Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976. Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose through the ministerial ranks. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor and Shadow Foreign Secretary. After Labour Party leader Hugh Gaitskell died in 1963, Wilson won the subsequent leadership election. After narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson saw an increased majority in a snap election in 1966. Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Britain's external balance of payments. In 1969 he sent British troops to Northern Ireland. After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament.

After Heath's talks with the Liberals broke down, Wilson returned to power as leader of a minority government until another general election in October, resulting in a narrow Labour victory. A period of economic crisis had begun to hit most Western countries, in 1976 Wilson announced his resignation as Prime Minister. Wilson's approach to socialism was moderate compared with others in his party at the time, emphasising programmes aimed at increasing opportunity in society through indirect means rather than the more direct socialist goal of promoting wider public ownership of industry and workers' control of production, he took little action to pursue the Labour Party constitution's stated dedication to public ownership as a stepping stone towards this goal, though he did not formally disavow it. Himself a member of the party's soft left, Wilson joked about leading a cabinet made up of social democrats, comparing himself to a Bolshevik revolutionary presiding over a Tsarist cabinet, but there was little to divide him ideologically from the social democratic cabinet majority.

Overall, historians evaluate Wilson as having led his party through difficult political issues with considerable skill. Important issues of the time included the role of public ownership, membership of the European Economic Community, involvement in the Vietnam War, in which he refused to allow the use of British combat troops, although he maintained an expensive military presence east of Suez, his stated ambition of improving Britain's long-term economic performance, applying technology more democratically, reducing inequality was unfulfilled. He seemed to some observers to lose his energy and drive in his second premiership and found it difficult to mediate disputes concerning European integration and trade union rights. Wilson was born at Warneford Road, Huddersfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on 11 March 1916, he came from a political family: his father James Herbert Wilson was a works chemist, active in the Liberal Party, going as far as to be Winston Churchill's deputy election agent in his 1908 by-election before joining the Labour Party.

His mother Ethel was a schoolteacher before her marriage. When Wilson was eight, he visited London and a much-reproduced photograph was taken of him standing on the doorstep of 10 Downing Street. At the age of ten he went with his family to Australia, where he became fascinated with the pomp and glamour of politics. On the way home he told his mother, "I am going to be Prime Minister." Wilson won a scholarship to attend Royds Hall Grammar School, his local grammar school in Huddersfield in Yorkshire. His father, working as an industrial chemist, was made redundant in December 1930, it took him nearly two years to find work. Wilson was educated in the Sixth Form at the Wirral Grammar School for Boys, where he became Head Boy. Wilson did well at school and, although he missed getting a scholarship, he obtained an exhibition. At Oxford, Wilson was moderately active in politics as a member of the Liberal Party but was influenced by G. D. H. Cole, his politics tutor, R. B. McCallum, considered Wilson as the best student he had.

He graduated in PPE with "an outstanding first class Bachelor of Arts degree, with alphas on every paper" in the final examinations, a series of major academic awards. Biographer Roy Jenkins wrote: Academically his results put him among prime ministers in the category of Peel, Asquith, no one else. But...he lacked originality. What he was superb at was the quick assimilation of knowledge, combined with an ability to keep it ordered in his mind and to present it lucidly in a form welcome to his examiners, he continued in academia, becoming one of the youngest Oxford dons of the century at the age of 21. He was a lecturer in Economic History at New College from 1937, a research fellow at University College. On New Year's Day 1940, in the chapel of Mansfield College, Oxford, he married Mary Baldwin, who remained his wife until his death. Mary Wilson became a published poet, they had two sons and Giles. In the

Konstal 13N

The Konstal 13N was an electric tram built by Konstal in Chorzów between 1959 and 1969 and used in Warsaw until 2012. The design borrowed from the PCC-derived ČKD Tatra T1. After 1945 the tram networks in most Polish cities relied on the small and outdated Konstal N trams; the N-class trams were intended as a temporary measure to improve the disastrous state of public transport in the aftermath of WWII, were in fact based on a wartime German design, but all attempts at designing a better tram in Poland ended in failure. In 1955 two Tatra T1 trams were bought by the Warsaw Transport Authority. In 1956 these were sent to the Konstal works in Chorzów for analysis and formed the basis for the first Konstal prototype called 11N; the prototype was modernised and in 1959 put into production as 13N. Konstal 13N was a single module unidirectional tram with 3 doors on the right side, it was capable of reaching 68 km/h. They were most used in sets of 2, though in peak times and on busy routes sets of 3 were sometimes seen.

Although early units suffered from reliability issues, these were soon rectified and 13N went on to form the backbone of the Warsaw tram network for over 50 years. Due to their shape they were nicknamed parówka and given stock numbers 1-500 and 503-840; the 13N remained in production for 10 years and in that time 842 units were built – 838 of those served in Warsaw, the other four in the Upper Silesian network. In the 21st century, with the need for more energy-efficient, easier to access low-floor trams, the 13N were phased out and replaced by PESA 120Na; the last day of passenger service was 31 December 2012. Konstal 13N forms the basis for the company's other trams seen in all Polish cities with tram networks. Konstal 102N and the subsequent 102Na are both articulated versions of the 13N, the Konstal 105N started out as 13N in a more modern, lighter body. No 13N trams remain in regular passenger service after 2012, but several serve as museum cars in Warsaw, Silesia. Due to their sturdiness a number of 13Ns have been rebuilt as track maintenance vehicles.

Gallery of Konstal 13N Old photographs of 13N History of 13N New life of 13N as a track maintenance vehicle A Konstal 15N prototype never put into production


Dindica is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae. Dindica alaopis Prout, 1932 Dindica discordia Inoue, 1990 Dindica glaucescens Inoue, 1990 Dindica hepatica Inoue, 1990 Dindica kishidai Inoue, 1986 Dindica limatula Inoue, 1990 Dindica marginata Warren, 1894 Dindica olivacea Inoue, 1990 Dindica owadai Inoue, 1990 Dindica pallens Inoue, 1990 Dindica para Swinhoe, 1891 Dindica para para Swinhoe, 1891 Dindica para malayana Inoue, 1990 Dindica polyphaenaria Dindica purpurata Bastelberger, 1911 Dindica semipallens Inoue, 1990 Dindica subrosea Dindica subvirens Yazaki & Wang, 2004 Dindica sundae Prout, 1935 Dindica taiwana Wileman, 1914 Dindica tienmuensis Chu, 1981 Dindica virescens (=Pseudoterpna koreana Alphéraky, 1897, Dindica virescens yuwanina Kawazoe & Ogata, Dindica wilemani Prout, 1927 Dindica wytsmani Prout, 1927 Dindica at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database