Harrow School

Harrow School is a public school for boys in Harrow, England. The School was founded in 1572 by John Lyon under a Royal Charter of Elizabeth I, is one of the original seven public schools that were regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. Harrow charges up with three terms per academic year. Harrow is the fourth most expensive boarding school in the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference; the school has an enrolment of 829 boys. It remains one of four all-boys, full-boarding schools in Britain, the others being Eton and Winchester. Harrow's uniform includes straw boater hats, top hats and canes, its alumni include eight former British or Indian Prime Ministers, foreign politicians and current members of both houses of the UK Parliament, five kings and several other members of various royal families, three Nobel Prize winners, twenty Victoria Cross and one George Cross holders, many figures in the arts and sciences. The school was founded in February 1572 under a Royal Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I to John Lyon, a wealthy local farmer.

The Charter described this as a re-endowment, there is some evidence of a grammar school at Harrow in the mid-16th century, but its location and connection with Lyon's foundation are unclear. Evidence for earlier schools connected with the chantry of St Mary, is weak. In the original charter, six governors were named, including two members of the Gerard family of Flambards, two members of the Page family of Wembley and Sudbury Court. Lyon died in 1592, leaving his assets to two causes: the lesser was the School, by far the greater beneficiary was the maintenance of a road to London, 10 miles away; the school owned and maintained this road for many years following Lyon's death, the whole school still runs along this 10-mile road in an event called "Long Ducker" every November, whilst some 6th formers opt to do 20 miles – to and from the Albert Memorial in London. It was only after the death of Lyon's wife in 1608 that the construction of the first school building began, it was completed in 1615 and remains to this day, however it is now much larger.

At first the primary subject taught was Latin, the only sport was archery. Both subjects were compulsory. Although most boys were taught for free, their tuition paid for by Lyon's endowment, there were a number of fee-paying "foreigners", it was their presence. By 1701 for every local there were two "foreign" pupils. By 1876 the ratio was so high that John Lyon Lower School was brought under the authority of the governors of the Upper School so that the School complied with its object of providing education for the boys of the parish, it is a prominent independent school. It maintains close links with Harrow; the majority of the school's boarding houses were constructed in Victorian times, when the number of boys increased dramatically. Between 1872 and 1877, a Speech Room was constructed to the designs of William Burges; the structure is a Grade II* listed building. The school war memorial, designed by Sir Robert Lorimer, was erected in 1917, marking the substantial loss of former pupils by that stage of the First World War.

The 20th century saw the innovation of a central dining hall, the demolition of small houses and further modernisation of the curriculum. There are about 850 boys boarding at Harrow. In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents, although the schools said that they had not realised that the change to the law about the sharing of information had subsequently made it an offence; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling £3,000,000 into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from anti-cartel rules applied to business, were following a long-established procedure in sharing the information with each other, that they were unaware of the change to the law.

Harrow has expanded overseas, opening additional schools in China. Boys at Harrow have two uniforms. Everyday dress, worn to most lessons, consists of a white shirt, black polyester tie, light grey trousers known as "greyers", black shoes, an optional blue jumper, a dark blue woollen uniform jacket known as a "bluer", the option of the School blue and white scarf and dark blue woollen overcoat similar to the bluer on cold days and the Harrow Hat erroneously called a boater, made of varnished straw with a dark blue band. Variations include boys who are monitors who are allowed to wear a jumper of their choice, members of certain societies who may earn the right to replace the standard school tie with one of a variety of scarves, cravats and bow ties. Sunday dress, worn every Sunday up to lunch and on special occasions such as Speech Day and songs, consists of black tailc


The.303/22, sometimes known as the.22/303 is a wildcat centrefire rifle cartridge, based on the.303 British, necked down to fire a.224 projectile, originating in Australia in the 1930s as a cartridge for sporterised rifles on the Lee–Enfield action, similar versions appeared in Canada around the same time. The.303/22 was popular for a number of reasons, one being that the.22 caliber was better suited to small game than the.303, the rifles were cheap and plentiful and in New South Wales ownership of military cartridges was restricted. Several versions existed, including the full length Falcon, the shortened Sprinter, the shorter Wasp, the Varmint-R and many others. Although Lee–Enfields were the most common, conversion of other rifles suited to rimmed cartridges such as P14 Enfield, Martini–Enfield, 1885 and 1895 Winchesters were seen, as well as 98 and 96 Mausers. Loaded ammunition and brass was produced by the Super Cartridge Company, Riverbrand, ICI and Sportco, some using new Boxer primed cases, others using military Berdan primed cases.

Cases can be formed by necking down.303 British brass available from Remington, Winchester, Sellier & Bellot and others. Reloading dies are made like RCBS, CH and Simplex. Variants 303/22 Wasp 1.097", 303/22 Varment R. 2.031", 303/22 Sprinter 2.100", 303/22 2.185", 303/22 Shannon 2.222", 303/22 Rocket unknown case length..303 British.303/25 Lee–Enfield List of rifle cartridges Sporterising.22-06

Piazza della Libertà, Rome

Piazza della Libertà is a square in the rione Prati in Rome. The square lies at the end of Ponte Regina Margherita on the right bank of the Tiber; the square consists of two green areas with flowerbeds. It dates back to the urbanization of the quarter, started in 1873 according to the so-called "Viviani Town-Plan"; the monuments of the square include a 20th-century sacred aedicula portraying the Virgin with the Child, a 19th-century monument to the dramatist Pietro Cossa and Casa De' Salvi, an apartment house built in 1930 by architect Pietro Aschieri. The square hosts the seats of the Fondazione Internazionale Irina Alberti and the Fondazione Gabriele Sandri. In this square, on January 9, 1900, a group of nine Roman boys - led by the young Bersaglieri petty officer and road runner Luigi Bigiarelli - made official the Polisportiva Società Sportiva Lazio; the founders, seated on a bench of the square, decided to found the Società Podistica Lazio and chose its name and colors. The square was the meeting point of the boys, after swimming, came up from Tiber through a little staircase.

The nine founders were Luigi Bigiarelli, his brother Giacomo, Alberto Mesones, Alceste Grifoni, Odoacre Aloisi, Galileo Massa, Arturo Balestrieri, Enrico Venier and Giulio Lefevre. On January 9, 2000, centenary of the establishment, a plaque has been uncovered in the square. Pennacchia, Mario. La Gazzetta dello Sport. "All'inizio era una società di podisti". P. 5. Retrieved 2010-01-17. "Piazza della Libertà, Roma". Retrieved 5 August 2012. "Fondazione Internazionale Irina Alberti". Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2012