Harold Pinter was a British playwright, screenwriter and actor. A Nobel Prize winner, Pinter was one of the most influential modern British dramatists with a writing career that spanned more than 50 years, his best-known plays include The Birthday Party, The Homecoming, Betrayal, each of which he adapted for the screen. His screenplay adaptations of others' works include The Servant, The Go-Between, The French Lieutenant's Woman, The Trial, Sleuth, he directed or acted in radio, stage and film productions of his own and others' works. Pinter was born and raised in Hackney, east London, educated at Hackney Downs School, he was a keen cricket player, acting in school plays and writing poetry. He did not complete the course, he was fined for refusing national service as a conscientious objector. Subsequently, he continued training at the Central School of Speech and Drama and worked in repertory theatre in Ireland and England. In 1956 he married actress Vivien Merchant and had a son, born in 1958, he left Merchant in 1975 and married author Lady Antonia Fraser in 1980.
Pinter's career as a playwright began with a production of The Room in 1957. His second play, The Birthday Party, closed after eight performances, but was enthusiastically reviewed by critic Harold Hobson, his early works were described by critics as "comedy of menace". Plays such as No Man's Land and Betrayal became known as "memory plays", he appeared as an actor in productions of his own work on film. He undertook a number of roles in works by other writers, he directed nearly 50 productions for stage and screen. Pinter received over 50 awards and other honours, including the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2005 and the French Légion d'honneur in 2007. Despite frail health after being diagnosed with oesophageal cancer in December 2001, Pinter continued to act on stage and screen, last performing the title role of Samuel Beckett's one-act monologue Krapp's Last Tape, for the 50th anniversary season of the Royal Court Theatre, in October 2006, he died from liver cancer on 24 December 2008. Pinter was born on 10 October 1930, in Hackney, east London, the only child of British Jewish parents of Eastern European descent: his father, Hyman "Jack" Pinter was a ladies' tailor.
Pinter believed an aunt's erroneous view that the family was Sephardic and had fled the Spanish Inquisition. Research by Lady Antonia Fraser, Pinter's second wife, revealed the legend to be apocryphal. Pinter's family home in London is described by his official biographer Michael Billington as "a solid, red-brick, three-storey villa just off the noisy, traffic-ridden thoroughfare of the Lower Clapton Road". In 1940 and 1941, after the Blitz, Pinter was evacuated from their house in London to Cornwall and Reading. Billington states that the "life-and-death intensity of daily experience" before and during the Blitz left Pinter with profound memories "of loneliness, bewilderment and loss: themes that are in all his works."Pinter discovered his social potential as a student at Hackney Downs School, a London grammar school, between 1944 and 1948. "Partly through the school and through the social life of Hackney Boys' Club... he formed an sacerdotal belief in the power of male friendship. The friends he made in those days—most Henry Woolf, Michael Goldstein and Morris Wernick—have always been a vital part of the emotional texture of his life."
A major influence on Pinter was his inspirational English teacher Joseph Brearley, who directed him in school plays and with whom he took long walks, talking about literature. According to Billington, under Brearley's instruction, "Pinter shone at English, wrote for the school magazine and discovered a gift for acting." In 1947 and 1948, he played Macbeth in productions directed by Brearley. At the age of 12, Pinter began writing poetry, in spring 1947, his poetry was first published in the Hackney Downs School Magazine. In 1950 his poetry was first published outside the school magazine, in Poetry London, some of it under the pseudonym "Harold Pinta". Pinter was an atheist. Pinter broke the Hackney Downs School sprinting record, he was a cricket enthusiast. In 1971, he told Mel Gussow: "one of my main obsessions in life is the game of cricket—I play and watch and read about it all the time." He was chairman of the Gaieties Cricket Club, a supporter of Yorkshire Cricket Club, devoted a section of his official website to the sport.
One wall of his study was dominated by a portrait of himself as a young man playing cricket, described by Sarah Lyall, writing in The New York Times: "The painted Mr. Pinter, poised to swing his bat, has a wicked glint in his eye. Pinter approved of the "urban and exacting idea of cricket as a bold theatre of aggression." After his death, several of his school contemporaries recalled his achievements in sports cricket and running. The BBC Radio 4 memorial tribute included an essay on cricket. Other interests that Pinter mentioned to interviewers are family and sex, drinking and reading. According to Billington, "If the notion of male loyalty, competitive rivalry and fear of betrayal forms a constant th
Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. Other viruses may infect a single tissue. For example, rabies virus affects neuronal tissue. Factors influencing viral tissue tropism include: The presence of cellular receptors permitting viral entry. Availability of transcription factors involved in viral replication; the molecular nature of the viral tropogen. The cellular receptors are the proteins found on viral surface; these receptors are like keys, allowing the viral cell to attach itself to a cell. The way that these proteins are acquired is through a similar process to that of an infection cycle. Tissue tropism develops in the following stages: Virus with GPX enters body Viral cell "targets" cell with a GPX receptors Viral cell fuses with the host cell and inserts its contents into the host cell Reverse transcription occurs Viral DNA is incorporated with host DNA via viral enzyme Production of RNA and viral protein Viral particle is assembled Viral particle buds out of the cell, taking a chunk of the cell membrane with it and acquiring a new tissue with all the receptors it needs to continue tissue tropismExample: HIV has a gp120, what the CD4 marker is on the surface of the macrophages and T cells.
This is a list of films produced, co-produced, and/or distributed by Warner Bros. and its subsidiary First National Pictures for the years 1928–1960. From 1928 to 1936, films by First National continued to be credited to "First National Pictures". In July 1936, stockholders of First National Pictures, Inc. voted to dissolve the corporation and no further separate First National Pictures were made. For releases, see List of Warner Bros. films. This list does not include direct-to-video releases or films from New Line Cinema prior to its merger with Warner Bros. in 2008, nor does it include third-party films or films Warner gained the rights to as a result of mergers or acquisitions. List of New Line Cinema films List of films based on DC Comics List of Warner Bros. theatrical animated features List of Warner Bros. films Category:Lists of films by studio