Harry Bridges was an Australian-born American union leader, first with the International Longshoremen's Association. In 1937, he led several chapters in forming a new union, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, expanding members to workers in warehouses, led it for the next 40 years, he was prosecuted for his labor organizing and believed subversive status by the U. S. government during the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, with the goal of deportation. This was never achieved. Bridges became a naturalized citizen in 1945, his conviction by a federal jury for having lied about his Communist Party membership when seeking naturalization was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1953 as having been prosecuted untimely, outside the statute of limitations. His official power was reduced when the ILWU was expelled by the CIO in 1950, but he continued to be re-elected by the California membership and was influential until his retirement in 1977. Bridges was born Alfred Renton Bridges in Australia, he joined the Australian sailors' union.
He took the name Harry from an uncle, a socialist and an adventurer, much like Jack London, the writer who inspired young Bridges to go to sea. Bridges entered the United States in 1920, where his American colleagues nicknamed him "The Beak" for his prominent nose. In 1921, Bridges joined the Industrial Workers of the World, participating in an unsuccessful nationwide seamen's strike. While Bridges left the IWW shortly thereafter with doubts about the organization, his early experiences in the IWW and in Australian unions influenced his beliefs on militant unionism, based on rank and file power and involvement. Bridges left the sea for longshore work in San Francisco in 1922; the shipowners had created a company union after the International Longshoremen's Association local in San Francisco was destroyed by a strike it lost in 1919. Bridges resisted joining that union, finding casual work on the docks as a "pirate". After he joined the San Francisco local of the ILA and participated in a Labor Day parade in 1924, he was blacklisted for several years.
Bridges joined the company union in 1927 and worked as a winch operator and rigger on a steel-handling gang. The ILA renewed its efforts to reestablish itself on the West Coast, chartering a new local in San Francisco in 1933. With the passage that year of the National Industrial Recovery Act, which contained some encouraging but unenforceable provisions declaring that workers had the right to organize unions of their own choice, thousands of longshoremen joined the new ILA local. At the time Bridges was a member of a circle of longshoremen that came to be known as the "Albion Hall Group", after their meeting place, it attracted members from a variety of backgrounds: members of the Communist Party, trying to organize all longshoremen and other maritime workers into the Maritime Workers Industrial Union, as a revolutionary, industry-wide alternative to the ILA and other American Federation of Labor unions. This group had acquired some influence on the docks through its publication The Waterfront Worker, a mimeographed sheet sold for a penny that published articles written by longshoremen and seamen always under pseudonyms.
These articles focused on workers' day-to-day concerns: the pace of work, the weight of loads, abusive bosses, unsafe working conditions. While the first editions were published in the apartment of an MWIU member on a second-hand mimeograph machine, the paper remained independent of both the party and the MWIU. Although Bridges was sympathetic to much of the MWIU's program in 1933, he chose to join the new ILA local; when the local held elections and fellow members of the Albion Hall group made up a majority of the executive board and held two of the three business agents positions. The Albion Hall Group stressed the self-help tactics of syndicalism, urging workers to organize by taking part in strikes and slowdowns, rather than depending on governmental assistance under the NIRA, it campaigned for membership participation in the new ILA local, which had not bothered to hold any membership meetings. The group started laying the groundwork for organizing on a coastwide basis, meeting with activists from Portland and Seattle, Washington and organizing a federation of all of the different unions that represented maritime workers.
Under Bridges' leadership, the group organized a successful 5-day strike in October 1933 to force Matson Navigation Company to reinstate four longshoremen it had fired for wearing ILA buttons on the job. Longshoremen at other ports threatened to refuse to handle Matson cargo unless the company rehired the four men. Early in 1934, Bridges and the Albion Hall group and militants in other ports began planning a coast-wide strike; the Roosevelt administration tried to head off the strike by appointing a mediation board to oversee negotiations, but neither side accepted its proposed compromise. Bridges was elected chairman of the strike committee; the strike began on May 9. While the elected local officers were the nominal leaders of the strike at its outset, Bridges led the planning of the strike along with his friend Sam Kagel, they recruited rank-and-file opposition to the two proposed contracts that the leadership negotiated and the membership rejected during the strike, the dealings with other unions during related events.
A four-day San Francisco General strike
The Daniel Angell House is an historic house at 15 Dean Avenue in Johnston, Rhode Island, United States. The oldest portion of this 1-1/2 story wood frame structure was built c. 1725, although it was long attributed to Daniel Angell. The house has an irregular front facade, seven bays wide, with two doors occupying the third and fifth bays; the western part the oldest portion of the house, has a large chimney centered on five bays. The unusual construction practices used in the house's construction, as well its remarkable state of preservation, make it a valuable resource in the study of Rhode Island colonial architecture; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence County, Rhode Island
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Kingdom of Sweden has been a monarchy since time immemorial. An elective monarchy, it became an hereditary monarchy in the 16th century during the reign of Gustav Vasa, though all monarchs before that belonged to a limited and small number of families which are considered to be the royal dynasties of Sweden. Sweden in the present day is a representative democracy in a parliamentary system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Instrument of Government; the monarch and the members of the royal family undertake a variety of official and other representational duties within Sweden and abroad. Carl XVI Gustaf became king on 15 September 1973 on the death of Gustaf VI Adolf. Scandinavian peoples have had kings since prehistoric times; as early as the 1st century CE, Tacitus wrote that the Suiones had a king, but the order of Swedish regnal succession up until King Eric the Victorious, is known exclusively through accounts in controversial Norse sagas.
The Swedish king had combined powers limited to that of a war chief, a judge and a priest at the Temple at Uppsala. However, there are thousands of runestones commemorating commoners, but no known chronicle about the Swedish kings prior to the 14th century, there is a small number of runestones that are thought to mention kings: Gs 11, U 11 and U 861. About 1000 A. D. the first king known to rule both Svealand and Götaland was Olof Skötkonung, but further history for the next two centuries is obscure, with many kings whose tenures and actual influence/power remains unclear. The Royal Court of Sweden, does count Olof's father, Eric the Victorious, as Sweden's first king; the power of the king was strengthened by the introduction of Christianity during the 11th century, the following centuries saw a process of consolidation of power into the hands of the king. The Swedes traditionally elected a king from a favored dynasty at the Stones of Mora, the people had the right to elect the king as well as to depose him.
The ceremonial stones were destroyed around 1515. In the 12th century, the consolidation of Sweden was still affected by dynastic struggles between the Erik and Sverker clans, which ended when a third clan married into the Erik clan and the House of Bjelbo was established on the throne; that dynasty formed pre-Kalmar Union Sweden into a strong state, king Magnus IV ruled Norway and Scania. Following the Black Death, the union weakened, Scania reunited with Denmark. In 1397, after the Black Death and domestic power struggles, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Sweden and Norway in the Union of Kalmar with the approval of the Swedish nobility. Continual tension within each country and the union led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century; the union's final disintegration in the early 16th century led to prolonged rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden for centuries to come. Catholic bishops had supported the King of Denmark, Christian II, but he was overthrown in a rebellion led by nobleman Gustav Vasa, whose father had been executed at the Stockholm bloodbath.
Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523. Inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther, Gustav I used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1527 he persuaded the Estates of the Realm, assembled in the city of Västerås, to confiscate church lands, which comprised 21% of the country's farmland. At the same time, he broke with the papacy and established a reformed state church: the Church of Sweden. Throughout his reign, Gustav I suppressed both aristocratic and peasant opposition to his ecclesiastical policies and efforts at centralisation, which to some extent laid the foundation for the modern Swedish unitary state. Sweden has only been a hereditary monarchy since 1544 when the Riksdag of the Estates, through Västerås arvförening, designated the sons of King Gustav I as the heirs to the Throne. Tax reforms took place in 1538 and 1558, whereby multiple complex taxes on independent farmers were simplified and standardised throughout the district and tax assessments per farm were adjusted to reflect ability to pay.
Crown tax revenues increased, but more the new system was perceived as fairer. A war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who had had a monopoly on foreign trade. With its own burghers in charge, Sweden's economic strength grew and by 1544 Gustav controlled 60% of the farmlands in all of Sweden. Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and an efficient bureaucracy. At the death of King Gustav I in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric XIV, his reign was marked by Sweden's entrance into the Northern Seven Years' War. The combination of Eric's developing mental disorder and his opposition to the aristocracy led to the Sture Murders in 1567 and the imprisonment of his brother John, married to Catherine Jagiellon, sister of King Sigismund II of Poland
Wizards is a supplement for fantasy role-playing games published by Mayfair Games in 1983. Wizards consists of six scenarios for midlevel characters, each involving a might wizard of myth or fiction: Gilgamesh, Circe, Lynn Abbey's Morgan LeFay, Roger Zelazny's Shadowjack, Gordon R. Dickson's S. Carolinus, Robert Lynn Asprin's Aahz and Skeeve, Marion Zimmer Bradley's Lythande; the book includes introductions by Abbey, Dickson and Bradley. Wizards was edited by Bill Fawcett, with a cover by Tim White, was published by Mayfair Games in 1983 as a 112-page book. After the publication of Dwarves, the fourth Role Aids supplement, Mayfair Games published additional AD&D Role Aids supplements and in volume; the line featured many adventures as well as an increasing number of source books, including race- and class-related books like Dark Folk and Elves. Each product proclaimed its use with AD&D. Robert Dale reviewed Wizards for White Dwarf #57, giving the book a rating of 6 out of 10 overall. After giving poor ratings to Elves and Dark Folk, he commented that "Fortunately for my blood pressure, Wizards is a much better book.
It suffers from the same appalling presentation, but succeeds in spite of itself." He comments how "I have not come across a more effective translation of literature into FRP, I enjoyed reading some of the scenarios which speaking, captured the atmosphere of the novels they drew from. The stories are well thought-out (especially Gilgamesh( have reasonably objectives and credible characterisations. I did take exception to the hybrid Dark Age and Chivalric background to the Arthurian adventure, for the justification of the action was inconsistent with the plot. Accepting this however, The Pillar of Clinschor plays well enough." Dale went on to say, "I retain mixed feelings about Wizards on the grounds that though there is material in the book for several evenings play, there will be problems integrating the differing scenarios into any long-term campaign, the book therefore lacks unity Wizards succeeds on its own terms, to some extent, despite the presentation, but it is of limited value otherwise."
Port wine is a Portuguese fortified wine produced with distilled grape spirits in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is a sweet, red wine served as a dessert wine, though it comes in dry, semi-dry, white varieties. Fortified wines in the style of port are produced outside Portugal, including in Argentina, Canada, India, South Africa and the United States. Under European Union Protected Designation of Origin guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labelled as port or Porto. In the United States, wines labelled "port" may come from anywhere in the world, while the names "Oporto", "Porto", "Vinho do Porto" have been recognized as foreign, non-generic names for port wines originating in Portugal. Port is produced from grapes processed in the demarcated Douro region; the wine produced is fortified by the addition of a neutral grape spirit known as aguardente to stop the fermentation, leaving residual sugar in the wine, to boost the alcohol content. The fortification spirit is sometimes referred to as brandy, but it bears little resemblance to commercial brandies.
The wine is stored and aged in barrels stored in a Lodge as is the case in Vila Nova de Gaia, before being bottled. The wine received its name, "port", in the latter half of the 17th century from the seaport city of Porto at the mouth of the Douro River, where much of the product was brought to market or for export to other countries in Europe; the Douro valley where port wine is produced was defined and established as a protected region, the name Douro thus an official appellation, in 1756, making it the third oldest, after Chianti and Tokaj. The reaches of the valley of the Douro River in northern Portugal have a microclimate, optimal for cultivation of olives and grapes important for making port wine; the region around Pinhão and São João da Pesqueira is considered to be the centre of port production, is known for its picturesque quintas – estates clinging on to vertical slopes dropping down to the river. The demarcation of the Douro River Valley includes a broad swath of land of pre-Cambrian schist and granite.
Beginning around the village of Barqueiros, the valley extends eastward to the Spanish border. The region is protected from the influences of the Atlantic Ocean by the Serra do Marão mountains; the area is sub-divided into three official zones: the Baixo Corgo, the Cima Corgo and the Douro Superior. Baixo Corgo – The westernmost zone located downstream from the river Corgo, centred on the municipality of Peso da Régua; this region is the wettest port production zone, receiving an annual average 900 millimetres of precipitation, has the coolest average temperature of the three zones. The grapes grown here are used for the production of inexpensive ruby and tawny ports. Cima Corgo – Located upstream from the Baixo Corgo, this region is centred on the town of Pinhão; the summertime average temperature of the region is a few degrees higher, annual rainfall is about 200 millimetres less. The grapes grown in this zone are considered of higher quality, being used in bottlings of Vintage, aged Tawny and Late Bottled Vintage Ports.
Douro Superior – The easternmost zone, extending to the Spanish border. This is the least cultivated region of Douro, due in part to the difficulties of navigating the river past the rapids of Cachão da Valeira; this is the most warmest region of the Douro. The overall terrain is flat, with the potential for mechanization. Over a hundred varieties of grapes are sanctioned for port production, although only five are cultivated and used. Touriga Nacional is considered the most desirable port grape but the difficulty in growing it and the small yields cause Touriga Francesa to be the most planted grape. White ports are produced the same way as red ports, except that they use white grapes – Donzelinho Branco, Esgana-Cão, Folgasão, Malvasia Fina and Viosinho. While a few shippers have experimented with Ports produced from a single variety of grapes, all Ports commercially available are from a blend of different grapes. Since the Phylloxera crisis, most vines are grown on grafted rootstock, with the notable exception of the Nacional area of Quinta do Noval, since being planted in 1925, has produced some of the most expensive vintage ports.
Grapes grown for port are characterized by their small, dense fruit which produce concentrated and long-lasting flavours, suitable for long ageing. While the grapes used to produce port made in Portugal are regulated by the Instituto do Vinho do Porto, wines from outside this region which describe themselves as port may be made from other varieties. In 2013, there were 8.7 million cases of port sold, 3.6% less than the previous year, at a value of $499 million. Port sales are down 16 % from that year. Declining sales are attributed by some to increasing prices, due to the increased cost of alcohol used in the production process. Declining sales have been attributed to the global rise in alcohol levels of table wines; as of 2014, the leading brand in Portugal is Cálem. Port is produced from grapes grown in the Douro valley; until 1986 it could only be exported from Portugal from Vila Nova de Gaia near Porto, Portugal's second-largest city. Traditionally, the w
Building block is a term in chemistry, used to describe a virtual molecular fragment or a real chemical compound the molecules of which possess reactive functional groups. Building blocks are used for bottom-up modular assembly of molecular architectures: nano-particles, metal-organic frameworks, organic molecular constructs, supra-molecular complexes. Using building blocks ensures strict control of what a final compound or a molecular construct will be. In medicinal chemistry, the term defines either imaginable, virtual molecular fragments or chemical reagents from which drugs or drug candidates might be constructed or synthetically prepared. Virtual building blocks are used in drug discovery for drug design and virtual screening, addressing the desire to have controllable molecular morphologies that interact with biological targets. Of special interest for this purpose are the building blocks common to known biologically active compounds, in particular, known drugs, or natural products. There are algorithms for de novo design of molecular architectures by assembly of drug-derived virtual building blocks.
Organic functionalized molecules selected for the use in modular synthesis of novel drug candidates, in particular, by combinatorial chemistry, or in order to realize the ideas of virtual screening and drug design are called building blocks. To be useful for the modular drug or drug candidate assembly, the building blocks should be either mono-functionalised or possessing selectively chemically addressable functional groups, for example, orthogonally protected. Selection criteria applied to organic functionalized molecules to be included in the building block collections for medicinal chemistry are based on empirical rules aimed at drug-like properties of the final drug candidates. Bioisosteric replacements of the molecular fragments in drug candidates could be made using analogous building blocks; the building block approach to drug discovery changed the landscape of chemical industry which supports medicinal chemistry. Major chemical suppliers for medicinal chemistry like Maybridge, Enamine adjusted their business correspondingly.
By the end of the 1990th the use of building block collections prepared for fast and reliable construction of small-molecule sets of compounds for biological screening became one of the major strategies for pharmaceutical industry involved in drug discovery. There are online web-resources. Typical examples of building block collections for medicinal chemistry are libraries of fluorine-containing building blocks. Introduction of the fluorine into a molecule has been shown to be beneficial for its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the fluorine-substituted building blocks in drug design increase the probability of finding drug leads. Other examples include natural and unnatural amino acid libraries, collections of conformationally constrained bifunctionalized compounds and diversity-oriented building block collections