Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Germany. It is a university town and regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg, it is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area. After Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city, founded in 15 BC by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum, named after the Roman emperor Augustus, it was a Free Imperial City from 1276 to 1803 and the home of the patrician Fugger and Welser families that dominated European banking in the 16th century. The city played a leading role in the Reformation as the site of the 1530 Augsburg Confession and 1555 Peace of Augsburg; the Fuggerei, the oldest social housing complex in the world, was founded in 1513 by Jakob Fugger. Augsburg lies on the Singold; the oldest part of the city and the southern quarters are on the northern foothills of a high terrace, which emerged between the steep rim of the hills of Friedberg in the east and the high hills of the west.
In the south extends the Lechfeld, an outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats. On Augsburg borders the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland; the city itself is heavily greened. As a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europe's greenest and most livable city. Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west and Aichach-Friedberg in the east; the Suburb are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Neusäß, Diedorf Neighbouring municipalities:Rehling, Kissing, Merching, Gessertshausen The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, on the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. The name means "Augusta of the Vindelici"; this garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia.
Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire because of its excellent military and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages. Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity. Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on March 9, 1276 and from until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights and freedoms of Catholics. With its strategic location at an intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City became a major trading center.
Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers; the Fugger family donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today. In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population. Religious peace in the city was maintained despite increasing Confessional tensions until the Thirty Years' War. In 1629, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552 and again curtailed the rights of the Protestant citizens; the inequality of the Edict of Restitution was rescinded when in April 1632, the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus captured Augsburg without resistance.
In 1634, the Swedish army was routed at nearby Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg; the Swedish garrison refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. According to J. N. Hays, "In the period of the Swedish occupation and the Imperial siege the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000, with typhus and plague playing major roles." In 1686, Emperor Leopold I formed the League of Augsburg, termed by the English as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689: a European coalition, consisting of Austria, Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Savoy, Spain and the United Provinces. It was formed to defend the Palatinate from France; this organization fought against France in the Nine Years War. Augsburg's peak boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser, who held a local near total monopoly on their respective industries.
Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons and became a creative centre for famous painters and musicia
Sunnydale is the fictional setting for the U. S. television drama Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Series creator Joss Whedon conceived the town as a representation of a generic California city, as well as a narrative parody of the all-too-serene towns typical in traditional horror films. Sunnydale is located on a "Hellmouth". Sunnydale's size and surroundings are implausible but justified given its origins — to sustain a human population for supernatural evils to prey upon; the town's founder spared no expense to attract a populace, Sunnydale thus contains many elements of a large city — which the show's writers utilized for comic effect and narrative convenience. During the first three seasons, Sunnydale is shown to have 38,500 inhabitants few high schools, forty-three churches, a small private college, a zoo, a museum, one modest main street. So, it has twelve gothic cemeteries; these cemeteries are so used that services are sometimes held at night. Sunnydale is divided into five neighborhoods; the first is the entertainment district which contains the Bronze, Sunnydale's nightclub, which attracts some well-known artists despite a clientele consisting of high-school kids.
The second is the alleys directly behind Bronze which contain the town's excess supply of pallets and cardboard. The high school makes the third neighborhood; the fourth neighborhood is filled in its entirety by the large graveyard, lastly the suburban residential sprawl is the final neighborhood. The abundance of nice homes is made possible by low property values caused by frequent murder. In seasons it is revealed that Sunnydale contains a campus of the University of California system, as well as a profitable magic supply shop; the town is seen to include a large park containing a creek and a lake, one of its cemeteries is shown to be adjacent to a lake. Sunnydale has a number of parks: Weatherly Park, Glebe Park, Radcliff Park and Nelson Park are just some of the examples. Sunnydale has a train station, a bus station, a small airport, a small military base. There is a seaport with a harbor deep enough to allow the docking of coastal freighters. Directly beneath Sunnydale High School is a Hellmouth, a subterranean, mystical portal that attracts evil forces.
This functions as a major plot device in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, as it explains why vampires and other demons are so prevalent in Sunnydale. Sunnydale possesses many common horror-movie characteristics, such as an abundance of dark alleyways, abandoned mansions and factories, an adult population, either clueless or perpetually in denial, in stark contrast to the demon-fighting, supernaturally aware teens. By the show's seventh season, set in 2002–03, the city's population had fallen to 32,900. In the spring, the town is completely evacuated. Sunnydale has a somewhat isolated location; the town is situated near several acres including Miller's Woods. Breaker's Woods is a 45-minute drive from town. Sunnydale is located near the Pacific Ocean. An ocean port with several docked ships is nearby. Kingman's Bluff stands on a tall cliff overlooking the sea. There is a beach not too far away. Close to or in Sunnydale is an old quarry house built beside a deep lake, located a few feet from a cliff edge. In addition, there is a hydroelectric dam in the vicinity of Sunnydale.
Within a day's drive of Sunnydale is a desert. It is stated several times that Sunnydale is two hours' drive north of Los Angeles. In the final episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, in the first issue of the Buffy: Season Eight comic book, Sunnydale is depicted being surrounded by desert terrain; the episode "Pangs" reveals that Sunnydale is in the former homeland of the Chumash people, the area northwest of Los Angeles, centered on Santa Barbara County. The episode references a lost Spanish mission, which might be a reference to a historical mission located near Point Conception, destroyed by an earthquake and relocated inland; the episode "Shadow" contains a telephone directory ad for the Magic Box, which uses an 805 area code. This would indicate that Sunnydale is located in Santa Barbara County, or Ventura County or San Luis Obispo County. Maps of Sunnydale have appeared at various times during the show: A large map of "Sunnydale County" hangs on the wall of Principal Snyder's office and on the wall of Mayor Wilkins' office.
This is a map of Santa Barbara County, California with the words "Sunnydale County" superimposed on it. According to this map, Sunnydale is located at a bend on the California coast. To the south and west of Sunnydale is the Pacific Ocean. Joss Whedon stated in November 1998 that "Sunnydale is in fact near Santa Barbara." Giles uses a street map of Santa Barbara as a map of Sunnydale when he is plotting sightings of the Initiative commandos in the series' fourth season. A street map of central Sunnydale is used by the Scooby Gang twice in the seventh season. In the seventh season, Andrew draws a map of Sunnydale to track the First's activities; the general shape of the coastline matches the map used in season three. According to Andrew's map, there are woods between Sunnydale and the ocean to the west and to the south, directly southeast of the town, at the location where the coast bends, there is a dark forest. There are woods to the east of Sunnydale, as well as railroad tracks. Various southern California locations are used as stand-ins for Sunnydale: The exterior shots, some interior shots, of Buffy's home are of an actual home located in Torrance.
The exterior shots of Sunnydale High School are of
San Francisco Ballet
San Francisco Ballet is a ballet company, founded in 1933 as the San Francisco Opera Ballet under the leadership of ballet master Adolph Bolm. The company is based in the War Memorial Opera House, San Francisco, under the direction of Helgi Tomasson. San Francisco Ballet was the first professional ballet company in the United States, it is among the world's leading dance companies, presenting more than 100 performances annually, with a repertoire that spans both classical and contemporary ballet. Along with American Ballet Theatre and the New York City Ballet, San Francisco Ballet has been described as part of the "triumvirate of great classical companies defining the American style on the world stage today". Willam Christensen, Harold Christensen, Lew Christensen made up the famed trio of brothers considered by many to have done more than anyone else to establish ballet in the United States. Born into an artistic and musical family, the three brothers studied folk dance and ballet from early ages and went on to tour the famous vaudeville Orpheum Circuit during the 1920s and 1930s, exposing many Americans to ballet for the first time with their act "The Christ Brothers".
As vaudeville faded from American popular culture and Lew joined George Balanchine's new company, American Ballet, in 1935. In 1932, Willam formed a ballet school in Oregon, he became the company's ballet master and choreographer in 1938. With his brother Harold, he purchased the company from the Opera in 1942, renaming it San Francisco Ballet. In 1951, Willam retired as director of SF Ballet and moved to Utah, where he started teaching ballet in the country’s first university ballet department at the University of Utah. With a group of his students, he founded the Utah Civic Ballet in 1963. Under Balanchine's tutelage at American Ballet, Lew Christensen became the first American-born danseur noble; the United States Army drafted Christensen to fight in World War II. After the war ended, he joined Balanchine's and Lincoln Kirstein's Ballet Society becoming ballet master. In 1951, he joined his brother Willam as co-director of San Francisco Ballet; when Willam moved to Salt Lake City that year, Lew took over as full director of SF Ballet.
Lew Christensen remained SF Ballet co-director until 1984, the year of his death. After leaving the vaudeville circuit in 1935, Harold Christensen danced with American Ballet, San Francisco Opera Ballet, Kirstein's Ballet Caravan, San Francisco Ballet until his retirement from the stage in 1946. In 1940, his brother Willam invited him to become director of the San Francisco Ballet School, in 1942 he and Willam purchased the SF Ballet. Harold continued to serve as the school's director until his retirement in 1975. In 1938, the company's first major production was Coppélia, choreographed by Willam Christensen. In 1940, it staged Swan Lake, the first time that the ballet was produced in its entirety by an American company. On Christmas Eve 1944, the company staged Nutcracker—the first complete production of Tchaikovsky's most popular piece danced in the United States. In 1942, San Francisco Opera Ballet split into two independent companies and opera; the ballet half was sold to Harold Christensen.
Willam became artistic director, while Harold took on the job of director of the San Francisco Ballet School. The San Francisco Ballet Guild was formed as a support organization for San Francisco Ballet; the year 1951 marked a significant shift in administration of San Francisco Ballet. Lew Christensen—premier danseur at the time—partnered with his brother Willam Christensen as co-directors. In 1952, Lew Christensen took over as sole director. Under his guidance, San Francisco Ballet began to travel and establish itself as a significant American ballet company; until 1956, San Francisco Ballet had remained on the West Coast, but Christensen took the company to the Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival in Massachusetts. In 1957, it was the first American ballet company to tour the Far East, performing in 11 Asian nations. On New Year's Day 1965, ABC-TV televised a one-hour abridgement of the Lew Christensen-choreographed production of Nutcracker featuring San Francisco Ballet. In 1972, San Francisco's War Memorial Opera House was named the official residence of San Francisco Ballet.
In 1973, Michael Smuin became co-artistic director of San Francisco Ballet with Lew Christensen. Under his direction, the national and international profile of SF Ballet was raised by the broad success of productions such as 1977's Romeo and Juliet, which aired on the PBS series Great Performances: Dance in America in 1978; this televised performance marked the first time that a West Coast ballet company, a full-length ballet, was shown on the PBS TV series. PBS televised three more of Smuin's SF Ballet productions, his productions of The Tempest and A Song for Dead Warriors went on to win Emmy Awards. Smuin led the company until 1985. Helgi Tomasson's 1985 arrival as artistic director marked the beginning of a new era for San Francisco Ballet. Under Tomasson's direction, San Francisco Ballet has been recognized as one of the most innovative ballet companies in the world due to its early and frequent commissioning of new works by aspiring choreographers around the globe, the breadth of its repertory—spanning classical ballet, neoclassical ballet, contemporary ballet—and the diversity of its company members.
The Financial Times noted
The West Wing
The West Wing is an American serial political drama television series created by Aaron Sorkin, broadcast on NBC from September 22, 1999, to May 14, 2006. The series is set in the West Wing of the White House, where the Oval Office and offices of presidential senior staff are located, during the fictitious Democratic administration of Josiah Bartlet; the West Wing was produced by Warner Bros. Television and featured an ensemble cast, including Martin Sheen, John Spencer, Allison Janney, Rob Lowe, Bradley Whitford and Richard Schiff. For the first four seasons, there were three executive producers: Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells. After Sorkin left the series, Wells assumed the role of head writer, with executive producers being directors Alex Graves and Christopher Misiano, writers Lawrence O'Donnell Jr. and Peter Noah. The West Wing is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential television series, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as, Time, TV Guide, Rolling Stone, the New York Daily News.
The Writers Guild of America ranked. It has received praise from critics, political science professors, former White House staffers and has been the subject of critical analysis; the West Wing received a multitude of accolades, including two Peabody Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, 26 Primetime Emmy Awards, including the award for Outstanding Drama Series, which it won four consecutive times from 2000–2003. The show's ratings waned in years following the departure of series creator Sorkin after the fourth season, yet it remained popular among high-income viewers, a key demographic for the show and its advertisers, with around 16 million viewers; the West Wing employed a broad ensemble cast to portray the many positions involved in the daily work of the federal government. The President, the First Lady, the President's senior staff and advisers form the core cast. Numerous secondary characters, appearing intermittently, complement storylines that revolve around this core group. Josiah "Jed" Bartlet is the President of the United States.
An economist by training, he is a former Congressman and Governor from New Hampshire who unexpectedly won the Democratic Party nomination. He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a fact he hides from the electorate, he is succeeded by Matt Santos. Leo McGarry is Chief of Staff. Following a heart attack, he becomes Counselor to the President, the Democratic Candidate for Vice President, he dies before assuming office. Josh Lyman is the Deputy Chief of Staff to Leo McGarry. Josh leaves the White House to become the "Santos for President" campaign manager; when Santos is elected, Josh becomes White House Chief of Staff. Toby Ziegler is the Communications Director, where he wrote many of Bartlet's speeches, including both Inaugural Addresses and many State of the Union Addresses, he is fired from the Bartlet administration during a leak investigation, though he is pardoned for his crimes at series' end. He has twin children with his ex-wife, a congresswoman from Maryland. Sam Seaborn is the Deputy Communications Director to Toby Ziegler.
In his time at the White House, Sam is responsible for writing many of Bartlet's speeches. He departs the White House following the re-election of President Bartlet to run for Congress, he is recruited to become Santos' Deputy Chief of Staff at the series end. C. J. Cregg is the Press Secretary, she succeeds Leo McGarry as Chief of Staff and departs the White House at the end of the Bartlet administration. Post-series, she has a child. Charlie Young is the Personal Aide to the President and a Deputy Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, he is in a relationship with Zoey Bartlet. At the series end he begins to study law at Georgetown. Donna Moss is the Senior Assistant to Josh Lyman, she departs to be a spokesperson for the Russell campaign and the Santos campaign. Upon Santos' election, she becomes Chief of Staff to the First Lady. Abbey Bartlet is the First Lady, Jed's wife, a physician.. Mandy Hampton is Josh Lyman's ex-girlfriend and a media consultant contracted by the Bartlet administration.
She departs without explanation following the first season. Will Bailey is hired as a speechwriter and transitions into the role of Deputy Communications Director, he becomes Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Russell's Campaign Manager, Communications Director. After the series end he becomes a congressman for Oregon. Kate Harper is the Deputy National Security Advisor. Matt Santos is a Congressman from Texas, convinced by Josh Lyman to run for President, he wins the nomination and the election.. Arnold Vinick is a Senator from California. After his loss in the general election, he is appointed Secretary of State by President-elect Santos. Annabeth Schott (Kristin Chenowet
Cats is a sung-through musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot; the musical tells the story of a tribe of cats called the Jellicles and the night they make what is known as the "Jellicle choice" and decide which cat will ascend to the Heaviside Layer and come back to a new life. Directed by Trevor Nunn and choreographed by Gillian Lynne, Cats first opened in the West End in 1981 and with the same creative team on Broadway in 1982, it won numerous awards, including Best Musical at both the Laurence Olivier Awards and the Tony Awards. By 1994, the musical had grossed over $2 billion worldwide; the London production ran for 21 years and the Broadway production ran for 18 years, both setting new records. Actresses Elaine Paige and Betty Buckley became associated with the musical; the most well-known song from Cats, "Memory", has been recorded by more than 150 recording artists. Cats was the longest-running Broadway show in history from 1997 until 2006 when it was surpassed by The Phantom of the Opera.
As of 2018, it is the fourth-longest-running Broadway show and the sixth-longest-running West End show. Cats has been performed around the world many times and has been translated into more than 20 languages; the Japanese production by the Shiki Theatre Company has performed over 10,000 shows since it first opened in 1983. The musical was adapted into a direct-to-video film in 1998, with a 2019 film adaptation by Tom Hooper set to follow. After the overture, the cats explain the Jellicle tribe and its purpose; the cats notice that they are being watched by a human audience, proceed to explain how the different cats of the tribe are named. This is followed by a ballet dance performed by Victoria the White Cat to signal the beginning of the Jellicle Ball. At this moment, the show's main narrator, explains that tonight the Jellicle patriarch Old Deuteronomy will make an appearance and choose one of the cats to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer; the first contender Munkustrap introduces is Jennyanydots, a large tabby cat who lazes around all day, but come nighttime, she becomes active, teaching mice and cockroaches various activities to curb their destructive habits.
Just as Jennyanydots finishes her song, the music changes hence Munkustrap's annoying younger brother, Rum Tum Tugger, makes his extravagant entrance in front of the tribe. He is fickle and unappeasable, "for he will do as he do do, there's no doing anything about it"; as Rum Tum Tugger's song fades, a shabby old grey cat stumbles out wanting to be reconciled. All the cats explain her unfortunate state. Grizabella leaves and the music changes to a cheerful upbeat number as Bustopher Jones, a fat cat in "a coat of fastidious black", is brought to the stage. Bustopher Jones is among the elite of the cats, visits prestigious gentlemen's clubs. A loud crash startles the tribe and the cats run offstage in fright. Hushed giggling sounds signal the entrance of Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer, a pair of near-identical cats, they are petty burglars mischievous, they enjoy causing trouble around their human neighbourhood. After they finish, they are confronted by the rest of the cats; the Jellicle patriarch, Old Deuteronomy, arrives before the tribe.
He is a large old cat that "has lived many lives" and "buried nine wives". He is the cat; the Jellicles put on a play for Old Deuteronomy, telling a story about two dog tribes clashing in the street and subsequently being scared away by the Great Rumpus Cat. After a moral from Old Deuteronomy about the destiny of Jellicle cats and Pollicle dogs, a second loud crash from Macavity, sends the alarmed cats scurrying. After a quick patrol for Macavity, Old Deuteronomy deems it a false alarm and summons the cats back as the main celebration begins, in which the cats sing and display their "Terpsichorean powers". During the Ball, Grizabella reappears and tries to dance along, but her age and decrepit condition prevent her from doing so. Once again, she is shunned by the other cats. After the Jellicle Ball, Old Deuteronomy contemplates "what happiness is". However, the cats do not understand him, so he has Jemima, the youngest of all Jellicles, sing it in simpler terms. Gus — short for Asparagus — shuffles forward as the next cat to be introduced.
He was once a famous actor but is now old and "suffers from palsy which makes his paws shake." He is accompanied by his caretaker, who tells of his exploits. Gus remembers how he once played the infamous pirate captain, Growltiger a.k.a. the Terror of the Thames. Gus tells the story about the pirate captain's romance with Lady Griddlebone, how Growltiger was overtaken by the Siamese and forced to walk the plank to his death. Back in the present, after Gus exits, Skimbleshanks is seen sleeping in the corner, he is the cat, unofficially in charge of the night train to Glasgow. Sk
Monty Python's Spamalot is a musical comedy adapted from the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Like the motion picture, it is a irreverent parody of the Arthurian legend, but it differs from the film in many ways; the original 2005 Broadway production, directed by Mike Nichols, received 14 Tony Awards nominations, winning in three categories, including Best Musical. During its initial run of 1,575 performances, it was seen by more than two million people and grossed over $175 million. A recording encourages members of the audience to "let your cellphones and pagers ring willy-nilly," and comments that they should "be aware there are armed knights on stage that may drag you on stage and impale you." This was recorded by Eric Idle. A historian narrates a brief overview of medieval England. In a miscommunication between the actors and the narrator, the actors sing an introductory song about Finland; the Historian returns and tells the frolicking Finns that he was talking about England, not Finland.
The scene changes to a dreary, dark village with penitent monks in hooded robes chanting Latin and hitting themselves with books. King Arthur travels the land with his servant Patsy, who follows him around banging two coconut shells together to make the sound of a horse's hooves as Arthur "rides" before him, trying to recruit Knights of the Round Table to join him in Camelot, he encounters a pair of sentries who are more interested in debating whether two swallows could carry a coconut than in listening to the king. Sir Robin, a collector of plague victims, Lancelot, a large and violent man, meet as Lancelot attempts to dispose of the sickly Not Dead Fred. Although a plague victim, the man insists that he can dance and sing, he completes a dance number, but is soon hit over the head with a shovel and killed by an impatient Lancelot.. They agree to become Knights of the Round Table together, Lancelot for the fighting, Robin for the singing and the dancing. Arthur attempts to convince a peasant named Dennis Galahad that he, Arthur, is King of England because the Lady of the Lake gave him Excalibur, the sword given only to the man fit to rule England.
However and his mother, Mrs Galahad, are political radicals and deny that any king who has not been elected by the people has any legitimate right to rule over them. To settle the issue, Arthur has the Lady Of The Lake and her Laker Girls appear to turn Dennis into a knight. Cheered on by the girls, the Lady Of The Lake turns Dennis into Sir Galahad and together, they sing a generic Broadway love song, complete with chandelier, they are joined by Sir Robin and Sir Lancelot, together with Sir Bedevere and "the aptly named" Sir Not-Appearing-In-This-Show, they make up the Knights of the Round Table. The five knights gather in Camelot, a deliberately anachronistic place resembling Las Vegas's Camelot-inspired Excalibur resort, complete with showgirls, oversized dice and the Lady of the Lake headlining the Castle in full Cher get-up. In the midst of their revelry, they are contacted by God. Urged on by the Lady Of The Lake, the Knights set off, they travel throughout the land until they reach a castle, only to be viciously taunted by lewd French soldiers.
They attempt to retaliate by sending them a large wooden rabbit in the style of the Trojan Horse. Defeated, they leave in a hurry when the French begin taunting them again, sending cancan dancers after them and throwing barnyard animals including cows at them. Arthur and his followers manage to run into the safety of the wings before the French catapult the Trojan Rabbit at them. Sir Robin and his minstrels follow King Arthur and Patsy into a "dark and expensive forest", where they are separated. King Arthur meets the silly Knights who say Ni, who demand a shrubbery. King Arthur despairs of finding one, but Patsy cheers him up and they find a shrubbery shortly after. Sir Robin, after wandering the forest for some time with his minstrels, encounters The Black Knight, who scares him off, but King Arthur, who happens on the scene, more or less defeats him by cutting off both his arms and legs, impaling his still-alive torso on a door, leaving to give the Knights their shrubbery; the Knights accept it, but next demand that King Arthur put on a musical and bring it to Broadway, implying that it need only be Broadway-style, "but not an Andrew Lloyd Webber".
The mere mention of his name causes everyone to scream in pain. Sir Robin, who has found Arthur by this point, insists that it would be impossible for them to accomplish this next task, since you need Jews for a successful Broadway musical, proves his point in a wild production number filled with Fiddler on the Roof parodies, including a bottle dance with Grails instead of bottles. King Arthur and Patsy promptly set off in search of Jews. (In countries that don't have a tradition of Jews in t
Sunday in the Park with George
Sunday in the Park with George is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. It was inspired by the French pointillist painter Georges Seurat's painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte; the plot revolves around George, a fictionalized version of Seurat, who immerses himself in painting his masterpiece, his great-grandson, a conflicted and cynical contemporary artist. The Broadway production opened in 1984; the musical won the 1985 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, two Tony Awards for design, numerous Drama Desk Awards, the 1991 Olivier Award for Best Musical and the 2007 Olivier Award for Outstanding Musical Production. It has enjoyed several major revivals, including the 2005-06 UK production first presented at the Menier Chocolate Factory and its subsequent 2008 Broadway transfer. Act IIn 1884, Georges Seurat, known as George in the musical, is sketching studies for his painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, he announces to the audience: "a blank page or canvas.
The challenge: bring order to the whole, through design, tension, balance and harmony." He conjures up the painting's setting, a small suburban park on an island, retains some control of his surroundings as he draws them. His longtime mistress, models for him, despite her frustration at having to get up early on a Sunday. More park regulars begin to arrive: a quarrelsome Old Lady and her Nurse discuss how Paris is changing to accommodate a tower for the International Exposition, but the Nurse is more interested in a German coachman, Franz; the quiet of the park is interrupted by a group of rude bathers. George freezes them with a gesture, making them the subjects of his first painting, Bathers at Asnières; the setting abruptly changes to a gallery. Jules and his wife Yvonne think George's work has "No Life". Back on the island and Yvonne have a short discussion with George and depart, they take their coachman Franz with them. Dot, who has grown tired of standing still in the early morning sunlight, leaves the park mollified after George promises to take her to the Follies.
George approaches the Old Lady, revealed to be his mother, asks to draw her, but she bluntly refuses. In his studio George works on his painting obsessively while Dot prepares for their date and fantasizes about being a Follies girl; when George stops painting to clean his brushes, he and Dot reflect on how fascinated they are by each other. Dot is ready to leave, but George chooses to continue painting instead upsetting her. In the park on a Sunday some time George sketches a disgruntled Boatman to the disapproval of an observing Jules. Dot enters on the arm of a baker. Two chatting shopgirls, both named Celeste, notice Dot with a new man; when Jules and Yvonne's daughter Louise attempts to pet the Boatman's dog, he shouts at her lashes out at George and storms off. George and Dot have a strained conversation as she works on the grammar book she is using to teach herself how to read and write; as Jules and Yvonne mock the unconventional nature of George's art, they discuss an initiative to have his work included in the next group show, which they both protest.
George sketches two dogs while whimsically trying to imagine the world from their perspective, describing their relief to be free of their routines on Sunday. As the day goes on, George sketches denizens of the park: The two Celestes try to attract the attention of a pair of Soldiers, fighting over which will get the more handsome of the two. Dot sees George, but he slips away before she can speak to him, in retaliation she describes her satisfying new life with Louis, she misses and loves George, but Louis loves and needs her in a way George cannot, she has made her choice. As the park empties for the evening, George returns, he misses Dot and laments that his art has alienated him from those important to him, but resigns himself to the likelihood that creative fulfillment may always take precedence for him over personal happiness. Time has passed, a pregnant Dot visits George's studio, she asks for a painting George made of her. Jules and Yvonne come to the studio to see George's nearly finished painting.
While Jules goes with George to see the painting and Dot hold a wary conversation. They realize they have both felt neglected by an artist, their mutual dislike fades, they discuss the difficulties of trying to maintain a romantic relationship with an artist. Meanwhile, Jules is puzzled by George's new technique and concerned that his obsession with his work is alienating him from his fellow artists and collectors alike, he refuses to support the work. Jules and Yvonne leave, George, having forgotten Dot was there, goes back to work. Dot reveals the real reason for her visit: despite the obvious fact that George fathered her unborn child and Louis are getting married and leaving for America. George angrily retreats behind his canvas, she begs him to react, in some way, to her news. T