Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
The Salzburg Festival is a prominent festival of music and drama established in 1920. It is held each summer in the Austrian town of the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One highlight is the annual performance of the play Jedermann by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Since 1967, an annual Salzburg Easter Festival has been held, organized by a separate organization. Music festivals had been held in Salzburg at irregular intervals since 1877 held by the International Mozarteum Foundation, but were discontinued in 1910. Although a festival was planned for 1914, it was cancelled at the outbreak of World War I. In 1917, Friedrich Gehmacher and Heinrich Damisch formed an organization known as the Salzburger Festspielhaus-Gemeinde to establish an annual festival of drama and music, emphasizing the works of Mozart. At the close of the war in 1918, the festival's revival was championed by five men now regarded as its founders: the poet and dramatist Hugo von Hofmannsthal, the composer Richard Strauss, the scenic designer Alfred Roller, the conductor Franz Schalk, the director Max Reinhardt intendant of the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, who had produced the first performance of Hofmannsthal's play Jedermann at the Berlin Zirkus Schumann arena in 1911.
The Salzburg Festival was inaugurated on 22 August 1920 with Reinhardt's performance of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann on the steps of Salzburg Cathedral, starring Alexander Moissi. The practice has become a tradition, the play is now always performed at Cathedral Square; the first operatic production came with Mozart's Don Giovanni conducted by Richard Strauss. The singers were drawn from the Wiener Staatsoper, including Richard Tauber in the part of Don Ottavio; the first festival hall was erected in 1925 at the former Archbishops' horse stables on the northern foot of the Mönchsberg mountain, on the basis of plans by Clemens Holzmeister. At that time the festival had developed a large-scale program including live broadcasts by the Austrian RAVAG radio network; the following year the adjacent former episcopal Felsenreitschule riding academy, carved into the Mönchsberg rock face, was converted into a theater, inaugurated with a performance of The Servant of Two Masters by Carlo Goldoni. In the 21st century, the original festival hall, suitable only for concerts, was reconstructed as a third venue for staged opera and concert performances and reopened in 2006 as the Haus für Mozart.
During the years from 1934 to 1937 famed conductors such as Arturo Toscanini and Bruno Walter conducted many performances. In 1936, the festival featured a performance by the Trapp Family Singers, whose story was dramatized as the musical and film The Sound of Music. In 1937, Boyd Neel and his orchestra premiered Benjamin Britten’s Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge at the festival; the festival's popularity suffered a major blow as a consequence of the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938. Toscanini resigned in protest, artists of Jewish descent like Reinhardt and Georg Solti had to emigrate, Jedermann, last performed by Attila Hörbiger, had to be dropped; the festival remained in operation until in 1944 it was cancelled by the order of Reich Minister Joseph Goebbels in reaction to the 20 July plot. At the end of World War II, the Salzburg Festival reopened in summer 1945 after the Allied victory in Europe; the post-war festival regained its prominence as a summer opera festival for works by Mozart, with conductor Herbert von Karajan becoming artistic director in 1956.
In 1960 the Great Festival Hall opera house opened its doors. As this summer festival gained fame and stature as a venue for opera and classical concert presentation, its musical repertoire concentrated on Mozart and Strauss, but other works, such as Verdi's Falstaff and Beethoven's Fidelio, were performed. Upon Karajan's death in 1989, the festival was drastically modernized and expanded by director Gerard Mortier, succeeded by Peter Ruzicka in 2001. In 2006, the festival was led by intendant Jürgen Flimm and concert director Markus Hinterhäuser; that year, Salzburg celebrated the 250th anniversary of Mozart's birth by staging all 22 of his operatic works, including two unfinished operas. All 22 were filmed and released on DVD in November 2006; the 2006 festival saw the opening of the Haus für Mozart. In 2010, the opera Dionysos by Wolfgang Rihm who compiled for his own libretto texts from Nietzsche's Dionysian-Dithyrambs premiered. Alexander Pereira succeeded Flimm as intendant, who departed in 2011 to become director of the Berlin State Opera.
Pereira's objective for the festival was to present only new productions. When he resigned at the end of the 2014 festival season to take over as the General Director of La Scala, Sven-Eric Bechtolf, who had served as Drama Director of the Salzburg Festival since 2012, took over as Interim General Manager; the 2015 festival marked the first one for which Bechtolf was responsible for the artistic programming. Budget cuts led to a retreat from Pereira's "new productions only" objective; the 2015 opera program presented only three new productions—Le nozze di Figaro, directed by Bechtolf. The remaining four opera productions—Norma, Il trovatore, Iphigénie en Taurid
Theater Chemnitz is the municipal theatre organization of Chemnitz, Germany. Performances of opera, symphonic concerts, ballet and Figurentheater take place in its three main venues: the Opernhaus Chemnitz, the Stadthalle Chemnitz, the Schauspielhaus Chemnitz; the award-winning opera company has produced a series of performed works, several German premieres. Located at Theaterplatz 2, the opera house was designed by the German architect Richard Möbius and built between 1906 and 1909. Following its destruction during World War II, it was reconstructed between 1947 and 1951, it was renovated again from 1988 to 1992, is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It seats 720 people. Intendant Bernhard Helmich focused on the presentation of played historic operas, such as Mascagni's Iris, Nicolai's Il templario and Die Heimkehr des Verbannten, Pfitzner's Die Rose vom Liebesgarten, Reznicek's Benzin, Schreker's Der Schmied von Gent. Vasco de Gama, an early version of Meyerbeer's L'Africaine, was named Wiederentdeckung des Jahres in 2013 by the journal Opernwelt.
German premieres have included Jonathan Dove's Pinocchios Abenteuer, both Love and Other Demons and Paradise Reloaded by Péter Eötvös. Two productions received the German theatre award Der Faust in 2007: Prokofiev's Die Liebe zu den drei Orangen, staged by Dietrich Hilsdorf, the ballet Giselle M. in a choreography by Stephan Toss. Located at Theaterstraße 3, Stadthalle Chemnitz was built between 1969 and 1974 as a multi-purpose concert hall in the centre of the city, it was opened in 1974 and is the official home of the Robert-Schumann-Philharmonie, or short: Philharmonie. The orchestra performs a series of ten symphonic concerts there annually, as well as special concerts and chamber music performances; the orchestra participates in opera and musical theatre productions in the opera house. Located at Zieschestraße 28, the playhouse is a new building, opened in 1980, after the former house burnt down in 1976 and was demolished; the repertory is focused on literary drama. Its smaller stage in the east wing, opened in 2011, is dedicated to the performance of premieres and contemporary theatre.
A smaller stage within the playhouse Kleine Bühne, is the main venue for the Figurentheater. Performances are staged with traditional marionettes, hand puppets, rod puppets, as well as with free-forms of artistic puppet theatre. Official website Literature by and about Theater Chemnitz in the German National Library catalogue Theater Chemnitz Chemnitz Theater Chemnitz Operabase Theater Chemnitz Klassik heute
Der Ring des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen, WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner. The works are based loosely on characters from the Nibelungenlied; the composer termed the cycle a "Bühnenfestspiel", structured in three days preceded by a Vorabend. It is referred to as the Ring Cycle, Wagner's Ring, or The Ring. Wagner wrote the libretto and music over the course of about twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874; the four parts that constitute the Ring cycle are, in sequence: Das Rheingold Die Walküre Siegfried Götterdämmerung Individual works of the sequence have been performed separately, indeed the operas contain dialogues that mention events in the previous operas, so that a viewer could watch any of them without having watched the previous parts and still understand the plot. However, Wagner intended them to be performed in series; the first performance as a cycle opened the first Bayreuth Festival in 1876, beginning with Das Rheingold on 13 August and ending with Götterdämmerung on 17 August.
Opera stage director Anthony Freud stated that Der Ring des Nibelungen "marks the high-water mark of our art form, the most massive challenge any opera company can undertake." Wagner's title is most rendered in English as The Ring of the Nibelung. The Nibelung of the title is the dwarf Alberich, the ring in question is the one he fashions from the Rhine Gold; the title therefore denotes "Alberich's Ring". The "-en" suffix in "Nibelungen" can occur in a genitive singular, accusative singular, dative singular, or a plural in any case, but the article "des" preceding makes it clear that the genitive singular is intended here. "Nibelungen" is mistaken as a plural, but the Ring of the Nibelungs is incorrect. The cycle is a work of extraordinary scale; the most outstanding facet of the monumental work is its sheer length: a full performance of the cycle takes place over four nights at the opera, with a total playing time of about 15 hours, depending on the conductor's pacing. The first and shortest work, Das Rheingold, has no interval and is one continuous piece of music lasting around two and a half hours, while the final and longest, Götterdämmerung, takes up to five hours, excluding intervals.
The cycle is modelled after ancient Greek dramas that were presented as three tragedies and one satyr play. The Ring proper ends with Götterdämmerung, with Rheingold as a prelude. Wagner called Das Rheingold a Vorabend or "Preliminary Evening", Die Walküre, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung were subtitled First Day, Second Day and Third Day of the trilogy proper; the scale and scope of the story is epic. It follows the struggles of gods and several mythical creatures over the eponymous magic ring that grants domination over the entire world; the drama and intrigue continue through three generations of protagonists, until the final cataclysm at the end of Götterdämmerung. The music of the cycle is thick and richly textured, grows in complexity as the cycle proceeds. Wagner wrote for an orchestra of gargantuan proportions, including a enlarged brass section with new instruments such as the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. Remarkably, he uses a chorus only briefly, in acts 2 and 3 of Götterdämmerung, mostly of men with just a few women.
He had a purpose-built theatre constructed, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, in which to perform this work. The theatre has a special stage that blends the huge orchestra with the singers' voices, allowing them to sing at a natural volume; the result was that the singers did not have to strain themselves vocally during the long performances. The plot revolves around a magic ring that grants the power to rule the world, forged by the Nibelung dwarf Alberich from gold he stole from the Rhine maidens in the river Rhine; the Ring itself as described by Wagner is a Rune-magic taufr intended to rule the feminine multiplicative power by a fearful magical act termed as'denial of love'. With the assistance of the god Loge, Wotan – the chief of the gods – steals the ring from Alberich, but is forced to hand it over to the giants and Fasolt in payment for building the home of the gods, Valhalla, or they will take Freia, who provides the gods with the golden apples that keep them young. Wotan's schemes to regain the ring, spanning generations, drive much of the action in the story.
His grandson, the mortal Siegfried, wins the ring by slaying Fafner – as Wotan intended – but is betrayed and slain as a result of the intrigues of Alberich's son Hagen, who wants the ring for himself. The Valkyrie Brünnhilde – Siegfried's lover and Wotan's daughter who lost her immortality for defying her father in an attempt to save Siegfried's father Sigmund – returns the ring to the Rhine maidens as she commits suicide on Siegfried's funeral pyre. Hagen is drowned. In the process, the gods and Valhalla are destroyed. Details of the storylines can be found in the articles on each music drama. Wagner created the story of the Ring by fusing elements from many German and Scandinavian myths and folk tales; the Old Norse Edda supplied much of the material for Das Rheingold, while Die Walküre was based on the Völsunga saga. Siegfried contains elements from the Völsunga saga and Thidrekssaga; the final Götterdämmerung, draws from the 12th-century German poem, the Nibelungenlied, which appears to have been the original inspiration for
The Semperoper is the opera house of the Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden and the concert hall of the Staatskapelle Dresden. It is home to the Semperoper Ballett; the building is located near the Elbe River in the historic centre of Germany. The opera house was built by the architect Gottfried Semper in 1841. After a devastating fire in 1869, the opera house was rebuilt again by Semper, completed in 1878; the opera house has a long history of premieres, including major works by Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. The first opera house at the location of today's Semperoper was built by the architect Gottfried Semper, it opened on 13 April 1841 with an opera by Carl Maria von Weber. The building style itself is debated among many, as it has features that appear in three styles: early Renaissance and Baroque, with Corinthian style pillars typical of Greek classical revival; the most suitable label for this style would be eclecticism, where influences from many styles are used, a practice most common during this period.
The opera building, Semper's first, was regarded as one of the most beautiful European opera houses. Following a devastating fire in 1869, the citizens of Dresden set about rebuilding their opera house, they demanded that Gottfried Semper do the reconstruction though he was in exile because of his involvement in the May 1849 uprising in Dresden. The architect had Manfred Semper, build the second opera house using his plans. Completed in 1878, it was built in Neo-Renaissance style. During the construction period, performances were held at the Gewerbehaussaal, which opened in 1870; the building is considered to be a prime example of "Dresden Baroque" architecture. It is situated on the Theatre Square in central Dresden on the bank of the Elbe River. On top of the portal there is a Panther quadriga with a statue of Dionysos; the interior was created by architects such as Johannes Schilling. Monuments on the portal depict artists, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare, Molière and Euripides.
The building features work by Ernst Rietschel and Ernst Julius Hähnel. In the pre-war years, the Semperoper premiered many of the works of Richard Strauss. In 1945, during the last months of World War II, the building was destroyed again, this time by the bombing of Dresden and subsequent firestorm, leaving only the exterior shell standing. 40 years on 13 February 1985, the opera's reconstruction was completed. It was rebuilt to be identical to its appearance before the war, but with the benefit of new stage machinery and an accompanying modern rear service building; the Semperoper reopened with the opera, performed just before the building's destruction in 1945, Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz. When the Elbe flooded in 2002, the building suffered heavy water damage. With substantial help from around the world, it reopened in December of that year. Today, the orchestra for most operas is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden; the Generalmusikdirektor of the Semperoper is a different person from that of the Staatskapelle when it presents concerts.
Exceptions have been Karl Böhm, Hans Vonk, Fabio Luisi who have held both positions. Whilst the Semperoper does not have a GMD as of 2015, the current chief conductor of the Staatskapelle Dresden is Christian Thielemann, as of the 2012/13 season; the current Intendant of the company is Wolfgang Rothe. Opernhaus am Taschenberg Media related to Semperoper at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official shop
Elektra, Op. 58, is a one-act opera by Richard Strauss, to a German-language libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, which he adapted from his 1903 drama Elektra. The opera was the first of many collaborations between Hofmannsthal, it was first performed at the Königliches Opernhaus on 25 January 1909. It was dedicated to Willy Levin. While based on ancient Greek mythology, the opera is modernist and expressionist in style. Hofmannsthal and Strauss's adaptation of the story focuses on Elektra developing her character by single-mindedly expressing her emotions and psychology as she meets with other characters one at a time; the other characters are her mother and one of the murderers of her father Agamemnon. Various aspects from the myth are minimized as background to her obsession. Other facets of the ancient story are excluded, in particular the earlier sacrifice by Agamemnon of his and Klytaemnestra's daughter Iphigenia, the motivation for Klytaemnestra's subsequent murder of Agamemnon; these changes tightened the focus on Elektra's furious lust for revenge.
The result is a modern, expressionistic retelling of the ancient Greek myth. Compared to Sophocles's Electra, the opera presents raw, brutal and bloodthirsty horror. Ståle Wikshåland has analysed the use of temporality in the dramaturgy of Elektra. Elektra is the second of Strauss's two modernist operas, characterized by cacophonous sections and atonal leitmotifs; these works contrast with his earliest operas and his period. The reception of Elektra in German-speaking countries was divided along traditionalist and modernist lines. Elektra is one of the most performed operas based on classical Greek mythology, with a performance lasting—like the composer's earlier Salome—around 100 minutes. Elektra received its UK premiere at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1910 with Edyth Walker in the title role and Thomas Beecham conducting at the first- performance of a Strauss opera in the UK; the first United States performance of the opera in the original German was given by the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company at the Academy of Music on 29 October 1931, with Anne Roselle in the title role, Charlotte Boerner as Chrysothemis, Margarete Matzenauer as Klytaemnestra, Nelson Eddy as Orest, Fritz Reiner conducting.
The opera made its premiere at the Metropolitan Opera in New York on December 3, 1932, with Gertrude Kappel singing the title role and Artur Bodanzky conducting. Before the opera begins, Agamemnon has sacrificed Iphigenia on the ruse that she is to be married, subsequently goes off to war against Troy. Iphigenia's mother Klytaemnestra has thus come to hate her husband. After his return, with the help of her paramour Aegisthus, she murders her husband and now is afraid that her crime will be avenged by her other children, Elektra and their banished brother Orest. Elektra has managed to send her brother away while remaining behind to keep her father's memory alive, but all the while, suffering the scorn of her mother and the entire court. Five servants try to wash the courtyard of the palace in Mycenae. While they do their work, they ask where can Elektra be, she emerges from the shadows with a wild look on her face; the servants continue commenting how she came to be in that state and talk about how they taunt her only to receive insults from her.
Only one servant shows sympathy for her. Elektra comes back for her daily ritual in memory of her father, who upon his return from Troy was killed while bathing by Klytaemnestra and Aegisth and dragged out into the courtyard. Elektra now starts imagining the day when her father will be avenged and of the ensuing celebration in which she will lead the triumphal dance. Chrysothemis leaves the palace but, unlike Elektra, she is meek and accommodating, has remained on good terms with Klytaemnestra and Aegisth, she warns her sister that their mother plans to lock Elektra in a tower. Chrysothemis does not wish to go on living a half-death in her own house: she wants to leave and raise children; as loud sounds are heard inside, Elektra mocks her sister. In reality, Klytaemnestra has yet again been awakened by her own nightmares of being killed by Orest. Chrysothemis begs Elektra to leave. Followed by her retinue, Klytaemnestra comes to make another sacrifice to appease the gods, but she stops at the sight of Elektra and wishes that she were not there to disturb her.
She asks the gods for the reason for her burdens, but Elektra appeases her by telling her mother that she is a goddess herself. Despite the protests of the Trainbearer and Confidante, Klytaemnestra climbs down to talk to Elektra. Klytaemnestra confides to her daughter that she has been suffering nightmares every night and that she still has not found the way to appease the gods. But, she claims, once that happens, she will be able to sleep again. Elektra teases her mother with little pieces of information about the right victim that must be slain, but she changes the conversation to her brother and why he is not allowed back. To Elektra's horror, Klytaemnestra says that he keeps company with animals, she responds that this is not true and that all the gold that her mother has sent was not being used to support her son but to have him killed. Elektra reveals, to be the actual victim: it is Klytaemnestra herself, she goes on to describe how the gods must be appeased
Der Rosenkavalier, Op. 59, is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. It is loosely adapted from the novel Les amours du chevalier de Faublas by Louvet de Couvrai and Molière's comedy Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, it was first performed at the Königliches Opernhaus in Dresden on 26 January 1911 under the direction of Max Reinhardt, Ernst von Schuch conducting. Until the premiere the working title was Ochs auf Lerchenau; the opera has four main characters: the aristocratic Marschallin. At the Marschallin's suggestion, Octavian acts as Ochs' Rosenkavalier by presenting a ceremonial silver rose to Sophie. However, the young people fall in love on the spot, soon devise a comic intrigue to extricate Sophie from her engagement, they accomplish this with help from the Marschallin, who yields Octavian to the younger woman. Though a comic opera, the work incorporates some weighty themes, including infidelity, sexual predation, selflessness in love.
There are many recordings of the opera and it is performed. Der Rosenkavalier premiered in 1911 in Dresden under the baton of Ernst von Schuch, who had conducted the premieres of Strauss's Feuersnot and Elektra. Soprano Margarethe Siems sang the Marschallin, in a turn that would represent the pinnacle of her career, while Minnie Nast portrayed Sophie and Eva von der Osten sang the breeches role of Octavian. From the start, Der Rosenkavalier was nothing short of a triumph: tickets to the premiere sold out immediately, resulting in a financial boom for the house. Though some critics took issue with Strauss' anachronistic use of waltz music, the public embraced the opera unconditionally. Rosenkavalier became Strauss' most popular opera during his lifetime and remains a staple of operatic repertoire today. Within two months of its premiere, the work was performed at La Scala; the Italian cast, led by conductor Tullio Serafin, included Lucrezia Bori as Octavian, Ines Maria Ferraris as Sophie, Pavel Ludikar as Baron Ochs.
The opera's Austrian premiere was given by the Vienna State Opera on the following 8 April, again under Schuch's baton, with Marie Gutheil-Schoder as Octavian and Richard Mayr as Baron Ochs. The work reached the Teatro Costanzi in Rome seven months on 14 November with Egisto Tango conducting Hariclea Darclée as the Marschallin and Conchita Supervía as Octavian; the United Kingdom premiere of Der Rosenkavalier occurred at the Royal Opera House in London on 29 January 1913. Thomas Beecham conducted the cast included Margarethe Siems as the Marschallin; the United States premiere took place at the Metropolitan Opera on the following 9 December in a production conducted by Alfred Hertz. The cast included Frieda Hempel as the Marschallin, Margarethe Arndt-Ober as Octavian, Anna Case as Sophie. A number of Italian theatres produced the work for the first time in the 1920s, including the Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, Teatro Regio di Torino, Teatro di San Carlo, the Teatro Carlo Felice. Der Rosenkavalier reached Monaco on 21 March 1926 when it was performed by the Opéra de Monte-Carlo at the Salle Garnier in a French translation.
The performance starred Gabrielle Ritter-Ciampi as the Vanni Marcoux as Faninal. 1926 saw the premiere of a film of the opera. The French premiere of the opera itself came in 1927 at the Palais Garnier in Paris on 11 February 1927 with conductor Philippe Gaubert; the cast included Germaine Lubin as Octavian. Brussels heard the work for the first time at La Monnaie on 15 December 1927 with Clara Clairbert as Sophie; the Salzburg Festival mounted Der Rosenkavalier for the first time on 12 August 1929 in a production conducted by Clemens Krauss. The cast included Lotte Lehmann as the Marta Fuchs as Annina. Other first productions at notable houses, opera festivals, music ensembles include: Teatro Massimo, Philadelphia Orchestra, San Francisco Opera, Philadelphia Opera Company, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, La Fenice, Festival dei Due Mondi, Teatro Comunale di Bologna, Lyric Opera of Chicago, the New York City Opera among many others, it was first presented in Australia as a radio broadcast on 7 January 1936, featuring Florence Austral.
According to Operabase, a total of 316 performances of 58 productions in 44 cities have been given since January 2013 or are planned to be given in the next year or two. The tour-de-force soprano role of the Marschallin has become a star vehicle for a number of notable singers in recent decades, including Dame Gwyneth Jones, Dame Felicity Lott, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Renée Fleming. Der Rosenkavalier is notable for its showcasing of the female voice, as its protagonists are written to be portrayed by women, who share several duets as well as a trio at the opera's emotional climax