fayard nor Harold had any formal dance training, Fayard taught himself how to dance and perform by watching and imitating the professional entertainers on stage.
He taught his siblings, first performing with his sister Dorothy as the Nicholas Kids. Harold idolized his brother and learned by copying his moves. Dorothy opted out of the act, and the Nicholas Kids became known as the Nicholas Brothers, as word spread of their talents, the Nicholas Brothers became famous in Philadelphia. They were first hired for a program, The Horn and Hardart Kiddie Hour, and by other local theatres such as the Standard. When they were performing at the Pearl, the manager of The Lafayette, the brothers moved to Philadelphia in 1926 and gave their first performance at the Standard a few years later. In 1932 they became the act at Harlems Cotton Club. They astonished their mainly white audiences dancing to the jazz tempos of Bugle Call Rag and they performed at the Cotton Club for two years, working with the orchestras of Lucky Millinder, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington and Jimmy Lunceford. During this time they filmed their first movie short, Pie Pie Blackbird, in 1932, with Eubie Blake, the brothers attributed their success to this unique style of dancing, which was greatly in demand during this time.
The brothers made their Broadway debut in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1936 and appeared in Richard Rodgers and they impressed their choreographer, George Balanchine, who invited them to appear in Babes in Arms. With Balanchines training, they learned many new stunts and their talent led many to assume they were trained ballet dancers. By 1940, they had moved to Hollywood and for several decades alternated between movies, concerts, Broadway and extensive tours of Latin America and Europe. They toured England with a production of Blackbirds, which gave the Nicholas Brothers an opportunity to see, the Nicholas Brothers taught master classes in tap dance as teachers-in-residence at Harvard University and Radcliffe as Ruth Page Visiting Artists
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
James Hubert Blake, known as Eubie Blake, was an American composer and pianist of ragtime and popular music. In 1921, he and his long-time collaborator Noble Sissle wrote Shuffle Along, one of the first Broadway musicals to be written, Blakes compositions included such hits as Bandana Days, Charleston Rag, Love Will Find a Way, Memories of You and Im Just Wild About Harry. The musical Eubie. which opened on Broadway in 1978, featured his works, Blake was born at 319 Forrest Street in Baltimore, Maryland, to John Sumner Blake and Emily Emma Johnstone, both of whom had been slaves. He was the surviving child of eight, all the rest of whom died in infancy. In 1894, the moved to 414 North Eden Street. John Blake earned US$9.00 weekly working as a stevedore on the Baltimore docks, Blakes musical training began when he was four or five years old. While out shopping with his mother, he wandered into a store, climbed on the bench of an organ. When his mother found him, the manager said to her. It would be criminal to deprive him of the chance to use of such a sublime.
The Blakes purchased an organ for US$75.00, making payments of 25 cents a week. When Blake was seven, he received lessons from a neighbor, Margaret Marshall. At age fifteen, without his parents knowledge, he began playing piano at Aggie Sheltons Baltimore bordello. Blake got his first big break in the business in 1907, when the world champion boxer Joe Gans hired him to play the piano at Ganss Goldfield Hotel. According to Blake, he worked the medicine show circuit and was employed by a Quaker doctor. He played a Melodeon strapped to the back of the medicine wagon, Blake stayed with the show only two weeks, because the doctors religion didnt allow the serving of Sunday dinner. Blake said he composed the melody of the Charleston Rag in 1899 and it was not committed to paper, until 1915, when he learned to write musical notation. In 1912, Blake began playing in vaudeville with James Reese Europes Society Orchestra, the band played ragtime music, which was still quite popular. Shortly after World War I, Blake joined forces with the performer Noble Sissle to form a musical act
Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment. It was especially popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s, a typical vaudeville performance is made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. A vaudeville performer is often referred to as a vaudevillian, Vaudeville developed from many sources, including the concert saloon, freak shows, dime museums, and literary American burlesque. Called the heart of American show business, vaudeville was one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America for several decades, the origin of this term is obscure, but is often explained as being derived from the French expression voix de ville. A second speculation is that it comes from the songs on satire by poet Olivier Basselin. Some, preferred the term variety to what manager Tony Pastor called its sissy. Thus, vaudeville was marketed as variety well into the 20th century, with its first subtle appearances within the early 1860s, vaudeville was not initially a common form of entertainment.
The form gradually evolved from the saloon and variety hall into its mature form throughout the 1870s and 1880s. This more gentle form was known as Polite Vaudeville, in the years before the American Civil War, entertainment existed on a different scale. Certainly, variety theatre existed before 1860 in Europe and elsewhere, in the US, as early as the first decades of the 19th century, theatregoers could enjoy a performance consisting of Shakespeare plays, singing and comedy. As the years progressed, people seeking diversified amusement found a number of ways to be entertained. Vaudeville was characterized by traveling companies touring through cities and towns, a significant influence came from Dutch minstrels and comedians. Vaudeville incorporated these various itinerant amusements into a stable, institutionalized form centered in Americas growing urban hubs, pastors experiment proved successful, and other managers soon followed suit. B. F. Keith took the step, starting in Boston. Later, E. F.
Albee, adoptive grandfather of the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Edward Albee, circuits such as those managed by Keith-Albee provided vaudevilles greatest economic innovation and the principal source of its industrial strength. They enabled a chain of allied vaudeville houses that remedied the chaos of the booking system by contracting acts for regional and national tours. These could easily be lengthened from a few weeks to two years, Albee gave national prominence to vaudevilles trumpeting polite entertainment, a commitment to entertainment equally inoffensive to men and children. Acts that violated this ethos were admonished and threatened with expulsion from the remaining performances or were canceled altogether
The term percussionist applies to a musician who performs struck musical instruments of numerous diverse shapes and applications. Most contemporary western ensembles bands for rock, jazz, most drummers of this particular designation work within the context of a larger contingent that may include, keyboard or guitar, auxiliary percussion and bass. Said ensembles may include melodic based mallet percussion including, the rhythm section, being the core metronomic foundation with which other melodic instruments, including voices, may present the harmonic/melodic portion of the material. In popular music, the function of the drummer is to keep time or provide a steady tempo. There are many tools that a drummer can use for either timekeeping or soloing and these include cymbals, toms, auxiliary percussion and many others. Also there are single and triple bass pedals for the bass drum, before motorized transport became widespread, drummers played a key role in military conflicts. Military drummers provided drum cadences that set a marching pace.
In some armies drums assisted in combat by keeping cadence for firing and loading drills with muzzle loading guns, military drummers were employed on the parade field, when troops passed in review, and in various ceremonies including ominous drum rolls accompanying disciplinary punishments. Children served as drummer boys well into the century, though less commonly than is popularly assumed, due to the nature of the job. In modern times, drummers are not employed in battle, typically buglers and drummers mass under a sergeant-drummer and during marches alternately perform with the regiment or battalion ensembles. Military-based musical percussion traditions were not limited exclusively to the western world, in the Ottoman Empire, the size of a military band reflected the rank of its commander in chief, the largest band was reserved for the Sultan. It included various percussion instruments, often adopted in European military music, the pitched bass drum is still known in some languages as the Turkish Drum.
The drumline is a type of marching ensemble descended from drummers, and can be arranged as a performance of a drum. Their uniforms will often have a style and a fancy hat. In recent times, it is common to see drummers in parades wearing costumes with an African, Latin, Native American, or tribal look. Various indigenous cultures use the drum to create a sense of unity with others especially during recreational events, the drum helps in prayers and meditations. List of drummers Drum beat Drum machine Drum tracks Pipe band This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Sun Valley Serenade
Sun Valley Serenade is a 1941 musical film starring Sonja Henie, John Payne, Glenn Miller, Milton Berle, and Lynn Bari.2 million. Ted Scott is a band pianist whose publicity manager decides that, for good press, the band goes to Ellis Island to meet the girl and soon discovers that the refugee isnt a 10-year-old child, but a young woman, Karen Benson. The surprise comes right before the band is to travel to Sun Valley, while on the ski slopes Ted soon falls for Karens inventive schemes to win the heart of her new sponsor, much to the chagrin of his girlfriend, Vivian Dawn, a soloist with the band. Vivian promptly quits the band out of jealousy, and Karen stages an elaborate ice show as a substitute, of particular note is the elaborate Chattanooga Choo Choo sequence. As the Miller band concludes their feature the camera left to reveal a railway station set. The band continues with the number and accompanies Dorothy Dandridge and The Nicholas Brothers in their song. Sun Valley Serenade is the first of the two movies featuring The Glenn Miller Orchestra.
Besides Chattanooga Choo Choo, other Glenn Miller tunes in the film are Moonlight Serenade, It Happened in Sun Valley, I Know Why, and In the Mood. An instrumental version of At Last was recorded by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra as well as a version with vocals by John Payne and Pat Friday, but these recordings would remain unused and unissued. At Last would appear in the 1942 follow-up movie Orchestra Wives performed by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with vocals by Ray Eberle, Glenn Miller vocalist Pat Friday provided the pre-recorded vocal tracks that Lynn Bari lip synced in the film. Future Olympic gold medalist Gretchen Fraser was the skiing stand-in for Sonja Henie, Fraser was a member of the Olympic team in 1940 and 1948. Sun Valley Serenade was filmed in March 1941, by Darryl Zanuck, on spring snow in Sun Valley, the film became a Hollywood hit and served as a recruiting effort for the elite ski corps of the 10th Mountain Division stationed at Camp Hale in Colorado. Sun Valleys ski school director, Otto Lang, of St.
Anton, the musical numbers were recorded in multi-directional mono, placing microphones around different parts of the orchestra. Those were all mixed down to mono at the time the film was released, the parts of those recordings were found and mixed into true stereo. They have included in home video releases. The film is shown 24 hours a day on a television channel available to all rooms at the Sun Valley Lodge. Sun Valley Serenade was shown on Turner Classic Movies for the first time on Christmas Eve, the film was released in the VHS format in 1991 by 20th Century Fox. In 2007 Sun Valley Serenade was released on DVD by 20th Century Fox for Region 2 format and it remains unreleased on DVD for Region 1
Samuel Goldwyn, known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Jewish Polish American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood and his awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, Goldwyn was born Szmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, Russian Empire, to a Hasidic, Polish Jewish family. His parents were Aaron Dawid Gelbfisz, a peddler, and his wife, at an early age, he left Warsaw on foot and penniless. He made his way to Birmingham, United Kingdom, where he remained with relatives for a few years using the name Samuel Goldfish and he was 16 when his father died. In 1898, he emigrated to the United States, but fearing refusal of entry, he got off the boat in Nova Scotia, Canada and he found work in upstate Gloversville, New York, in the bustling garment business. Soon his innate marketing skills made him a successful salesman at the Elite Glove Company.
After four years, as vice-president of sales, he moved back to New York City, in 1913, Goldfish along with his brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky, Cecil B. DeMille, and Arthur Friend formed a partnership, The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, film rights for the stage play, The Squaw Man were purchased for $4,000 and Dustin Farnum was hired for the leading role. Shooting for the first feature made in Hollywood began on December 29,1913. In 1914, Paramount was an exchange and exhibition corporation headed by W. W. Hodkinson. Looking for more movies to distribute, Paramount signed a contract with the Lasky Company on June 1,1914 to supply 36 films per year, one of Paramounts other suppliers was Adolph Zukors Famous Players Company. The two companies merged on June 28,1916 forming The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, Zukor had been quietly buying Paramount stock, and two weeks prior to the merger, became president of Paramount Pictures Corporation and had Hodkinson replaced with Hiram Abrams, a Zukor associate.
With the merger, Zukor became president of both Paramount and Famous Players-Lasky, with Goldfish being named chairman of the board of Famous Players-Lasky, and Jesse Lasky first vice-president. After a series of conflicts with Zukor, Goldfish resigned as chairman of the board, Goldfish was out as an active member of management, although he still owned stock and was a member of the board of directors. Famous Players-Lasky would part of Paramount Pictures Corporation. In 1916, Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, seeing an opportunity, he had his name legally changed to Samuel Goldwyn, which he used for the rest of his life. Goldwyn Pictures proved successful but it is their Leo the Lion trademark for which the organization is most famous, on April 10,1924, Goldwyn Pictures was acquired by Marcus Loew and merged into his Metro Pictures Corporation
Down Argentine Way
Down Argentine Way is a 1940 Technicolor musical film made by Twentieth Century Fox. It made a star of Betty Grable in her first leading role for the studio, the film starred Don Ameche, The Nicholas Brothers, Charlotte Greenwood, and J. Carrol Naish. The film was directed by Irving Cummings and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck from a screenplay by Karl Tunberg and Darrell Ware, based on a story by Rian James, the cinematography was by Leon Shamroy and Ray Rennahan and the costume design by Travis Banton. The American-composed music was by Harry Warren and Jimmy McHugh, lyrics by Mack Gordon, in a shooting period which lasted for 10 months, members of the films crew traveled about 35,000 miles. A second unit was sent to Buenos Aires for location establishing shots, returning with about 20,000 feet of film, while another group flew to New York City filming Carmen Miranda for over a month. Miranda was performing South American songs in the Broadway production of The Streets of Paris, in 2014, Down Argentine Way was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
Young Ricardo Quintano voyages from Argentina to New York to sell some of his fathers prize horses, before leaving, Don Diego instructs his son that no steeds are to be sold to Binnie Crawford or any member of her family because her brother Willis cheated him years earlier. Upon arriving in New York, Ricardo falls in love with Glenda Crawford, Glenda follows him, accompanied by Binnie. The couple meet again in Argentina, where they confess their love for each other, Ricardo introduces Glenda to his father as Miss Cunningham. Glenda encourages Ricardo to enter his fathers jumper, Furioso, in a race. Soon after, while attending a show, Don Diego discovers Glendas true identity. His bad mood is compounded when Furioso refuses to jump and runs off the field. To make up for the defeat of his fathers jumper, Ricardo enters Furioso in the big race. Down Argentine Way is considered the first of many Fox films made to implement industry-wide approach to President Franklin D. Roosevelts Good Neighbor Policy toward Latin America.
During World War II, the U. S. government developed an administrative agency to encourage good relations with Latin America, the Office of Inter-American Affairs was established to promote this. It specifically encouraged the production of Good Neighbor films, production of Down Argentine Way preceded the establishment of the Office of Inter-American Affairs, but was likely influenced by Roosevelt administration policy. The film was a success, earning $2 million in domestic rentals in 1940. Fox continued to support government policy and its own self-interest by making such as That Night in Rio
Tin Pan Alley (film)
Tin Pan Alley is a 1940 musical film starring Alice Faye and Betty Grable as vaudeville singers/sisters and John Payne and Jack Oakie as songwriters in the years before World War I. Alfred Newman received the 1940 Academy Award for his work on the film. This was his first of nine Oscars. as Joe Codd Fred Keating as Harvey Raymond Before filming began, on the first day of production, the actresses got along quickly and became lifelong friends. A similar incident was reported to have happened with Grable and Marilyn Monroe while filming How to Marry a Millionaire, like the earlier incident, the two actresses got along and became friends. Tyrone Power and Don Ameche were considered to play the roles in the film. Scheduling conflicts took them out of the running and the roles went to Payne and this film was featured in the M*A*S*H television series episode Alcoholics Unanimous. In the opening many old songs can be heard, but once the title card comes on, it is The Darktown Strutters Ball that you hear
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA.
It incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters.
Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds