Cemetery of Our Saviour
The Cemetery of Our Saviour is a cemetery in Oslo, located north of Hammersborg in Gamle Aker district. It is located adjacent to the older Old Aker Cemetery and was created in 1808 as a result of the great famine and cholera epidemic of the Napoleonic Wars, its grounds were extended in 1911. The cemetery has been full and thus closed for new graves since 1952, with interment only being allowed in existing family graves; the cemetery includes five sections, including Æreslunden, Norway's main honorary burial ground, the western, southern and northern sections. The Cemetery of Our Saviour became the preferred cemetery of bourgeois and other upper-class families, it is the most famous cemetery in Norway. Vår Frelsers gravlund
Vestfold is a county in Norway, on the western shore of the Oslofjord. It borders Telemark; the county administration is in Tønsberg, Norway's oldest city, the largest city is Sandefjord. With the exception of the city-county of Oslo, Vestfold is the smallest county in Norway by area. Vestfold is located west of the Oslofjord, it includes many smaller, but well-known towns in Norway, such as Larvik, Sandefjord, Tønsberg and Horten. The river Numedalslågen runs through the county. Many islands are located at the coast. Vestfold is dominated by lowland and is among the best agricultural areas of Norway. Winters last about three months, while pleasant summer temperatures last from May to September, with a July average high of 17 °C. Vestfold is traditionally known for sailing. Sandefjord was a headquarters for the Norwegian whaling fleet, Horten used to be an important naval port; the coastal towns of Vestfold now engage in shipbuilding. Some lumbering is carried on in the interior; the area includes some of the best farmland in Norway.
Vestfold is the only county in which all municipalities have declared Bokmål to be their sole official written form of the Norwegian language. Vestfold will merge with neighboring Telemark County on January 1, 2020 as part of a nationwide municipal reform; the new county name is Vestfold og Telemark. Vestfold is the old name of the region, revived in modern times. Fold was the old name of the Oslofjord, the meaning of the name Vestfold is the region west of the Fold. Before 1919, the county was called Jarlsberg og Larvik Amt; the amt was created in 1821, consisting of the two old counties of Larvik. In the Viking age, Vestfold referred to Eiker, Kongsberg, now in Buskerud. Vestfold is mentioned for the first time in a written source in 813, when Danish kings were in Vestfold to quell an uprising amongst the Fürsts. There may have been as many as six political centers in Vestfold. At that time Kaupang, located in Tjølling near Larvik, had been functioning for decades and had a chieftain. Kaupang, which dates from the Viking Era, is believed to be the first town in Norway, although Tønsberg is the oldest town in Norway still in existence.
At Borre, there was a site for another chieftain. That site held chieftains for more than one hundred years prior to 813; the stone mounds at Mølen have been dated to the Viking Age. The mounds at Haugar in present-day Tønsberg's town centre have been dated to the Viking period. At Farmannshaugen in Sem there seems to have been activity at the time, while activity at Oseberghaugen and Gokstadhaugen dates from a few decades later. An English source from around 890 retells the voyage of Ottar "from the farthest North, along Norvegr via Kaupang and Hedeby to England", where Ottar places Kaupang in the land of the Dane - danenes land. Bjørn Brandlien says that "To the degree that Harald Hårfagre gathered a kingdom after the Battle of Hafrsfjord at the end of the 9th century -, connected to Avaldsnes - it does not seem to have made such a great impression on Ottar". Kaupang is mentioned under the name of Skiringssal in Ottar's tales. By the 10th century, the local kings had established themselves; the king or his ombudsman resided in the old Royal Court at Sæheim i Sem, today the Jarlsberg Estate in Tønsberg.
The farm Haugar became the seat for Haugating, the Thing for Vestfold and one of Norway's most important place for the proclamation of kings. The family of Harald Fairhair, most the first king of Norway, is said to have come from this area; the Danish kings seem to have been weak in Vestfold from around the middle of the 9th century until the middle of the 10th century, but their rule was strengthened there at the end of the 10th century. The Danish kings seem to have tried to control the region until the 13th century. Erik Agnarsson Halfdan Hvitbeinn Eystein Halfdansson Halfdan the Mild Gudrød the Hunter Halfdan the Black, together with his brother, Olaf Gudrødsson Ragnvald the Mountain-High, Cousin of Harold Fairhair Harald Fairhair Bjørn Farmann Olaf Haraldsson Geirstadalf, brother of Bjørn Harald Gudrødsson Grenske, 976–987 Whaling was an important 19th century industry in coastal cities such as Larvik, Tønsberg, Sandefjord, the world centre for the world's modern whaling industry. Not only did men from Vestfold County make up all the crew on the Norwegian whaling fleet, but many were involved in the whaling industry in other nations.
As an example, the first phase of modern Australian whaling was entirely based on workers from Larvik. While the first whaling station in the Faroe Islands was established by Sandefjordians, Larvik played a similar role for the Shetland Islands. Tønsberg initiated much of the whaling industry in Iceland and the Hebrides; the largest settlement in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, was established by Carl Anton Larsen of Sandefjord on November 16, 1904. Sandefjordian Nils Larsen's expeditions to Antarctica in the early 20th century led to the Norwegian annexation of Bouvet Island and Peter I Island. A cove on Peter I Island is named Sandefjord Cove in honor of Nils Larsen's hometown. Sandefjord Harbor is now home to Southern Actor, the only whale-catcher from the Modern Whaling Epoch still to be in its original order; the museum ship is owned by Sandefjord Whaling Museum, Europe's only museum dedicated to wh
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Hartvig Nissen School
The Hartvig Nissen School, informally referred to as Nissen, is a gymnasium in Oslo, Norway. It is located in the neighborhood Uranienborg in the affluent West End borough of Frogner, it is the second oldest gymnasium in Oslo and is considered one of the country's most prestigious. Named Nissen's Girls' School, it was founded by Hartvig Nissen and was a private girls' school, owned by its headmasters and which served the higher bourgeoisie; the school also had its own teachers college. The school and its teachers college have the distinction of being both the first gymnasium and the first higher education institution in Norway which admitted females, the school and its owners played a key role in promoting female education during the 19th and early 20th century; the school was located at the address Rosenkrantz' Gade 7 from 1849 to 1860 and at the address Øvere Voldgade 15 from 1860 to 1899. Then-owner-headmaster Bernhard Pauss moved the school to its current address, Niels Juels gate 56, commissioned the construction of the current school building, completed in 1899.
In 1991 the school acquired the building of its former neighbours Frogner School and Haagaas School at Niels Juels gate 52. Although Hartvig Nissen School was very well known in Norway, it became well known internationally through the TV series Skam, centered on the school, it was established in 1849 by Hartvig Nissen and was a private girls' school, named Nissen's Girls' School. The school was owned by its headmasters, until it was sold to Christiania Municipality in 1918. Nissen's Girls' School was the first institution in Norway to offer examen artium—the university entrance exam—for women. Then-owner Bernhard Cathrinus Pauss established the first tertiary education for women in Norway, a women's teacher's college named Nissen's Teachers' College. Nissen's Girls' School served the higher bourgeoisie, was one of three leading private higher schools in Oslo, alongside Frogner School and Vestheim School. Due to its location in the wealthy borough of Frogner and because few working-class Norwegians attended gymnasium before the "education revolution" that started in the 1960s, it remained a school of choice for pupils from affluent families after it was acquired by the municipality, although today, it has pupils from all parts of Oslo and with more diverse backgrounds.
Its alumni include two members of Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid. From 1860 to 1899, the school was located in a building in Øvre Vollgate 15 in central Oslo; the current school building in Niels Juels gate 56 was commissioned by then-owner Bernhard Cathrinus Pauss in 1897, designed by Hartvig Nissen's son, architect Henrik Nissen, built by Harald Kaas. The school was opened for boys in 1955 and it changed its name to the current one in 1963. In 1970, it acquired the buildings of its neighbour, the former Frogner School; the school is famous for its focus on theatre, having many actors among its alumni. It was the first school in Norway to introduce a pupil's council, in 1919; the TV series Skam is centered on the Hartvig Nissen School, attended by all its central characters. Hartvig Nissen Johan Carl Keyser Einar Lyche Andreas Martin Corneliussen Bernhard Cathrinus Pauss Frogner skoles interessentskap Christiania/Oslo municipality Notable people who have graduated from Nissen's Girls' School/Hartvig Nissen School include: Princess Ragnhild Princess Astrid Eva Nansen and wife of Fridtjof Nansen Margrethe Munthe, children's writer and playwright Clara Holst, first woman to obtain a doctorate in Norway Ragnhild Jølsen, writer Harriet Backer, painter Alette Engelhart, women's activist Lillebjørn Nilsen, songwriter Toril Brekke, novelist Ragna Nielsen, pedagogue Triana Iglesias, model Tarjei Sandvik Moe, actor Hege Schøyen, comedian Jon Balke, jazz musician Maria Bonnevie, actress Ulrik Imtiaz Rolfsen, film director Official site Nissens Pigeskole og Privatseminar, Nissens Pigeskole, Christiania, 1900 Einar Boyesen: Nissens pikeskole 1849–1924, Oslo 1924 Nils A. Ytreberg: Nissen pikeskole 1849–1949, Oslo 1949 Maja Lise Rønneberg: Hartvig Nissens skole 150 år: 1849–1999, Oslo 1999
Hjalmar Eilif Emanuel Peterssen was a Norwegian painter. He is most associated with his landscapes and portraits. Hjalmar Eilif Emanuel Peterssen was born in Christiania, now Oslo, Norway, he was the son of Anne Marie Andersen. He grew up in the neighborhood of Hegdehaugen in the district of Frogner, he attended the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry in Christiania from 1866–70. He entered the Johan Fredrik Eckersberg School of Painting in 1869, he trained with Knud Bergslien and Morten Müller in the autumn of 1870. In 1871 he left Oslo to study at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen; that year he moved to Karlsruhe, where he was a student of Ludwig des Coudres at the Academy of Fine Arts and Wilhelm Riefstahl at Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School. In the fall of 1873 Peterssen traveled to Munich where he studied under at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich under Wilhelm von Diez and Franz von Lenbach. In Munich Peterssen met other famous artists such as Karl von Piloty.
Eilif Peterssen made several trips to Italy. In 1896 he went to Arques-la-Bataille in Normandy, where he painted several landscapes, from France he went together with his family to Rome in 1897. In 1903, Peterssen again visited Italy and in Rapallo near Genova, he painted the impressionist motif Winter in the South. During the dissolution of Union between Sweden and Norway in 1905, Peterssen was commissioned to design the new coat of arms of Norway. In his years Peterssen travelled all over Norway to paint landscapes, he made several visits to Skogstad in Valdres, where he was inspired by the great mountain landscape. In 1920–21, he made his last travel abroad to Cagnes-sur-Mer and Saint-Paul-de-Vence in Provence where he painted several landscapes of the small villages on the hills between Nice and Cannes. Peterssen made his breakthrough as a painter in Munich with the history painting Christian II signs the death sentence of Torben Oxe, acquired by the Verbindung für historische Kunst in Stuttgart.
In Munich he painted one of his biggest paintings, the altarpiece The Crucifixion for Johannes Church in Oslo, demolished in 1928. He was to paint nine more altarpieces and a church decoration,The Ascension in Ullern Church in Oslo. Peterssen is famous for his portraits. In Munich he painted some of his best portraits, of artist friends such as Harriet Backer and Hans Heyerdahl and of the German painters Anton Windmaier and Adolf Heinrich Lier, he painted Princess Anna Elisabeth Reuss at Schleiz palace in Gera during 1878. Peterssen was influenced by the brownish palette of the Munich School painters; however Peterssen was soon to adopt the popular En plein air style when he traveled to Italy in 1879. He visited Sora in 1880 together with the Danish painter Peder Severin Krøyer, in this mountain village he painted his great naturalistic work Siesta in an osteria in Sora. A sharp realism is characteristic of his big canvas Piazza Montanara painted in Rome. After the death of his first wife Nicoline in 1882, Peterssen visited Skagen in Denmark together with a group of Danish and Norwegian artist friends, among them P.
S. Krøyer and Anna Ancher, Christian Krohg and Oscar Bjørck in the summer of 1883. At Skagen, Peterssen painted some of his first evocative landscapes, such as Summer Evening at Skagen. In the summer of 1884 Peterssen stayed at Sandø, a small island in the Oslofjord, where he painted several versions of Summer Evening, Sandø; these paintings with a contemplative woman sitting in the foreground would influence the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch in his "Melancholy" paintings. During a visit to Venice in 1885 together with the Norwegian painter Frits Thaulow, Peterssen painted some of his most impressionistic paintings, such as Canal Grande and From Riva degli Schiavoni; these paintings are influenced by French painters Manet and Monet. But it was on his return to Norway in 1886 that Peterssen painted his most famous evocative landscapes, Summer Evening and Nocturne. Summer Evening has been shown in many exhibitions abroad, among them the "Northern Light" exhibition in America in 1982–1983.
Peterssen continued to paint portraits of famous Norwegians, among them authors Alexander Kielland, Arne Garborg and Henrik Ibsen, whom he had painted as early as 1875. He made a portrait of the well-known composer Edvard Grieg in 1893. Peterssen made a success at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1889 with Salmon Fishermen at Nesøya, a painting combining the evocative and the naturalistic painting style; this was followed by landscape paintings and motifs of salmon fishermen at Jæren in the southern part of Norway where Peterssen stayed in the summertime in the small village of Sele. During the 1890s Peterssen made several paintings influenced by Impressionism, among them the most important is Sunshine, Kalvøya; this painting made the Swedish art critic Erik Wettergren compare Peterssen with the French Impressionist Berthe Morisot. Another impressionist painting is From Akershus. Inspired by Symbolist and Pre-Raphaelite art, Peterssen painted a series of pictures with motifs from a mediaeval French legend, Gujamar's Song, for the publisher William Nygaard.
He painted another series based on a Norwegian folk song and the Proud Gudbjørg, for the shipping magnate Jørgen Breder Stang. He painted the historical event when King Christian II signs Torben Oxe's death war
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; the native languages Swedish, Norwegian and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish and several Sami languages; the main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure.
The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland; the combined area of the Nordic countries is 3,425,804 square kilometres. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people; the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.
With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish, Swedish and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible; these three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. For example, Swedish is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, since Finland by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic, which are North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages, spoken in Finland and in northern Norway and Finland, respectively. All the Nordic countries have a North Germanic official language called a Nordic language in the Nordic countries.
The working languages of the Nordic region's two political bodies are Danish and Swedish. Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours, but to varying degrees the Nordic countries share the Nordic model of economy and social structure: a market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest and these include support for said "universalist" welfare state aimed at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; the Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous; the Nordic countries are considered to refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, including their associated territories.
The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, which means "The North". Unlike "the Nordic countries", the term Norden is in the singular; the demonym is nordbo meaning "northern dweller". Scandinavia refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula, formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North". Fennoscandia refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Kola Peninsula and Karelia; this term is
Henrik Lund (painter)
Henrik Louis Lund was a Norwegian painter and graphic artist. Lund was born in Bergen as a son of Lt.-Col. Henrik Louis Bull Lund and pianist and composer Birgitte Theodora Carlsen, his sister was composer Signe Lund. He spent much of his young days at sea and had a naval career in mind. However, he was not admitted to the Norwegian Naval Academy, he moved to Kristiania, where he met painting student Per Deberitz, a student of Hans Gude and who turned Lund's interest to this profession. He was a pupil of Harriet Backer, debuted the same year, studied further with Johan Nordhagen. Lund had his first exhibit in 1899 and his first Autumn Exhibit in 1901, he exhibited in Berlin. He broke through here, he held several notable exhibitions, including "The Six" in Berlin and Copenhagen in 1911. He belonged to a group of early-1900s young painters called the Neo-Impressionists, he befriended such painters as Ludvig Karsten, Søren Onsager, Bernhard Folkestad, Arne Kavli, Theodor Laureng and Anders Svarstad, drew inspiration from Karsten, Edvard Munch and Christian Krohg.
In the years before the First World War began, Lund was interested in pure landscapes and airy impressions of nature. He found motifs in the Oslo Fjord and Nordland, but first and foremost at his summer place near Kragerø on Skåtøy, he had a special affinity towards landscapes and portrait painting. However, both as a painter and printmaker, he is known for his portraits, he painted many of the leading men and women in business and politics. Lund was a skilled administrator and a persistent advocate for his artist colleagues. Over the years he held a variety of administrative posts, both at home and abroad. In 1911 he held an exhibition for young Norwegian artists at Cassirer in Copenhagen. In 1912, he took a large Scandinavian exhibition on tour in the United States, he served on the art jury for the 1914 Jubilee Exhibition at Frogner and was chairman of the Association of Norwegian Printmakers. One of his last assignments was as a juror at an exhibition in Pittsburgh during 1935, his works can be found in the National Gallery of Norway in Oslo, which owns 13 of his pictures, in the Norwegian Parliament and inb the National Theatre, among others.
His sister was pianist Signe Lund. In 1900, he married Gunbjør Olsen, he was the father-in-law of art historian Johan Henrik Langaard. He died on 23 December 1935 in Oslo