Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire. King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama, he helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches; the following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing.
In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide. In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971. Hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, a county in Washington State was rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. was dedicated in 2011. King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's given name at birth was Michael King, his father was born Michael King, after a period of gradual transition on the elder King's part, he changed both his and his son's names in 1934; the senior King was inspired during a trip to Germany for that year's meeting of the Baptist World Alliance. While visiting sites associated with reformation leader, Martin Luther, attendees witnessed the rise of Nazism; the BWA conference issued a resolution condemning anti-Semitism, the senior King gained deepened appreciation for the power of Luther's protest.
The elder King would state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth, the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King Jr." in 1957. King's parents were both African-American, he had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather. King was a middle child, between older sister Christine King Farris and younger brother A. D. King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind, he enjoyed singing and music, his mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King became a member of the junior choir in his church. King said that his father whipped him until he was 15. King saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served.
When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home. When the boys were six, they started school: King had to attend a school for African Americans, the other boy went to one for whites. King lost his friend. King suffered from depression through much of his life. In his adolescent years, he felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, his neighbors had to endure in the segregated South. At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived. King was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly." However, he concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School.
He became k
William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst Sr. was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications. His flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 with Mitchell Trubitt after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Moving to New York City, Hearst acquired the New York Journal and fought a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. Hearst sold papers by printing giant headlines over lurid stories featuring crime, corruption and innuendo. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak, he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Hearst controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines, thereby published his personal views.
He sensationalized Spanish atrocities in Cuba while calling for war in 1898 against Spain. He was twice elected as a Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives, he ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1904, Mayor of New York City in 1905 and 1909, for Governor of New York in 1906. During his political career, he espoused views associated with the left wing of the Progressive Movement, claiming to speak on behalf of the working class. After 1918 and the end of the Great War, Hearst began adopting more conservative views, started promoting an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs, he was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist after the Russian Revolution, suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a leading supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR and became his most prominent enemy on the right. Hearst's empire reached a peak circulation of 20 million readers a day in the mid-1930s.
He was a bad manager of finances and so in debt during the Great Depression that most of his assets had to be liquidated in the late 1930s. Hearst managed to keep his magazines, his life story was the main inspiration for Charles Foster Kane, the lead character in Orson Welles's film Citizen Kane. His Hearst Castle, constructed on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, has been preserved as a State Historical Monument and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco to George Hearst, a millionaire mining engineer, owner of gold and other mines through his corporation, his much younger wife Phoebe Apperson Hearst, from a small town in Missouri; the elder Hearst entered politics, served as a US Senator, first appointed for a brief period in 1886 elected that year. He served from 1887 to his death in 1891, his paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst of Ulster Protestant origin. John Hearst, with his wife and six children, migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan, Ireland, as part of the Cahans Exodus in 1766, settled in South Carolina.
Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the colonial government's policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants, many of Scots origin. The names "John Hearse" and "John Hearse Jr." appear on the council records of October 26, 1766, being credited with meriting 400 and 100 acres of land on the Long Canes, based upon 100 acres to heads of household and 50 acres for each dependent of a Protestant immigrant. The "Hearse" spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. A separate theory purports that one branch of a "Hurst" family of Virginia moved to South Carolina at about the same time and changed the spelling of its surname of over a century to that of the immigrant Hearsts. Hearst's mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Scots-Irish ancestry, she was appointed as the first woman regent of University of California, donated funds to establish libraries at several universities, funded many anthropological expeditions, founded the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.
Hearst attended prep school at St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, he enrolled in the Harvard College class of 1885. While there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Club, the Hasty Pudding Theatricals, of the Lampoon before being expelled, his antics had ranged from sponsoring massive beer parties in Harvard Square to sending pudding pots used as chamber pots to his professors. Searching for an occupation, in 1887 Hearst took over management of his father's newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, which his father had acquired in 1880 as repayment for a gambling debt. Giving his paper a grand motto, "Monarch of the Dailies," William R. Hearst acquired the best equipment and the most talented writers of the time, including Ambrose Bierce, Mark Twain, Jack London, political cartoonist Homer Davenport. A self-proclaimed populist, Hearst reported accounts of municipal and financial corruption attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market.
Early in his career at the San Francisco Examiner, Hearst envisioned running a large newspaper chain, "always knew that his dream of a nation-spanning, multi-paper
Prof Arthur Holmes FRS FRSE LLD was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology. He pioneered the use of radiometric dating of minerals and was the first earth scientist to grasp the mechanical and thermal implications of mantle convection, which led to the acceptance of plate tectonics, he was born in Hebburn, County Durham, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the son of David Holmes, a cabinet-maker, his wife, Emily Dickinson. As a child, he lived in Low Fell and attended the Gateshead Higher Grade School. At 17, he enrolled to study physics at the Royal College of Science, but took a course in geology in his second year, which settled his future, against the advice of his tutors. Surviving on a scholarship of £60/year was difficult and on graduating hall, he took a job prospecting for minerals in Mozambique. After six months, with no discoveries, he became so ill with malaria that a notice of his death was posted home. However, he became a demonstrator at Imperial College.
He obtained his Doctorate of Science in 1917, in 1920 he joined an oil company in Burma as chief geologist. The company failed, he returned to England penniless in 1924, he had been accompanied in Burma by his three-year-old son, who contracted dysentery and died shortly before Holmes's departure. He was head of the Department of Geology, Durham University, 1924-1943, he held the chair of geology at Edinburgh University, 1943-1956. Arthur died at 20 St John's Avenue in Putney, London, on 20 September 1965, at the age of 75, he married his first wife, Margaret Howe, in 1914. After she died in 1938, Holmes in the following year married Doris Reynolds, a geologist who had joined the teaching staff at Durham. After his death, she edited the third edition of the Principles. Holmes was a pioneer of geochronology, performed the first accurate uranium-lead radiometric dating while an undergraduate in London, assigning an age of 370 Ma to a Devonian rock from Norway, improving on the work of Boltwood who published nothing more on the subject.
This result was published in 1911, after his graduation in 1910. 1912 saw Holmes on the staff of Imperial College, publishing his famous book The Age of the Earth in 1913 in which he argued for radioactive methods compared with methods based on geological sedimentation or cooling of the earth. He did not speculate about the Earth's age. By this time the discovery of isotopes had complicated the calculations and he spent the next years grappling with these, his promotion of the theory over the next decades he earned the nickname of Father of modern geochronology. By 1927 he had revised this figure to 3,000 Ma and in the 1940s to 4,500±100 Ma, based on measurements of the relative abundance of uranium isotopes by Alfred O. C. Nier; the general method is now known as the Holmes-Houterman model after Fritz Houtermans who published in the same year, 1946. In 1924 he was appointed to the newly created post of reader in geology at Durham University. Eighteen years his achievements were recognised, when he became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1942.
In the following year he was appointed to the chair of geology at the University of Edinburgh, following the death of Prof Thomas James Jehu, which post he held until retirement in 1956. In 1944 he published the first edition of his Principles of Physical Geology which became a standard textbook in the UK and elsewhere. Holmes championed the theory of continental drift promoted by Alfred Wegener at a time when it was unfashionable with his more conservative peers. One problem with the theory lay in the mechanism of movement, Holmes proposed that Earth's mantle contained convection cells that dissipated radioactive heat and moved the crust at the surface, his Principles of Physical Geology ended with a chapter on continental drift. Part of the model was the origin of the seafloor spreading concept. Honours included: 1940 Murchison Medal, Geological Society of London 1946 Sederholm Medal, Geological Society of Finland 1955 Foreign Member Académie des sciences, Institut de France 1956 Penrose Medal, Geological Society of America 1956 Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London 1962 Makdougall Brisbane Medal, Royal Society of Edinburgh 1964 Vetlesen Prize, Columbia UniversityThe Arthur Holmes Medal of the European Geosciences Union and a crater on Mars have been named in his honour.
The Durham University Department of Earth Sciences' Isotope Geology Laboratory is named after him, as is the students' Geology Society. The age of the earth 1913, Harper & Brothers, 2nd edition 1927, 3rd edition 1937; the nomenclature of petrology, with references to selected literature. Thos Murby, van Nostrand, New York, 1920, 2nd edition 1928. Petrographic methods and calculations with some examples of results achieved Thos Murby, London, 1921 2nd edition 1930. Radioactivity and Earth Movements, Trans Geological Soc, vol 18, pp 559–606. Pdf Principles of Physical Geology 1944, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 2nd edition 1965, 3rd edition 1978, 4th edition 1993; the Phanerozoic time-scale. Lewis, The Dating Game: One Man's Search for the Age of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-89312-7 Geological Society of America: short biography, Another short biography Arthur Holmes Geological Society Works by or about Arthur Holmes in libraries
Franklin Square (Manhattan)
Franklin Square was a square in Manhattan on the intersection of Pearl and Cherry Streets. The elevated Manhattan Railway, built in 1877–1878, ran over Franklin Square, a station was built there. On its west side were the buildings of Harper's Publishing House; the station and square were demolished in 1950, replaced with the Franklin Square Bridge, part of the Manhattan access to the Brooklyn Bridge. At the same time, the block of Cherry Street nearest the square was razed and replaced with the Alfred E. Smith Houses; the square was land owned by Walter Franklin, a successful late 18th century merchant, where he kept a mansion with surrounding gardens. The house itself, known as the Samuel Osgood House, was used by George Washington as his residence the first year of his presidency; the house was demolished in 1856. In honor of Washington, the space was named "St. George's Square"; the space was renamed Franklin Square in 1817 in honor of Benjamin Franklin: Resolved that the Square now called St George's Square at the Intersection of Cherry Street be hereafter named and called Franklin Square, as a Testimony of the high respect entertained by this Board for the Literary and Philasophical Character of the late Doctor Benjamin Franklin.
NYPL Digital Gallery. Franklin Sq. items, various dates The Wilderness to the Sea 1866 source and
J. B. Lippincott & Co.
J. B. Lippincott & Co. was an American publishing house founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1836 by Joshua Ballinger Lippincott. It was incorporated in 1885 as J. B. Lippincott Company. Joshua Ballinger Lippincott founded the publishing company in Philadelphia. J. B. Lippincott & Co. began business publishing Bibles and prayer books before expanding into history, fiction and gift books. The company added almanacs and law, school textbooks, dictionaries. In 1849, Lippincott acquired Grigg, Elliot & Co. a significant publisher and wholesaler whose origins dated back to printer and bookseller Benjamin and Jacob Johnson in 1792. In 1850 J. B. Lippincott & Co. became Lippincott, Grambo & Co. but reverted to its former name in 1855. The company was incorporated in 1878 as J. B. Lippincott Company. Lippincott published the first textbook of nursing in the US in 1878 and the first issue of the American Journal of Nursing in 1900. By the end of the 19th century, Lippincott was one of the largest and best-known publishers in the world.
Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, a popular periodical containing a complete novel, short stories and opinion, was published in the US and the UK from 1868 to 1914. During the 20th century Lippincott became a major publisher of schoolbooks for elementary and high school education and of references and journals in medicine and nursing. In 1978, J. B. Lippincott Company was acquired by Inc.. Lippincott's trade and elementary and high school divisions were merged into Harper's; the remaining publishing activities, in medicine and allied health, were combined with Harper's programs to form "J. B. Lippincott - the Health Professions Publisher of Harper & Row." In 1990, the company was acquired by Wolters Kluwer N. V. of The Netherlands. J. B. Lippincott Company celebrated its 200th anniversary in 1992. Wolters Kluwer merged Lippincott with its other medical publisher, Raven Press, in 1996 to form Lippincott-Raven Publishers. In 1998 Wolters Kluwer acquired medical publisher Williams & Wilkins and combined it with Lippincott-Raven to form Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
After further internal reorganization at Wolters Kluwer in 2002, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ceased to exist as an operational entity. History of books Brief history of J. B. Lippincott Company at Lippincott Williams & Wilkins "Joseph Wharton Lippincott, Jr.", Princeton University memorial J. B. Lippincott Company Records, Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Paulo Coelho de Souza is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. He is best known for his novel The Alchemist. In 2014, he uploaded his personal papers online to create a virtual Paulo Coelho Foundation. Paulo Coelho attended a Jesuit school; as a teenager, Coelho wanted to become a writer. Upon telling his mother this, she responded, "your father is an engineer. He's a logical, reasonable man with a clear vision of the world. Do you know what it means to be a writer?" At 17, Coelho's introversion and opposition to following a traditional path led to his parents committing him to a mental institution from which he escaped three times before being released at the age of 20. Born into a Catholic family, his parents were strict about the faith. Coelho remarked that "It wasn't that they wanted to hurt me, but they didn't know what to do... They did not do that to destroy me, they did that to save me." At his parents' wishes, Coelho abandoned his dream of becoming a writer. One year he dropped out and lived life as a hippie, traveling through South America, North Africa and Europe and started using drugs in the 1960s.
Upon his return to Brazil, Coelho worked as a songwriter, composing lyrics for Elis Regina, Rita Lee, Brazilian icon Raul Seixas. Composing with Raul led to Coelho being associated with magic and occultism, due to the content of some songs. In 1974, Coelho was arrested for "subversive" activities by the ruling military government, who had taken power ten years earlier and viewed his lyrics as left-wing and dangerous. Coelho worked as an actor and theatre director before pursuing his writing career. On March 29, 2019, Coelho published on The Washington Post and in his personal blog an narrative from when he was arrested by the Military dictatorship in Brazil in April 29 of 1974 and post under torture, in response to the Jair Bolsonaro plan to commemorate the 55 years of 1964 Brazilian coup d'état. Coelho married artist Christina Oiticica in 1980. Together they had spent half the year in Rio de Janeiro and the other half in a country house in the Pyrenees Mountains of France, but now the pair reside permanently in Geneva, Switzerland.
In 1986 Coelho walked the 500-plus mile Road of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain. On the path, he had a spiritual awakening. In an interview, Coelho stated ", I was happy in the things I was doing. I was doing something that gave me food and water – to use the metaphor in The Alchemist, I was working, I had a person whom I loved, I had money, but I was not fulfilling my dream. My dream was, still is, to be a writer." Coelho would pursue writing full-time. The Pilgrim – Story of Paulo Coelho is the international title for the biographical film Não Pare na Pista, a co-production between Brazil’s Dama Filmes and the Spanish Babel Films, in which the younger and older Coelho is played by two different actors. One of the producers, Iôna de Macêdo, told Screen International: "The film tells the story of a man who has a dream. It's a little like Alice in Wonderland – he's someone, too big for his house." The film, shot in Portuguese, had its premiere in Brazilian Theaters on 2014, was internationally distributed in 2015.
In 1982, Coelho published Hell Archives, which failed to make a substantial impact. In 1986 he contributed to the Practical Manual of Vampirism, although he tried to take it off the shelves since he considered it "of bad quality." After making the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in 1986, Coelho wrote The Pilgrimage, published in the year 1987. The following year, Coelho wrote The Alchemist and published it through a small Brazilian publishing house who made an initial print run of 900 copies and decided not to reprint, he subsequently found a bigger publishing house, with the publication of his next book Brida, The Alchemist took off. HarperCollins decided to publish the book in 1994, it became an international bestseller. While trying to overcome his procrastination of launching his writing career, Coelho said, "If I see a white feather today, a sign that God is giving me that I have to write a new book." Coelho found a white feather in the window of a shop, began writing that day. Since the publication of The Alchemist, Coelho has written at least one novel every two years.
Four of them – The Pilgrimage, The Valkyries and Aleph – are autobiographical, while the majority of the rest are broadly fictional. Other books, like Maktub, The Manual of the Warrior of Light and Like the Flowing River, are collections of essays, newspaper columns, or selected teachings, his work has been translated into eighty languages. Together, his books have sold in the hundreds of millions. On 22 December 2016, Coelho was listed by UK-based company Richtopia at number 2 in the list of 200 most influential contemporary authors. However, reactions to his writing have not been without controversy. Though he was raised in a Catholic family, describes himself as of that faith now, his stance has been described as incompatible with the Catholic faith, because of its New Age and relativist contents, and whatever his sales, reviews of Coelho's work note its superficiality. On May 1, 2018 it was announced the Coelho signed for a TV series based on the characters of his novels The Devil and Miss Prym and The Witch of Portobello.
Works by or about Paulo Coelho in libraries Paulo Coelho official blog Paulo Coelho and Christina Oiticica's Foundation Paulo Coelho on Go
Jonathan Eastman Johnson was an American painter and co-founder of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, with his name inscribed at its entrance. He was best known for his genre paintings, paintings of scenes from everyday life, his portraits both of everyday people and prominent Americans such as Abraham Lincoln, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, his works show the influence of the 17th-century Dutch masters, whom he studied in The Hague in the 1850s. Johnson was born in Lovell, the eighth and last child of Philip Carrigan Johnson and Mary Kimball Chandler, his elder siblings were Philip, sisters Harriet, Mary and Nell, brother Reuben. Eastman grew up in Fryeburg and Augusta, where the family lived at Pleasant Street and at 61 Winthrop Street, his father was the owner of several businesses, active in fraternal organizations: he was Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Maine. He was appointed in 1840 as Secretary of State for Maine. Eastman Johnson's career as an artist began when his father apprenticed him in 1840 to a Boston lithographer.
After his father's political patron, the Governor of Maine John Fairfield, entered the US Senate, the senior Johnson was appointed by US President James Polk in the late 1840s as Chief Clerk in the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy Department. The family first lived in rental housing. In 1853, they bought a new rowhouse at 266 F Street, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets and a few blocks from the White House and the Navy Department offices, which became their permanent home. Although the young Johnson lived for a time in Boston, studied in Europe, he used this home as his base until moving to New York City in the late 1850s; the young Johnson moved to Washington, D. C. at about age 20, supporting himself by making crayon portraits, including John Quincy Adams, Dolly Madison, helped by his father's political connections. He returned to New England, settling in Boston in 1846 at the age of 22. In 1849, Johnson went overseas to Düsseldorf, for further studies; this had become a new center.
They took part in the Düsseldorf school of painting. In January 1851, Johnson was accepted into the studio of Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, a German who had lived in the United States for a while before returning to Germany, his major work completed. Johnson moved to The Hague, where he studied 17th-century Flemish masters, he ended his European travels in Paris, studying with the academic painter Thomas Couture in 1855 before returning to the United States that year due to the death of his mother. In 1856, he visited her family in Superior, Wisconsin, his mixed-race guide Stephen Bonga, Ojibwe and African-American, took Johnson among the native Anishinaabe in the areas around Superior. Throughout 1857 Johnson painted them in intimate, casual poses. According to the Wisconsin Historical Society, Johnson traveled with Bonga to the areas today known as Grand Portage National Monument, Apostle Islands National Monument, Isle Royale National Park. By 1859, Johnson had established a studio in New York City.
He secured his reputation as an American artist that year with an exhibit at the National Academy of Design featuring his painting, Negro Life at the South or, as it was popularly called, Old Kentucky Home. It was set in the urban back yards of DC rather than on a plantation; that year Johnson was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1860. Johnson became a member of the Union League Club of New York, which holds many of his paintings. In 1869, at the age of 55, he married to Elizabeth Buckley, they had one daughter, Ethel Eastman Johnson, born in 1870. Ethel married Alfred Ronalds Conkling in 1896. On his death in 1906, Eastman Johnson was buried at Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. Johnson's style is realistic in both subject matter and in execution, his charcoal sketches were not influenced by period artists, but are informed more by his lithography training. Works show influence by the 17th-century Dutch and Flemish masters, by Jean-François Millet.
Echoes of Millet's The Gleaners can be seen in Johnson's The Cranberry Harvest, Island of Nantucket, although the emotional tone of the work is far different. His careful portrayal of individuals rather than stereotypes enhances the realism of his paintings. Ojibwe artist Carl Gawboy notes that the faces in the 1857 portraits of Ojibwe people by Johnson are recognizable in people in the Ojibwe community today; some of his paintings, such as Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage, are realistic, with details seen in the photorealism movement. His careful attention to light sources contributes to the realism. Portraits and Pets and The Boy Lincoln, make use of single light sources in a manner, similar to the 17th-century Dutch Masters whom he had studied in The Hague in the 1850s. Johnson's subject matter included portraits of the wealthy and influential, from the President of the United States, to literary figures, to unnamed individuals, he is best known for his paintings of everyday people in everyday scenes.