For the video game, go to Divinity: Original Sin In religion, divinity or Godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as God, the supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, are therefore regarded as sacred and holy. Such things are regarded as divine due to their transcendental origins or because their attributes or qualities are superior or supreme relative to things of the Earth. Divine things are regarded as eternal and based in truth, while material things are regarded as ephemeral and based in illusion; such things that may qualify as divine are apparitions, prophecies, in some views the soul, or more general things like resurrection, immortality and salvation. Otherwise what is or is not divine may be loosely defined, as it is used by different belief systems; the root of the word "divine" is "godly", but the use varies depending on which deity is being discussed. This article outlines the major distinctions in the conventional use of the terms.
For specific related academic terms, see Divinity, or Divine. Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: Divine force or power - powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacities Divinity applied to mortals - qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine. DV Divinity always carries connotations of goodness, beneficence and other positive, pro-social attributes. In monotheistic faiths there is an equivalent cohort of malefic supernatural beings and powers, such as demons, afreet, etc. which are not conventionally referred to as divine. Pantheistic and polytheistic faiths make no such distinction. Note that while the terms demon and demonic are used in monotheistic faiths as antonyms to divine, they are in fact derived from the Greek word daimón, which itself translates as divinity. There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: In monotheistic faiths, the word divinity is used to refer to the singular God central to that faith.
The word takes the definite article and is capitalized — "the Divinity" — as though it were a proper name or definitive honorific. Divine — capitalized — may be used as an adjective to refer to the manifestations of such a Divinity or its powers: e.g. "basking in the Divine presence..." The terms divinity and divine — uncapitalized, lacking the definite article — are sometimes used as to denote'god or certain other beings and entities which fall short of absolute Godhood but lie outside the human realm. These include: As noted, divinities are related to the transcendent force or power credited to them, so much so that in some cases the powers or forces may themselves be invoked independently; this leads to the second usage of the word divine: to refer to the operation of transcendent power in the world. In its most direct form, the operation of transcendent power implies some form of divine intervention. For pan- and polytheistic faiths this implies the direct action of one god or another on the course of human events.
In Greek legend, for instance, it was Poseidon who raised the storms that blew Odysseus's craft off course on his return journey, Japanese tradition holds that a god-sent wind saved them from Mongol invasion. Prayers or propitiations are offered to specific gods of pantheisms to garner favorable interventions in particular enterprises: e.g. safe journeys, success in war, or a season of bountiful crops. Many faiths around the world — from Japanese Shinto and Chinese traditional religion, to certain African practices and the faiths derived from those in the Caribbean, to Native American beliefs — hold that ancestral or household deities offer daily protection and blessings. In monotheistic religions, divine intervention may take direct forms: miracles, visions, or intercessions by blessed figures. Transcendent force or power may operate through more subtle and indirect paths. Monotheistic faiths support some version of divine providence, which acknowledges that the divinity of the faith has a profound but unknowable plan always unfolding in the world.
Unforeseeable, overwhelming, or unjust events are thrown on'the will of the Divine', in deferences like the Muslim inshallah and Christian'God works in mysterious ways'. Such faiths hold out the possibility of divine retribution as well, where the divinity will unexpectedly bring evil-doers to justice through the conventional workings of the world. Other faiths are more subtle: the doctrine of karma shared by Buddhism and Hinduism is a divine law similar to divine retribution but without the connotation of punishment: our acts, good or bad, intentional or unintentional, reflect back on us as part of the natural working of the universe. Philosophical Taoism proposes a transcendent operant principle — transliterated in English as tao or dao, meaning'the way' —, neither an entity or a being per se, but reflects the natural ongoing process of the world. Modern western mysticism and new age philosophy use the term'the Divine' as a noun in this latter sense: a non-specific principle or being that gives rise to the world, acts as the source o
Common Room (university)
In some universities in the United Kingdom and Ireland — collegiate universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, as well as King's College London, Dublin University, Durham University, University of York, University of Kent and Lancaster University— students and the academic body are organised into a common room, or at Cambridge a combination room. These groups exist to provide representation in the organisation of college or residential hall life, to operate certain services within these institutions such as laundry or recreation, to provide opportunities for socialising. Though there are variations based on institutional tradition and needs, the following common rooms will exist in a college or hall: Outside the UK, the terms JCR, MCR, SCR are used by Harvard University, Yale University, Princeton University, the University of Toronto. A Junior Common Room – for undergraduate junior members A Middle Common Room – for graduate junior members A Senior Common Room – for senior members. In addition to this, each of the above phrases may refer to an actual room designated for the use of these groups.
At the University of Cambridge, the term combination room is used, with the same abbreviations. As a generalisation, JCRs are associations of undergraduates and SCRs an association of tutors and academics associated with a college. Postgraduates are sometimes placed in with either of the other groups; this terminology has, in addition, been taken up in some universities in other English speaking nations. The terms JCR, MCR and SCR originated from the University of Cambridge; the terms are now used at ten British universities as well as Trinity College, Dublin in Ireland, Harvard College in the United States of America and at the University of Trinity College in the University of Toronto, Canada. Due to the way that the terms have evolved over time and the idiosyncratic nature of university structure, the use of the three terms varies from institution to institution; the main variations involve mature students and postgraduate students. In addition to this, the terms may be used to refer to the elected groups.
Other names such as "Exec" may exist for these. At the University of Oxford, a typical college has a Junior Common Room for undergraduates, a Middle Common Room for graduates and a Senior Common Room for its fellows. JCRs and MCRs have a committee, with a president and so on, that represent their students to college authorities, Oxford University Student Union, etc. in addition to being an actual room for the use of members. SCRs have a President, an academic member of the body who deals with higher-level administrative matters pertaining to the SCR, such as inviting proposed visiting fellows to the body and identifying invited lecturers to any particular college event. SCRs are characterised by a copious provision of coffee and moderately informal space for academics to think and discuss ideas. Wadham College is a notable exception: although it maintains an MCR, its entire student population is represented by a combined Students' Union; the JCR and MCR presidents of all affiliated Oxford Common Rooms, in addition to their OUSU Reps, are automatically voting members of OUSU's governing Council, which meets fortnightly during term to decide on all aspects of OUSU's policy.
OUSU Council meetings take place in odd-numbered weeks of the University term. JCR Presidents get together in even-numbered weeks for meetings of Presidents' Committee. MCR Presidents get together up to three times a term for meetings of the MCR Presidents' Committee. Alternative names are sometimes used for college MCRs. Brasenose College has the "Hulme Common Room", University College has the "Weir Common Room", named in honour of college alumni. At Christ Church, St Antony's and Templeton the representative bodies for postgraduate students are called "Graduate Common Rooms" or "GCRs". At some graduate colleges such as Wolfson, St. Cross and Linacre College and fellows share a single, egalitarian Common Room. In addition, colleges sometimes have additional common rooms, such as the "Summer Common Room" at Magdalen College; these are sometimes, but not always, associated with a particular section of the student or academic body. At the University of Cambridge, most colleges have either common rooms or combination rooms, a tradition dating from the seventeenth century.
The same abbreviations, JCR, MCR, SCR are used for combination rooms. The JCR represents undergraduates, with postgraduate students being members of the Middle Combination Room. In some colleges, postgraduates are members of both the MCR and JCR: for example, at St John's, where the MCR is known as the Samuel Butler Room or at Peterhouse. Most colleges have an SCR. At Pembroke College the common rooms are called "parlours", such as the Junior Parlour and Graduate Parlour. At Jesus College, the JCR is known as "The Jesus College Students' Union", with its physical space being the Marshall Room. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge has both a JCR, MCR, SCR along with a Sidney Sussex College Students Union of which all students are members. JCRs and MCRs have elected committees to represent their interests within their colleges and in the central students' union. Cambridge University Students' Union; the committees are universally led by a President and a range of other elected positions to cover specific areas or interest or functions.
There is a great deal of variety between the colleges in terms of the role
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one person, as opposed to the Trinity which in many other branches of Christianity defines God as three persons in one being: the Father and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, he is a savior, but he was not a deity or God incarnate. Unitarianism does not constitute one single Christian denomination, but rather refers to a collection of both extant and extinct Christian groups, whether related to each other or not, which share a common theological concept of the oneness nature of God. While the uncompromising theological monotheism at the heart of Christian Unitarianism distinguishes it from the major Christian denominations which subscribe to Trinitarian theology, Christian Unitarianism is analogous to the more austere monotheistic understandings of God in Judaism, nearer to the concept of the oneness of God in Islam. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of original sin and the infallibility of the Bible.
Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, but few do today. Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism, depending on one's stance or viewpoint, some exclude it from that term due to its Nontrinitarian nature. Despite common origins during the Protestant Reformation, some scholars call it a part of Nontrinitarianism, while others consider it both Protestant and Nontrinitarian, seeing no contradiction between those two terms. None of the three views are universally accepted; the Unitarian movement is tied to the more radical critiques of the Reformation. First organized in Eastern Europe during the Reformation, Unitarian communities have developed in Britain, South Africa, Canada, the United States, Jamaica and Japan. Unitarians began simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians who took refuge in Poland. In the 17th century, significant repression in Poland led many Unitarians to flee or be killed for their faith, notably Katarzyna Weiglowa.
From the 16th to 18th centuries, Unitarians in Britain faced significant political persecution, including John Biddle, Mary Wollstonecraft, Theophilus Lindsey. In England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where today's British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In the United States, different schools of Unitarian theology first spread in New England and the mid-Atlantic states; the first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation in America was by King's Chapel in Boston, from where James Freeman began teaching Unitarian doctrine in 1784, was appointed rector and revised the prayer book according to Unitarian doctrines in 1786. In India, three different schools of Unitarian thought influenced varying movements, including the Brahmo Samaj, the Unitarian Church of the Khasi Hills, the Unitarian Christian Church of Chennai, in Madras, founded in 1795. Unitarians place emphasis on the ultimate role of reason in interpreting sacred scriptures, thus freedom of conscience and freedom of the pulpit are core values in the tradition.
Reformation is an ongoing process. Constant study and new experiences can lead to new insights for teachings and community practice. In varying contexts, Unitarians seek to affirm the use of reason in religion and freedom of conscience. In J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Unitarian tradition is classified among "the'liberal' family of churches". Unitarianism is a proper noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement; the term existed shortly before it became the name of a religious movement, thus it is used as a common noun that would describe any understanding of Jesus Christ that denies the Trinity or which believes that God is only one person. In that case, it would be a nontrinitarian belief system not associated with the Unitarian religious movement. For example, the Unitarian movement has never accepted the Godhood of Jesus, therefore does not include those nontrinitarian belief systems that do, such as Oneness Pentecostalism, United Pentecostal Church International and the True Jesus Church and the writings of Michael Servetus, all of which maintain that Jesus is God as a single person.
Although these groups are unitarians in the common sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement. For the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism; some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism. These have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement; the term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church but do not hold a Unitarian theological belief. In the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism. For example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship; as a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they
Charles Wellbeloved was an English Unitarian divine and archaeologist. Charles Wellbeloved, only child of John Wellbeloved, by his wife Elizabeth Plaw, was born in Denmark Street, St Giles, London, on 6 April 1769, baptised on 25 April at St. Giles-in-the-Fields. Owing to domestic unhappiness he was brought up from the age of four by his grandfather, Charles Wellbeloved, a country gentleman at Mortlake, Surrey, an Anglican, the friend and follower of John Wesley, he got the best part of his early education from a clergyman named Delafosse at Richmond. In 1783 he was placed with a firm of drapers on Holborn Hill, but only learned "how to tie up a parcel". In 1785 he became a student at Homerton Academy under Benjamin Davies. Among his fellow-students were William Field and David Jones. Jones was expelled for heresy in 1786. In September 1787 he followed Jones to New College, under Abraham Rees, the cyclopædist, Andrew Kippis, subsequently under Thomas Belsham and Gilbert Wakefield. Here he formed a close friendship with Arthur Aikin, who entered in 1789.
He attended the ministry of Richard Price. He married his wife Ann Kinder on 1 July 1793, at St. Mary's, Stoke Newington, with whom he had several children, their youngest son, Robert Wellbeloved, married heiress Sarah Scott on 17 February 1830 and assumed the name and arms of Scott on her father's death in 1832. Robert was a deputy-lieutenant for Worcestershire and M. P. for Walsall. His youngest daughter, married Sir James Carter, chief justice of New Brunswick. Wellbeloved's first sermon was preached at Walthamstow on 13 November 1791. Shortly afterwards he received through Michael Maurice, father of Frederick Denison Maurice, an invitation to become assistant to Newcome Cappe at St Saviourgate Chapel, York, he accepted on 23 January 1792, began his duties at York on 5 February. In 1801 he became sole minister on Cappe's death; the chief feature of his exegetical work was his treatment of prophecy, limiting the range of its prediction, confining that of Hebrew prophecy to the age of its production, bounding our Lord's predictions by the destruction of Jerusalem.
He broke with the Priestley school, rejecting a general resurrection and fixing the last judgment at death. In these and other points he followed the system of Newcome Cappe, but his careful avoidance of dogmatism left his pupils free, none of them followed him into ‘Cappism.’ Among his coadjutors were Theophilus Browne, William Turner and William Hincks. From 1810 he had the invaluable co-operation of John Kenrick, who married his elder daughter Lætitia. In 1794 he began to take pupils into a Sunday school he had founded, he was invited in November 1797 to succeed Thomas Barnes as divinity tutor in the Manchester academy. Barnes, an evangelical Arian, gave him no encouragement, but he did not reject the offer till February 1798. On Walker's resignation the trustees proposed to remove the institution to York if Wellbeloved would become its director, he agreed, from September 1803 to June 1840 the institution was known as Manchester College, which became Harris Manchester College, Oxford. Its management was retained by a committee.
For thirty-seven years Wellbeloved discharged the duties of the divinity chair in a spirit described by Dr. James Martineau, his pupil, as "candid and catholic and thorough", he followed the method which Richard Watson had introduced at Cambridge, discarding systematic theology and substituting biblical exegesis. Presentations of plate and of 1,000l were made to him on resigning his divinity chair, he retained his connection with his chapel until his death, officiating until 1853, having as assistants John Wright and Henry Vaughan Palmer. He died at his residence, York, on 29 August 1858, was buried in the graveyard of St. Saviourgate Chapel, his portrait, painted in 1826 by James Lonsdale, was engraved by Samuel Cousins. Proposals for editing a family bible were made to Wellbeloved by David Eaton a bookseller in Holborn in succession to William Vidler; the prospectus announced a revised translation with commentary. Between 1819 and 1838 nine parts were issued in large quarto, containing the Pentateuch, Psalms, Proverbs and Canticles.
The text was reprinted, with Wellbeloved's revised version of Joshua, Judges and the Minor Prophets, in ‘The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant,’ 1859–62, 3 vols. 8vo. In 1823 he took up a controversy, begun by Thomas Thrush, with Francis Wrangham Sydney Smith wrote: "If I had a cause to gain I would fee Mr. Wellbeloved to plead for me, double fee Mr. Wrangham to plead against me." As a sub-trustee of the Sarah Hewley Trust he was involved in the suit which removed Unitarians from its management and benefits. He was one of the founders of the York Subscription Library, the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, the York Institute, devoted much time to the archaeology of York, his archaeological work included excavation in advance of the construction of the Yorkshire Museum and Gardens, the history of, published in A Handbook to the Antiquties in the Grounds and Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. After the fire of 2 February 1829
Warrington Academy, active as a teaching establishment from 1756 to 1782, was a prominent dissenting academy, that is, a school or college set up by those who dissented from the established Church of England. It was located in Warrington. Formally dissolved in 1786, the funds remaining were applied to the founding of Manchester New College in Manchester, the Warrington Academy's successor, in time this led to the formation of Harris Manchester College, Oxford. A statue of Oliver Cromwell stands in front of the academy, it was called "the cradle of Unitarianism" by Arthur Aikin Brodribb writing in the Dictionary of National Biography, who went on to say that it: "formed during the twenty-nine years of its existence the centre of the liberal politics and the literary taste of the county of Lancashire". It was planned in 1753, to replace other training schools in northern England having funding from the English Presbyterians: Caleb Rotheram of the Kendal academy died in 1752, Ebenezer Latham of the Findern and Derby academy in 1754.
It was not, formally constituted till June 1757, when funds had been raised by John Seddon of Warrington. The first site was the Cairo Street Chapel. Three tutors were chosen initially: John Taylor taught divinity. Henry Willoughby was the first president of the academy. Soon a fourth tutor was appointed. On the death of Dr. Taylor, in 1761, Aikin became tutor in divinity, was succeeded in his old duties by Joseph Priestley. Among the other tutors who at some point joined the staff of the academy were Johann Reinhold Forster, William Enfield, George Walker, Nicholas Clayton, Gilbert Wakefield; the Academy hit difficulties, with falling rolls and financial problems leading to its closure in 1782. The disciplinary issues, coupled with unsettled debates over the principles of education, had led to a loss of confidence from the direction of the financial backers, it was formally dissolved in 1786, with the funds being divided in application to the successor Manchester Academy and the New College at Hackney, after a plan to amalgamate with the Daventry Academy of Thomas Belsham had come to nothing.
In 1981, the listed Academy building on Bridge Street was lifted from its foundations and moved 19m to the North. It was subsequently rebuilt with no original features retained; when the academy was dissolved in 1786, 393 pupils, many of whom entered the legal and medical professions, had been on the books. People associated with it include: StudentsThomas Barnes John Prior Estlin John Goodricke Samuel Heywood Thomas Malthus Thomas Percival Francis Peirson John Simpson StaffIn addition to those mentioned above: Joseph Priestley Gilbert Wakefield Anna Laetitia Barbauld and her brother John Aikin were the children of the tutor John AikinFinancial supportersThomas Bentley, Trustee William Russell P. O'Brien, Warrington Academy 1757-86, its predecessors & successors. Wigan: Owl Books ISBN 0-9514333-0-XAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Aikin, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Photograph of Warrington Academy, Edgar Fahs Smith Collection Schoenberg Center for Electronic Texts and Image, Accessed 05/10/2006
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
William Morris was a British textile designer, novelist and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production, his literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role propagating the early socialist movement in Britain. Morris was born in Essex to a wealthy middle-class family, he came under the strong influence of medievalism while studying Classics at Oxford University, there joining the Birmingham Set. After university, he trained as an architect, married Jane Burden, developed close friendships with Pre-Raphaelite artists Edward Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and with Neo-Gothic architect Philip Webb. Webb and Morris designed Red House in Kent where Morris lived from 1859 to 1865, before moving to Bloomsbury, central London. In 1861, Morris founded the Morris, Faulkner & Co decorative arts firm with Burne-Jones, Rossetti and others, which became fashionable and much in demand.
The firm profoundly influenced interior decoration throughout the Victorian period, with Morris designing tapestries, fabrics and stained glass windows. In 1875, he assumed total control of the company, renamed Morris & Co. Morris rented the rural retreat of Kelmscott Manor, Oxfordshire from 1871 while retaining a main home in London, he was influenced by visits to Iceland with Eiríkr Magnússon, he produced a series of English-language translations of Icelandic Sagas. He achieved success with the publication of his epic poems and novels, namely The Earthly Paradise, A Dream of John Ball, the Utopian News from Nowhere, the fantasy romance The Well at the World's End. In 1877, he founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings to campaign against the damage caused by architectural restoration, he embraced Marxism and was influenced by anarchism in the 1880s and became a committed revolutionary socialist activist. He founded the Socialist League in 1884 after an involvement in the Social Democratic Federation, but he broke with that organization in 1890.
In 1891, he founded the Kelmscott Press to publish limited-edition, illuminated-style print books, a cause to which he devoted his final years. Morris is recognised as one of the most significant cultural figures of Victorian Britain, he was best known in his lifetime as a poet, although he posthumously became better known for his designs. The William Morris Society founded in 1955 is devoted to his legacy, while multiple biographies and studies of his work have been published. Many of the buildings associated with his life are open to visitors, much of his work can be found in art galleries and museums, his designs are still in production. Morris was born at Elm House in Walthamstow, Essex, on 24 March 1834. Raised into a wealthy middle-class family, he was named after his father, a financier who worked as a partner in the Sanderson & Co. firm, bill brokers in the City of London. His mother was Emma Morris. Morris was the third of his parents' surviving children. Charles had been followed by the birth of two girls, Emma in 1829 and Henrietta in 1833, before William's birth.
These children were followed by the birth of siblings Stanley in 1837, Rendall in 1839, Arthur in 1840, Isabella in 1842, Edgar in 1844, Alice in 1846. The Morris family were followers of the evangelical Protestant form of Christianity, William was baptised four months after his birth at St. Mary's Church, Walthamstow; as a child, Morris was kept housebound at Elm House by his mother. Aged 6, Morris moved with his family to the Georgian Italianate mansion at Woodford Hall, Essex, surrounded by 50 acres of land adjacent to Epping Forest, he took an interest in fishing with his brothers as well as gardening in the Hall's grounds, spent much time exploring the Forest, where he was fascinated both by the Iron Age earthworks at Loughton Camp and Ambresbury Banks and by the Early Modern Hunting Lodge at Chingford. He took rides through the Essex countryside on his pony, visited the various churches and cathedrals throughout the country, marveling at their architecture, his father took him on visits outside of the county, for instance to Canterbury Cathedral, the Chiswick Horticultural Gardens, to the Isle of Wight, where he adored Blackgang Chine.
Aged 9, he was sent to Misses Arundale's Academy for Young Gentlemen, a nearby preparatory school. In 1847, Morris's father died unexpectedly. From this point, the family relied upon continued income from the copper mines at Devon Great Consols, sold Woodford Hall to move into the smaller Water House. In February 1848 Morris began his studies at Marlborough College in Marlborough, where he gained a reputation as an eccentric nicknamed "Crab", he despised his time there, being bullied and homesick. He did use the opportunity to visit many of the prehistoric sites of Wiltshire, such as Avebury and Silbury Hill, which fascinated him; the school was Anglican in faith and in March 1849 Morris was confirmed by the Bishop of Salisbury in the college chapel, developing an enthusiastic attraction towards the Anglo-Catholic movement and its Romanticist aesthetic. At Christmas 1851, Morris was removed from the school and returned to Water House, where he was tut