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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. Like a pipe organ, a harpsichord may have more than one keyboard manual and harpsichords may have stop buttons which add or remove additional octaves; some harpsichords may have a lute stop. This activates a row of levers that turn a trigger mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum made from quill or plastic; the strings are under tension on a soundboard, mounted in a wooden case. The term denotes the whole family of similar plucked-keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals and spinet; the harpsichord was used in Renaissance and Baroque music, both as an accompaniment instrument and as a soloing instrument. During the Baroque era, the harpsichord was a standard part of the continuo group, the musicians who performed the basso continuo part that acted as the foundation for many musical pieces in this era. During the late 18th century, with the development of the fortepiano the harpsichord disappeared from the musical scene.

In the 20th century, it made a resurgence, being used in informed performances of older music, in new compositions, and, in rare cases, in certain styles of popular music. The harpsichord was most invented in the late Middle Ages. By the 16th century, harpsichord makers in Italy were making lightweight instruments with low string tension. A different approach was taken in the Southern Netherlands starting in the late 16th century, notably by the Ruckers family, their harpsichords produced a more powerful and distinctive tone. They included the first harpsichords with two keyboards, used for transposition; the Flemish instruments served as the model for 18th-century harpsichord construction in other nations. In France, the double keyboards were adapted to control different choirs of strings, making a more musically flexible instrument. Instruments from the peak of the French tradition, by makers such as the Blanchet family and Pascal Taskin, are among the most admired of all harpsichords, are used as models for the construction of modern instruments.

In England, the Kirkman and Shudi firms produced sophisticated harpsichords of great power and sonority. German builders extended the sound repertoire of the instrument by adding sixteen foot and two foot choirs. In the late 18th century the harpsichord was supplanted by the piano and disappeared from view for most of the 19th century: an exception was its continued use in opera for accompanying recitative, but the piano sometimes displaced it there. Twentieth-century efforts to revive the harpsichord began with instruments that used piano technology, with heavy strings and metal frames. Starting in the middle of the 20th century, ideas about harpsichord making underwent a major change, when builders such as Frank Hubbard, William Dowd, Martin Skowroneck sought to re-establish the building traditions of the Baroque period. Harpsichords of this type of informed building practice dominate the current scene. Harpsichords vary in size and shape; the player depresses a key that rocks over a pivot in the middle of its length.

The other end of the key lifts a jack. When the player releases the key, the far end returns to its rest position, the jack falls back; as the key reaches its rest position, a felt damper atop the jack stops the string's vibrations. These basic principles are explained in detail below; the keylever is a simple pivot, which rocks on a balance pin that passes through a hole drilled through the keylever. The jack is a rectangular piece of wood that sits upright on the end of the keylever; the jacks are held in place by the registers. These are two long strips of wood, which run in the gap between bellyrail; the registers have rectangular mortises through which the jacks pass as they can move down. The registers hold the jacks in the precise location needed to pluck the string. In the jack, a plectrum juts out horizontally and passes just under the string. Plectra were made of bird quill or leather; when the front of the key is pressed, the back of the key rises, the jack is lifted, the plectrum plucks the string.

The vertical motion of the jack is stopped by the jackrail, covered with soft felt to muffle the impact. When the key is released, the jack falls back down under its own weight, the plectrum passes back under the string; this is made possible by having the plectrum held in a tongue attached with a pivot and a spring to the body of the jack. The bottom surface of the plectrum is cut at a slant; when the jack arrives in lowered position, the felt damper touches the string, causing the n


Fluorite is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals, it crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite. Pure fluorite is transparent, both in visible and ultraviolet light, but impurities make it a colorful mineral and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, in the production of certain glasses and enamels; the purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes. Fluorite optics are usable in the far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared ranges, where conventional glasses are too absorbent for use.

The word fluorite is derived from the Latin verb fluere, meaning to flow. The mineral is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags; the term flux comes from the Latin adjective fluxus, meaning flowing, slack. The mineral fluorite was termed fluorospar and was first discussed in print in a 1530 work Bermannvs sive de re metallica dialogus, by Georgius Agricola, as a mineral noted for its usefulness as a flux. Agricola, a German scientist with expertise in philology and metallurgy, named fluorspar as a neo-Latinization of the German Flussspat from Fluß and Spat. In 1852, fluorite gave its name to the phenomenon of fluorescence, prominent in fluorites from certain locations, due to certain impurities in the crystal. Fluorite gave the name to its constitutive element fluorine; the word "fluorspar" is most used for fluorite as the industrial and chemical commodity, while "fluorite" is used mineralogically and in most other senses. In the context of archeology, classical studies, egyptology, the Latin terms murrina and myrrhina refer to fluorite.

In book 37 of his Naturalis Historia, Pliny the Elder describes it as a precious stone with purple and white mottling, whose objects carved from it, the Romans prize. Fluorite crystallizes in a cubic motif. Crystal twinning adds complexity to the observed crystal habits. Fluorite has four perfect cleavage planes; the structural motif adopted by fluorite is so common that the motif is called the fluorite structure. Element substitution for the calcium cation includes certain rare earth elements, such as yttrium and cerium. Iron and barium are common impurities; some fluoride anions may be replaced by the chloride anion. Fluorite is a occurring mineral with significant deposits in over 9,000 areas globally, it may occur as a vein deposit with metallic minerals, where it forms a part of the gangue and may be associated with galena, barite and calcite. It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common minor constituent of dolomite and limestone.

The world reserves of fluorite are estimated at 230 million tonnes with the largest deposits being in South Africa and China. China is leading the world production with about 3 Mt annually, followed by Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Namibia. One of the largest deposits of fluorspar in North America is located in the Burin Peninsula, Canada; the first official recognition of fluorspar in the area was recorded by geologist J. B. Jukes in 1843, he noted an occurrence of "galena" or lead ore and fluoride of lime on the west side of St. Lawrence harbour, it is recorded that interest in the commercial mining of fluorspar began in 1928 with the first ore being extracted in 1933. At Iron Springs Mine, the shafts reached depths of 970 feet. In the St. Lawrence area, the veins are persistent for great lengths and several of them have wide lenses; the area with veins of known workable size comprises about 60 square miles. In 2018, Canada Fluorspar Inc. commenced mine production again in St. Lawrence. Cubic crystals up to 20 cm across have been found at Russia.

The largest documented single crystal of fluorite was a cube weighing ~ 16 tonnes. Fluorite may be found in mines in Caldoveiro Peak, in Asturias, Spain. One of the most famous of the older-known localities of fluorite is Castleton in Derbyshire, where, under the name of Derbyshire Blue John, purple-blue fluorite was extracted from several mines or caves. During the 19th century, this attractive fluorite was mined for its ornamental value; the mineral Blue John is now scarce, only a few hundred kilograms are mined each year for ornamental and lapidary use. Mining still takes place in Treak Cliff Cavern. Discovered deposits in China have produced fluorite with coloring and banding similar to the classic Blue John stone. George Gabriel Stokes named the phenomenon of fluorescence from fluorite, in 1852. Many samples of fluorite exhibit flu


The Schneeferner in the Bavarian Alps is Germany's highest and largest glacier. It is located on the Zugspitzplatt, a plateau south of the country's highest peak, the Zugspitze, that descends from west to east and forms the head of the Reintal valley; the meltwaters from the glacier seep away into the karstified plateau and surface again in the Reintal, where they feed the River Partnach. The Schneeferner is one of the northernmost glaciers in the Alps. In the 19th century, towards the end of the Little Ice Age, a large glacier, the Plattachferner, covered the entire Zugspitzplatt between the Jubiläumsgrat arête and the Plattspitzen peaks, it covered an area of about 300 hectares and left behind large moraines during its subsequent retreat that are still visible today. From about 1860 until the 1950s the glacier lost 23,000 square metres of area each year and by the end of that period had shrunk to about 60 hectares. During its retreat, the glacier split into a northern and a southern section towards the end of the 19th century.

The so-called Eastern or Little Schneeferner below the summit of the Zugspitze broke away from the northern section and has since disappeared. Thereafter the glacier's retreat was less drastic and the remaining sections of the Northern Schneeferner tended to just shrink in thickness due to their location in a basin. In the 1960s and 1970s, favourable conditions led to a growth in the thickness of the glacier. Since 1980 the glaciers on the Zugspitzplatt have again been on the retreat. In 2006 the two remaining parts of the glacier still covered an area of 39 hectares. Since 1990, global warming has seen above-average summer temperatures recorded on the Zugspitze. Summer snowfalls have become rare, which damages glaciers, because such snowfalls decrease the energy absorbed by glaciers and interrupt melting processes by increasing their albedo. About 80 centimetres of ice melted has melted annually, on average. If this rate of melting continues, the glaciers on the Zugspitze will disappear between 2015 and 2030, although a few small remnants of ice may survive longer.

With an area of 31 hectares the Northern Schneeferner alone would be the largest glacier in Germany. Its ice sheet is 52 metres at the deepest point, it lies at an average elevation of 2,640 metres above sea level and is therefore higher than the other German glaciers: the Höllentalferner, Watzmann Glacier and Blaueis. It flows from west to east with a gentle gradient in its lower reaches. North of the glacier is the arête running from the Zugspitze to the Zugspitzeck. To the east and south it is open; the glacier is fed by precipitation falling directly onto its surface. The velocity at which the glacier moves is only about 25 to 30 cm per year in its central section and there is hardly any movement of glacial mass at lower altitudes. On the steep flanks of the Schneefernerkopf the flow rate can be several metres per year, but here the glacier has all but disappeared in recent years. Today, the Northern Schneeferner is a winter sports area. Since 1955, five ski lifts have been built on the ice sheet, making it the only German glacier skiing area.

At one time summer skiing was possible here. In order to better support winter sports, the natural evolution of the glacier has been counteracted by transporting snow from surrounding areas; as a result, since 1990 the ice thickness has increased. Since 1993, certain areas of the glacier have been covered with tarpaulins during the summer to protect the winter ice and snow from sunshine and rain. In 2007, 9,000 m2 covered 2.6% of the glacier compared to 6,000 m2 previously. By doing so it is hoped that the exposure of rocks that could hamper winter sports can be delayed as long as possible. Although preference is given to covering the areas in which glacial melting under natural conditions would be the fastest, these measures have had little effect on the life of the glacier to date; the ice obtained only compensates for about 1% of the loss, expected in the unprotected areas of the glacier. In 2010, an area 50,000 m2 was covered by the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway Company to protect the winter sports areas.

On warm days the ice sheet of the Northern Schneeferner reduces by up to 11 cm. In August 2003 the melting of the glacier produced 35,000 m3 of water daily one tenth of the average water consumption of the Munich region. Experts describe this melting of ice as Gletscherrauschen. Area: 30.7 ha Elevation: 2,798–2,558 m, average 2,635 m Average ice thickness: 16.8 m Maximum ice thickness: 52 m 52 m Volume: 5,160,000 m3 Maximum length: 850 m Average gradient: 14° The Southern Schneeferner once covered the entire southwestern part of the Zugspitzplatt. By 2006 only an area of some 8 ha was left and its ice sheet, with an average thickness of less than 5 m, was thin. At the end of the 20th century the

DeBarge family

The DeBarge family is a family of rhythm and blues artists from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Robert Louis DeBarge, Sr. was a European American soldier who served for the United States Armed forces and was of French descent. He met Etterlene Abney, African American, in Detroit, Michigan in the early 1950s, they married in 1953, with Robert being 21 and Etterlene going on 18. They stayed together for 21 years before divorcing in 1974; the children claimed. Robert and Etterlene have 10 children: Etterlene "Bunny" DeBarge Robert Louis "Bobby" DeBarge, Jr. Thomas Keith "Tommy" DeBarge William Randall "Randy" DeBarge Mark "Marty" DeBarge Eldra Patrick "El" DeBarge James DeBarge Jonathan Arthur "Chico" DeBarge Carol "Peaches" DeBarge Darrell "Young" DeBarge She has recorded major label releases, Etterlene has recorded gospel material with members of her family with her own independent gospel releases, she is known by the name, "Mama DeBarge" or "Mama D" for short. Brothers Bobby and Tommy rose to fame in the late 1970s as members of the R & B group Switch, which recorded for the Motown label.

Earlier, Bobby had joined a group as background members for Barry White called White Heat. Tommy was included in Bobby's new band Switch and the group would have success in 1978 with the top ten R&B single, "There'll Never Be"; the group's first two albums became million-selling successes and the band's success would influence a generation of self-contained R&B bands such as Tony, Toni and Mint Condition. Forming in 1979 as The DeBarges, the band included four members - Bunny, Mark and El - moved to Los Angeles and signed with Motown where they went under a two-year training process by Motown's staff before releasing their first album in 1981. With the inclusion of 18-year-old James in early 1982, the group changed their name to DeBarge and released their first million-selling album, All This Love that year. From 1982 to 1985, DeBarge released three gold-certified albums and released more than ten hit singles. After disbanding shortly in 1986, a reinvented version of the group now featuring Bobby DeBarge and excluding El and Bunny, released a record in 1988 before disbanding the following year due to Bobby's conviction of drug offenses.

After leaving DeBarge for a solo career in 1986, El DeBarge had modest success as a solo artist peaking with the hit "Who's Johnny" and finding fame as a featured vocalist on several hip-hop and quiet storm-leaning R&B productions including most prominently "Secret Garden" with Quincy Jones and his cover of Marvin Gaye's "After the Dance" with Fourplay. DeBarge's career was halted in the mid-1990s by personal problems which resulted in arrests; this period culminated in 2008 with a conviction on crack cocaine charges after DeBarge violated his probation on a previous drug conviction, resulting in two arrest warrants. DeBarge was released from incarceration in October 2009, declaring himself both clean and a born-again Christian, he has since returned to his music career and released his first studio album since 1994, Second Chance, on November 30, 2010. Though he remained a collaborator with his brothers and sister, Bobby DeBarge struggled with personal problems that ended his career. In 1988, he and Chico were convicted of drug trafficking charges in Michigan.

After serving six years, DeBarge discovered he had AIDS and tried recording an album - It's Not Over, his only solo project, was released in 1996 following DeBarge's death from AIDS in 1995 at the age of 39. In 1986, Motown released Bunny's only solo project, In Love, which flopped due to Motown's failure to promote despite the best efforts of her first and only single, "Save The Best For Me". Most known for writing the hits "I Like It" and "A Dream" She now records independently as a gospel artist. She, Randy and Bunny's daughter appeared on an episode of Lifechangers to talk about their drug problems. Though he hasn't had any solo success since DeBarge's breakup, James is most notable for his personal relationship and short marriage to R&B and pop singer Janet Jackson during the early 1980s. James and Jackson annulled their marriage in 1985 because of James' drug problems and disapproval from Jackson's parents Joseph and Katherine. In 2001, James recorded a song with Won-G Bruny and Traci Bingham called Nothing's Wrong, The music video didn't feature Traci but James has lip-synced both parts of the chorus and Traci's.

James' daughter Kristinia was 19 when Island Records / Sodapop released her debut album, Exposed, in July 2009. Chico was 18 when he released his first album in 1985; the first single, "Talk to Me", became a top forty smash for Chico. Branded as the "new star" of the DeBarge family, his career was interrupted by an arrest on drug trafficking charges with his brother Bobby in 1988. After a six-year prison term, Chico DeBarge was released and returned to music pioneering a new sound in R&B music titled Neo Classic Soul under the UMG label Kedar Ent. in 1997 recording the hit album, 1997's Long Time No See reemerging in the neo soul scene of the late 1990s. Chico is the only solo DeBarge in the family to date to have achieved certified Gold album status. In 2009, he detailed his drug addiction on Addiction. Since the release of "Addiction" Chico DeBarge has been sober and touring while recording a new CD


KTLM, virtual and UHF digital channel 40, is a Telemundo owned-and-operated television station licensed to Rio Grande City, United States and serving the Rio Grande Valley metropolitan area. The station is owned by the Telemundo Station Group subsidiary of NBCUniversal. KTLM's studios are located in the Chase Bank building in McAllen, its transmitter is located near Rio Grande City; the station's original construction permit was issued to the Starr County Historical Foundation on June 10, 1994, with the call sign KAIO issued on September 1. The foundation intended to run KAIO as a non-commercial station promoting tourism in the Rio Grande Valley. On October 5, 1998, KAIO changed its call letters to KTLM and picked up the Telemundo affiliation from XHRIO-TV, which had struggled with signal strength in the western parts of the Lower Rio Grande Valley; the station went on the air August 1, 1999. In 2000, the Starr County Historical Foundation sold KTLM to Sunbelt Multimedia, a division of the Starr Camargo Bridge Company, unrelated to Sunbelt Communications Company.

Sunbelt Multimedia had been managing the station since its launch. On September 10, 2012, Sunbelt Multimedia put KTLM up for sale, with Patrick Communications managing partner Larry Patrick named to run the station while in receivership. Documents were forwarded to the FCC to put the station under Patrick's control, his media worked to try to earn enough money to repay creditors of Sunbelt Multimedia. A year a deal was reached to sell KTLM to Telemundo Rio Grande Valley LLC, a subsidiary of NBCUniversal; the sale was finalized on December 31. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: KTLM shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 40, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. KTLM launched a news department in 2003, with a 5 p.m. and 10 p.m. newscast on weeknights anchored by Yolanda de la Cruz. In 2010, Dalia Garza was promoted from health reporter to the main anchor.

After NBC's purchase, local news was expanded to include the latest weekend news, a 9 a.m. morning show named Buenos Días Frontera, an in-house weather forecast with two new weather presenters, a new public affairs program named Enfoque McAllen. On September 2, 2014, KTLM debuted a new anchor team; this team included a co-anchor for Dalia Garza and a new weather anchor to replace Marlen Sosa, who had left two months earlier with Elizabeth Robaina. An updated set named. On November 3, 2014, along with 14 other stations owned by NBC Universal and Telemundo, KTLM launched a new 4:30 p.m. newscast, moving Al Rojo Vivo to 3 p.m. and Lo Mejor de Caso Cerrado to a half hour slot at 4:00 p.m. This allowed room for an extended newscast running from 4:30 to 5 p.m. On May 26, 2016, the station launched a Consumer Investigative Unit Franchise called "Telemundo Responde"; this was led by anchor and reporter Ana Cecilia Méndez, who took this new role in place of her previous weekend anchor position. Daniel Tuccio - Anchored morning briefs during Un Nuevo Día and was a general assignment reporter for the weekday evening newscast.

Official website Query the FCC's TV station database for KTLM BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KTLM-TV

Adam Mardel (singer)

Adam Mardel is an American pop singer best-known for his work with Second Alibi and for founding the record label E2A Music Group, LLC. In the spring of 2017 Adam launched a concert series called "E2A Presents" to feature bands and artists of different genres. In a 2020 interview on WGN with Paul Lisnek Adam announced that he his working on a new memoir and new music. 2008: "One Reason" 2010: "Back Again" 2011: "Hypnotized" 2011: "As You Walk Away" 2012: "Freak Boy" 2015: "Ignite" 2015: "Lost" 2016: "Red" 2016: "Waste of Time" 2016: "Back to You" 2017: "Soldier" 2016: "Ultimatum" 2017: "Ultimatum: The Ultimate Edition" 2011: Eleven Twelve Promo Tour 2012: Unbound Tour 2011: Neon Pop Tour 2012: R. O. A. R. Tour 2013: After Party Tour 2014: Wonderful World Tour 2014-2015: Ohio Boy Band Search Tour 2016: Hey UK! Tour 2017: LØVË Tour 2017: E2A Presents Tour 2016: Ultimate Tour 2017: "E2A Presents: Live at Gloria Theatre" – Himself 2018: "Making it Series: Meet the Team Behind E2A Music Group" – Himself