Scientific American is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles to it, it is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States. Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U. S. Patent Office, it reported on a broad range of inventions including perpetual motion machines, an 1860 device for buoying vessels by Abraham Lincoln, the universal joint which now can be found in nearly every automobile manufactured. Current issues include a "this date in history" section, featuring excerpts from articles published 50, 100, 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, noteworthy advances in the history of science and technology. Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it.
Until 1948, it remained owned by Company. Under Munn's grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a "workbench" publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science. In the years after World War II, the magazine fell into decline. In 1948, three partners who were planning on starting a new popular science magazine, to be called The Sciences, purchased the assets of the old Scientific American instead and put its name on the designs they had created for their new magazine, thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, general manager Donald H. Miller, Jr.—essentially created a new magazine. Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piel's son Jonathan became president and editor. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany. In the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck. Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004 and Dennis Flanagan in January 2005.
Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009. Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica. Publication was suspended in 1905, another 63 years would pass before another foreign-language edition appeared: In 1968, an Italian edition, Le Scienze, was launched, a Japanese edition, Nikkei Science, followed three years later. A new Spanish edition, Investigación y Ciencia was launched in Spain in 1976, followed by a French edition, Pour la Science, in France in 1977, a German edition, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, in Germany in 1978. A Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the People's Republic of China. Founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001. In 2005, a newer edition, Global Science, was published instead of Kexue, which shut down due to financial problems.
A traditional Chinese edition, known as Scientist, was introduced to Taiwan in 2002. The Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom Magazine, was published. In 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil. Today, Scientific American publishes 18 foreign-language editions around the globe: Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Lithuanian, Romanian and Spanish. From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana, which during some of that period was known as The Americana, it styled itself "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise" and "Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements". On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of "Improved Rail-Road Cars"; the masthead had a commentary as follows: Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No. 11 Spruce Street, New York, No. 16 State Street, No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, by Rufus Porter.
Each number will be furnished with from two to five original Engravings, many of them elegant, illustrative of New Inventions, Scientific Principles, Curious Works. Improvements and Inventions; this paper is entitled to the patronage of Mechanics and Manufactures, being the only paper in America, devoted to the interest of those classes. As a family newspaper, it will convey more useful intelligence to children and young people, than five times its cost in school instruction. Another important argument in favor of this paper, is that it will be worth two dollars at the end of the year when the volume is complete, (Old volumes of the New York Mechanic, being now worth double th
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty before replacing Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1940. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874; the couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.
It was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during which she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack would be warm, they were close at various points in their lives. In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess, while he and his brother were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany". Visits home were to Connaught Place in L
Larry L. King
Larry L. King was an American playwright and novelist, best remembered for his 1978 Tony Award-nominated play The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, which became a long-running production on Broadway and was turned into a feature film starring Burt Reynolds, Charles Durning and Dolly Parton, he was born Lawrence Leo King on January 1, 1929, in Putnam, son of Clyde Clayton King, a farmer and blacksmith, Cora Lee King, who introduced him to the writings of Mark Twain. King dropped out of high school to join the Army. After his military service, a year as a journalism major at Texas Tech, King worked as a sports and crime reporter for small newspapers in Texas and New Mexico. In 1954, King moved to Washington, D. C. where he worked as an aide to Texas Congressman J. T. Rutherford and subsequently to James C. Wright Jr. In 1964, King quit his Congressional job to concentrate on his writing, producing many magazine articles and fourteen books of both fiction and non-fiction, became one of the leading figures in the "New Journalism."
Many of his articles, covering a wide range of subjects including politics and music, were published in Harper's magazine, where his friend Willie Morris was editor-in-chief. His soul-searching Confessions of a White Racist was nominated for a National Book Award in 1972, earned him praise from other writers, including Maya Angelou. In 1974, he wrote an article about the Chicken Ranch brothel in Texas. King received an Emmy Award in 1982 for the CBS documentary The Best Little Statehouse in Texas. In 1988, Austin's Live Oak Theatre presented King's new drama; the play went on to be produced Off-Broadway and around the nation. In 1989 it received the Helen Hayes Award for best new play, King was awarded the Mary Goldwater Award from the Theatre Lobby Trust. Beginning in 1987 and continuing until 2008, King donated his extensive personal archives to the Southwestern Writers Collection/The Wittliff Collections at Texas State University. In 2006, a 70-seat performance space dedicated to producing new works by local and national authors at the Austin Playhouse in Austin, was renamed the Larry L. King Theatre.
King died on December 20, 2012, at a retirement home in Washington, D. C, he was survived by his third wife, Barbara S. Blaine, five children, two grandchildren, three great-grandchildren. "Larry L. King," The Wittliff Collections. Biography and finding aid to the King papers, accessed 23 December 2012. Larry L. King on IMDb "About Us," austinplayhouse.com, accessed 23 December 2012
Cowles Media Company
Cowles Media Company was a newspaper and information publishing company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota in the United States. The company operated Cowles Business Media, Cowles Creative Publishing, Cowles Enthusiast Media units. Owners of the Minneapolis Star-Tribune from 1935 to 1998, other newspapers owned at one time by Cowles Media and its affiliates included the Des Moines Register, the Buffalo Courier-Express, the Scottsdale Progress and the Rapid City Journal; the company owned the Register and Tribune Syndicate. The Cowles Media Company was formed in 1935 when the Cowles family purchased the Minneapolis Star — the family and its patriarch Gardner Cowles, Sr. owned the Des Moines Register. At that point Gardner Cowles Sr. handed control of the family's media business to his sons John Cowles, Sr. and Gardner "Mike" Cowles, Jr. In 1939, the company purchased the Minneapolis Star competitor the Minneapolis Evening Journal, merging the Star and the Journal into the Star-Journal; the following year the company bought the Minneapolis Tribune and merged it with their company, giving it ownership of the city's major newspapers.
The Tribune became the city's morning newspaper, the Star-Journal was the evening newspaper, they published a joint Sunday edition. A separate evening newspaper was spun off, which published until 1948. Cowles Media published Look magazine from 1937 to 1971 under the names Look, Inc. Cowles Magazines, Cowles Communications, Inc.. Cowles purchased Family Circle in 1962, sold it to The New York Times Company in 1972, they published Harper's Magazine from 1965 to 1980. In 1955, Cowles entered television as majority owner of what is now KCCI in Iowa. Cowles became the station's sole owner shortly after its launch. Over the years, Cowles acquired several television stations in medium-sized markets; these stations were sold off by the mid-1980s. In 1986, Cowles sold the Tribune Syndicate to Hearst Communications for $4.3 million. The McClatchy Company purchased Cowles Media in 1998. McClatchy kept the Star Tribune newspaper, which by was the primary asset in the $1.4 billion deal, sold the other business units to Primedia and to a management team.
Climbing magazine Country Journal Low-Fat & Fast Natural Remedies Vegetarian Times Doll Reader Figurines & Collectibles Nautical World Teddy Bear and Friends Eight of the history magazines subsequently published by Weider History Group starting around 2006. America's Civil War American History Aviation History British Heritage Civil War Times Illustrated Columbiad Early American Homes Historic Traveler MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History Military History Vietnam Magazine Wild West Women's History World War II Bowhunter Fly Fisherman Dressage & CT Horse & Rider KITPLANES Practical Horseman Southwest Art Notes: 1 Cowles owned KHON-TV's satellite in Wailuku, KAII-TV. Another KHON-TV satellite, KHAW-TV in Hilo, was leased to Cowles; the Hawaii stations were NBC affiliates under Cowles. 2 Cowles owned a majority share of this station when it first signed on and became its sole owner shortly thereafter. 3 From 1962 to 1983, Cowles owned four semi-satellites of KTVH in western and central Kansas--KTVC in Dodge City, KAYS-TV in Hays and KLOE-TV in Goodland.
Cowles Company King Features Syndicate Office of War Information Primedia Simba Information The Des Moines Register Cowles Family Archive at Cowles Library, Drake University
Harper is an American publishing house the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins. James Harper and his brother John, printers by training, started their book publishing business J. & J. Harper in 1817, their two brothers, Joseph Wesley Harper and Fletcher Harper, joined them in the mid-1820s. The company changed its name to "Harper & Brothers" in 1833; the headquarters of the publishing house were located at 331 Pearl Street, facing Franklin Square in Lower Manhattan. Harper & Brothers began publishing Harper's New Monthly Magazine in 1850; the brothers published Harper's Weekly, Harper's Bazar, Harper's Young People. George B. M. Harvey became president of Harper's on Nov. 16, 1899. Harper's New Monthly Magazine became Harper's Magazine, now published by the Harper's Magazine Foundation. Harper's Weekly was absorbed by The Independent in 1916, which in turn merged with The Outlook in 1928. Harper's Bazar was sold to William Randolph Hearst in 1913, became Harper's Bazaar, is now Bazaar, published by the Hearst Corporation.
In 1924, Cass Canfield joined Harper & Brothers and held a variety of executive positions until his death in 1986. In 1925, Eugene F. Saxton joined the company as an editor, he was responsible for publishing many well-known authors, including Edna St. Vincent Millay and Thornton Wilder. In 1935, Edward Aswell moved to Harper & Brothers as an assistant editor of general books and became editor-in-chief. Aswell persuaded Thomas Wolfe to leave Scribner's, after Wolfe's death, edited the posthumous novels The Web and the Rock, You Can't Go Home Again, The Hills Beyond. In 1962 Harper & Brothers merged with Row, Peterson & Company to become Harper & Row. Harper's religion publishing moved to San Francisco and became Harper San Francisco in 1977. Harper & Row acquired Thomas Y. Crowell Co. and J. B. Lippincott & Co. in the 1970s. Marshall Pickering was bought by Harper & Row in 1988. In 1988, Harper & Row purchased the religious publisher Zondervan. Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation acquired Harper & Row in 1987, William Collins, Sons in 1990.
The names of these two national publishing houses were combined to create HarperCollins, which has since expanded its international reach with further acquisitions of independent publishers. The Harper imprint began being used in place of HarperCollins in 2007. After the purchase of Harper & Row by News Corporation, HarperCollins launched a new mass market paperback line to complement its existing trade paperback Perennial imprint, it was known as Harper Paperbacks from 1990 to 2000, HarperTorch from 2000 to 2006, Harper from 2007 to the present. Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises The Long Short Cut Brooks Thomas Books in the United States Jacob Abbott, The Harper Establishment, New York: Harper & Brothers, OCLC 6798043 Barnes, James J. "Edward Lytton Bulwer and the Publishing Firm of Harper & Brothers." American Literature: 35-48. In JSTOR D'Amato, Martina. "'The Harper Establishment'. Exman, Eugene; the brothers Harper: a unique publishing partnership and its impact upon the cultural life of America from 1817 to 1853 Eugene Exman, The House of Harper, NY: Harper & Row, OCLC 586430 J. Henry Harper, The House of Harper: a century of publishing in Franklin Square, New York: Harper Mellman, John A.
"The Harper Torchbooks Series: A History and Personal Assessment", publishinghistory.com. Harper & Brothers' List of Publications, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859 Official website Official website The Harper Brothers Founders of Harper Brothers Publishing
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Michael Pollan is an American author, journalist and the Lewis K. Chan Arts Lecturer and Professor of Practice of Non-Fiction at Harvard University. Pollan is professor of journalism at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. Pollan was born to a Jewish family on New York, he is financial consultant Stephen Pollan and columnist Corky Pollan. Pollan received a B. A. in English from Bennington College in 1977 and an M. A. in English from Columbia University in 1981. In The Botany of Desire, Pollan explores the concept of co-evolution of humankind's evolutionary relationship with four plants—apples, tulips and potatoes—from the dual perspectives of humans and the plants, he uses case examples that fit the archetype of four basic human desires, demonstrating how each of these botanical species are selectively grown and genetically engineered. The apple reflects the desire for sweetness, the tulip beauty, the marijuana intoxication, the potato control. Pollan unravels the narrative of his own experience with each of the plants, which he intertwines with a well-researched exploration into their social history.
Each section presents a unique element of human domestication, or the "human bumblebee" as Pollan calls it. These range from the true story of Johnny Appleseed to Pollan's first-hand research with sophisticated marijuana hybrids in Amsterdam, to the alarming and paradigm-shifting possibilities of genetically engineered potatoes. In The Omnivore's Dilemma, Pollan describes four basic ways that human societies have obtained food: the current industrial system, the big organic operation, the local self-sufficient farm, the hunter-gatherer. Pollan follows each of these processes—from a group of plants photosynthesizing calories through a series of intermediate stages into a meal. Along the way, he suggests that there is a fundamental tension between the logic of nature and the logic of human industry, that the way we eat represents our most profound engagement with the natural world, that industrial eating obscures crucially important ecological relationships and connections. On December 10, 2006, The New York Times named The Omnivore's Dilemma one of the five best nonfiction books of the year.
On May 8, 2007, the James Beard Foundation named The Omnivore's Dilemma its 2007 winner for the best food writing. It was the book of focus for the University of Pennsylvania's Reading Project in 2007, the book of choice for Washington State University's Common Reading Program in 2009–10. Pollan's discussion of the industrial food chain is in large part a critique of modern agribusiness. According to the book, agribusiness has lost touch with the natural cycles of farming, wherein livestock and crops intertwine in mutually beneficial circles. Pollan's critique of modern agribusiness focuses on what he describes as the overuse of corn for purposes ranging from fattening cattle to massive production of corn oil, high-fructose corn syrup, other corn derivatives, he describes what he sees as the inefficiencies and other drawbacks of factory farming and gives his assessment of organic food production and what it's like to hunt and gather food. He blames those who set the rules of what he calls a destructive and precarious agricultural system that has wrought havoc upon the diet and well-being of Americans.
Pollan finds hope in Joel Salatin's Polyface Farm in Virginia, which he sees as a model of sustainability in commercial farming. Pollan appears in the documentary film King Corn. Pollan's book In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto, released on January 1, 2008, explores the relationship with what he terms nutritionism and the Western diet, with a focus on late 20th century food advice given by the science community. Pollan holds that consumption of fat and dietary cholesterol does not lead to a higher rate of coronary disease, that the reductive analysis of food into nutrient components is a mistake, he questions the view that the point of eating is to promote health, pointing out that this attitude is not universal and that cultures that perceive food as having purposes of pleasure and sociality may end up with better health. He explains this seeming paradox by vetting, validating, the notion that nutritionism and, the whole Western framework through which we intellectualize the value of food is more a religious and faddish devotion to the mythology of simple solutions than a convincing and reliable conclusion of incontrovertible scientific research.
Pollan spends the rest of his book explicating his first three phrases: "Eat food. Not too much. Plants." He contends that most of what Americans now buy in supermarkets, fast food stores, restaurants is not in fact food, that a practical tip is to eat only those things that people of his grandmother's generation would have recognized as food. In 2009, Food Rules: An Eater's Manual was published; this short work is a condensed version of his previous efforts, intended to provide a simple framework for a healthy and sustainable diet. It is divided into three sections. Not too much. Plants." It includes his rules. In Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation, published in 2013, Pollan explores the methods by which cooks mediate "between nature and culture." The book is organized into four sections corresponding to the classical elements of Fire, Water, Ai