Shirley M. Tilghman
Shirley Marie Tilghman, is a North American scholar in molecular biology and an academic administrator. She is now a professor of molecular biology and public policy and president emerita of Princeton University. Tilghman was the 19th president of Princeton University. Tilghman was the first biologist to hold the Princeton presidency, she is the fifth "foreign born" president of Princeton, the second academic born in Canada to be elected to the position. A leader in the field of molecular biology, Tilghman was a member of the Princeton faculty for fifteen years before being named president, she has returned to the Princeton faculty as a professor of molecular biology. In that capacity, she has returned to the Lewis-Sigler Institute of Integrative Genomics as a faculty member. Tilghman continues to hold leadership positions in the global scientific community, she was the 2015 president of the ASCB. Tilghman was born in Toronto, Canada; as a young child, her father encouraged her interest in math. She graduated from Kelvin High School in Winnipeg and received her honours B.
Sc. in chemistry from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, in 1968. She was a secondary school teacher in Sierra Leone, West Africa, in the Canadian University Services Overseas Program. Tilghman earned her Ph. D. in biochemistry from Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania under Richard W. Hanson. Tilghman was Hanson's first graduate student, her PhD Dissertation was entitled "The Hormonal Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase." She married Joseph Tilghman in 1970. This marriage ended in 1983, leaving Shirley Tilghman with custody of their young daughter and infant son, she attributes her successful balancing of a scientific career and caring for her family to organization and focus. Her goal was to not feel guilty while at work or at home, instead focusing on the task at hand. Tilghman's work in molecular genetics focused on the regulation of genes during development in the field of genomic imprinting. During postdoctoral studies at the National Institutes of Health, Tilghman made a number of discoveries while a member of the team which cloned the first mammalian gene.
She went on to demonstrate that the globin gene was spliced, a finding that helped confirm some of the revolutionary theories emerging about gene behavior. As an independent investigator at the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia and adjunct associate professor of Human Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania Tilghman continued to make scientific breakthroughs. Tilghman went to Princeton University in 1986 as the Howard A. Prior Professor of the Life Sciences. Two years she joined the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as an investigator, she was a leader in the use of mice to understand the behavior of genes by researching the effect of gene insertion in embryonic cells. In 1998, she took on additional responsibilities as the founding director of Princeton's multi-disciplinary Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, while continuing to study how male and female genomes are packaged and the consequences of the differences for regulating embryo growth. Tilghman's extensive series of published research papers are catalogued on the PubMed government website of the United States National Library of Medicine, the NLM division of the National Institutes of Health.
Tilghman succeeded Harold Tafler Shapiro and became the 19th president of Princeton University in 2001. She was elected Princeton's first woman president on May 5, 2001, assumed office on June 15, 2001. Under her administration, the university built a sixth residential college, named in honor of alumna Meg Whitman, to accommodate an 11 percent expansion of the undergraduate student body, as recommended by a special committee of the Board of Trustees chaired by Paul M. Wythes. In 2012, Tilghman announced that she would step down from her presidency in June 2013, she was succeeded by Christopher L. Eisgruber. For Tilghman, Princeton has two essential missions. "One is to ensure that our doors are open as wide as possible to every talented student in the world, capable of doing the hard work we ask of them. And that means maintaining our commitment to financial aid, the tool – the critical tool – to get those students to Princeton, and the second thing is that we must address the most critical issues, push back the frontiers of knowledge, not just in science and technology, but in social policy, in public policy, in understanding the nature of the human condition."The establishment of Whitman College, together with the reconstruction of Butler College, accompanied a significant reconfiguration of Princeton's residential college system, which now incorporates upperclassmen as well as freshmen and sophomores, providing new residential options and increasing opportunities for social interaction across the student body.
In addition, an effort has been made to strengthen the relationship between the university and Princeton's independent eating clubs, where most upperclassmen take their meals, with the goal of enhancing the undergraduate experience of all students. In 2009, she appointed a committee chaired by Nannerl O. Keohane to review undergraduate women's leadership at Princeton. Tilghman has presided over a number of academic initiatives at Princeton, including the creation of a Center for African American Studies, the Lewis Center for the Arts (named after alumnus Peter B. L
Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company referred to as Dow, was an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, United States, the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont. In 2017, prior to the merger, it was the second-largest chemical manufacturer in the world by revenue and the third-largest chemical company in the world by market capitalization, it ranked second in the world by chemical production in 2014. Dow manufactures plastics and agricultural products. With a presence in about 160 countries, it employs about 54,000 people worldwide; the company has seven different major operating segments, with a wide variety of products made by each one. Dow's 2012 sales totaled $57 billion. Dow has been called the "chemical companies' chemical company" in that most of its sales are to other industries rather than end-users. Dow sells directly to end-users in the human and animal health and consumer products markets. Dow is a member of the American Chemistry Council; the company tagline is "Solutionism".
On September 1, 2017, it merged with DuPont to create DowDuPont. In March 2018, it was announced that Jeff Fettig would become executive chairman of DowDuPont on July 1, 2018, Jim Fitterling would become CEO of Dow Chemical on April 1, 2018. On April 1, 2019, Dow completed separation from DowDuPont. Dow is a large producer of plastics, including polystyrene, polyethylene and synthetic rubber, it is a major producer of ethylene oxide, various acrylates and cellulose resins. It produces agricultural chemicals including the pesticide Lorsban and consumer products including Styrofoam; some Dow consumer products including Saran wrap, Ziploc bags and Scrubbing Bubbles were sold to S. C. Johnson & Son in 1997. Performance plastics make up 25 percent of Dow's sales, with many products designed for the automotive and construction industries; the plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as polystyrene used to produce Styrofoam insulating material. Dow manufactures epoxy resin intermediates including bisphenol epichlorohydrin.
Saran resins and films are based on polyvinylidene chloride The Performance Chemicals segment produces chemicals and materials for water purification, paper coatings and advanced electronics. Major product lines include nitroparaffins, such as nitromethane, used in the pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by Angus Chemical Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Co. Important polymers include Dowex ion exchange resins and polystyrene latex, as well as Carbowax polyethylene glycols. Specialty chemicals are used as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Dow Water and Process Solutions is a business unit which manufactures Filmtec reverse osmosis membranes which are used to purify water for human use in the Middle East; the technology was used during 2008 Summer Olympics. Agricultural Sciences, or, provides 7 percent of sales and is responsible for a range of insecticides and fungicides. Seeds from genetically modified plants are an important area of growth for the company.
Dow AgroSciences sells seeds commercially under the following brands: Mycogen, PhytoGen and Hyland Seeds in Canada. Basic plastics end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks. Products are based on the three major polyolefins – polystyrene and polypropylene. Basic chemicals are used internally by Dow as raw materials and are sold worldwide. Markets include dry cleaning and coatings, snow and ice control and the food industry. Major products include ethylene glycol, caustic soda and vinyl chloride monomer. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide and the derived alcohols ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are major feedstocks for the manufacture of plastics such as polyurethane and PET; the Hydrocarbons and Energy operating segment oversees energy management at Dow. Fuels and oil-based raw materials are procured. Major feedstocks for Dow are provided by this group, including ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and styrene. Dow was founded in 1897 by chemist Herbert Henry Dow, who invented a new method of extracting the bromine, trapped underground in brine at Midland, Michigan.
Dow sold only bleach and potassium bromide, achieving a bleach output of 72 tons a day in 1902. Early in the company's history, a group of British manufacturers tried to drive Dow out of the bleach business by cutting prices. Dow survived by cutting its prices and, although losing about $90,000 in income, began to diversify its product line. In 1905, German bromide producers began dumping bromides at low cost in the U. S. in an effort to prevent Dow from expanding its sales of bromides in Europe. Instead of competing directly for market share with the German producers, Dow bought the cheap German-made bromides and shipped them back to Europe; this undercut his German competitors. In its early history, Dow set a tradition of diversifying its product line. Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine and other dyestuffs, magnesium metal. During World War I, Dow Chemical supplied many war materials the United States had imported from Germany. Dow produced magnesium for incendiary flares, monochlorobenzene and
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
The Hastings Center
The Hastings Center is an independent bioethics research institute based in Garrison, New York. Founded in 1969 as the first bioethics research organization, the center was important in establishing bioethics as a field of study; the center aims to address ethical issues in health, health care, life sciences research and the environment affecting individuals and societies. Hastings scholars publish regular reports and blogs, as well as specific guidelines, policy recommendations and books, they testify at national and global conferences. The Center is funded by grants, private donations, journal subscriptions; the Hastings Center was founded by Daniel Callahan and Willard Gaylin, was recognized as a non-profit organization on August 28, 1969. Offices were located in Hastings-on-Hudson, subsequently moved to the Briarcliff College site in Briarcliff Manor; the Center is now located in Garrison, New York, on the former Woodlawn estate designed by Richard Upjohn. The Hastings Center is best known as the publisher of two journals in bioethics, the Hastings Center Report, IRB: Ethics & Human Research, which feature scholarship and commentary in bioethics.
Both are published six times per year. The Report periodically features special reports, published as supplements, from the center's research projects. Bioethics Forum, the blog of the Hastings Center, publishes individual perspectives on current issues in bioethics; the Hastings Center's projects, carried out by interdisciplinary research teams, focus on five program areas: health and health care. Issues can range from stem cell politics, to globalization and its impact on health status, to "wiser" health care. Primary research areas include genetics and biotechnology, health care and health policy, science, the environment, international science ethics; the center strives to frame and explore issues that inform professional practice, public conversation, social policy. The center conducts seminar-style meetings to review developments in science and policy, frame legal and social issues, in-depth critical reflection on fundamental principles and values. Hastings research scholars write and speak on a variety of topics and assist members of the press and others.
The Robert S. Morison Library, located at the center's offices in Garrison, New York, serves as a resource for Hastings scholars and visitors; the Hastings Center's 1987 "Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying" remain the standard in the field of bioethics. Several court decisions, including the 1990 Supreme Court ruling in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, have cited the guidelines which were published in an updated version in 2013. Hastings Center staff are called upon for policy advice by committees and agencies at both the Federal and state levels. Since 1976, the Henry Knowles Beecher Award has recognized people with a lifetime contribution to ethics and life sciences, with high-quality scholarship and research. A committee of Hastings Center fellows convenes to nominate candidates for the award, named for its inaugural recipient Henry K. Beecher, a pioneer in the fields of anesthesiology and medical ethics. In 2009, The Hastings Center joined the Cunniff-Dixon Foundation to create the Hastings Center Cunniff-Dixon Physician Awards.
This award recognizes excellence in the field of care at the end of life. Recipients are selected in a process coordinated by the Hastings Center and Duke University's Institute on Care at the End of Life. First awarded in 2010, the Cunniff-Dixon Physician Awards honored one established physician and three early-career physicians. In 2011, an additional awards category was created, recognizing the accomplishments of a mid-career physician. Official website
Frist Campus Center
Frist Campus Center is a focal point of social life at Princeton University. The campus center is a combination of the former Palmer Physics Lab, a modern addition completed in 2001, it was endowed with money from the fortune the Frist family has made in the private hospital business. Designed by Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates, the firm of acclaimed architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, the building consists of a modern expansion to the existing Collegiate Gothic Palmer Hall; the new building volume fills in the courtyard of the previous C-shaped structure, extends across its open side to create a new east facade. In 2008 and 2009 extensive renovations were performed on the 100 level by James Bradberry Architects Room 302 is a lecture hall restored to its condition at the time that Albert Einstein lectured there; this building has been used for external shots of the fictitious Princeton-Plainsboro Teaching Hospital in the television series House. Daily Princetoniandead link] Frist Campus Center