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Harry Nyquist

Harry Nyquist was a Swedish-born American electronic engineer who made important contributions to communication theory. Nyquist was born in the village Nilsby of Värmland, Sweden, he was the son of Lars Jonsson Katrina Eriksdotter. His parents had eight children: Elin Teresia, Selma, Harry Theodor, Olga Maria, Axel Martin and Herta Alfrida, he emigrated to the USA in 1907. He entered the University of North Dakota in 1912 and received B. S. and M. S. degrees in electrical engineering in 1915, respectively. He received a Ph. D. in physics at Yale University in 1917. He worked at AT&T's Department of Development and Research from 1917 to 1934, continued when it became Bell Telephone Laboratories that year, until his retirement in 1954. Nyquist received the IRE Medal of Honor in 1960 for "fundamental contributions to a quantitative understanding of thermal noise, data transmission and negative feedback." In October 1960 he was awarded the Stuart Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute "for his theoretical analyses and practical inventions in the field of communications systems during the past forty years including his original work in the theories of telegraph transmission, thermal noise in electric conductors, in the history of feedback systems."

In 1969 he was awarded the National Academy of Engineering's fourth Founder's Medal "in recognition of his many fundamental contributions to engineering." In 1975 Nyquist received together with Hendrik Bode the Rufus Oldenburger Medal from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Nyquist lived in Pharr, Texas after his retirement, died in Harlingen, Texas on April 4, 1976; as an engineer at Bell Laboratories, Nyquist did important work on thermal noise, the stability of feedback amplifiers, facsimile and other important communications problems. With Herbert E. Ives, he helped to develop AT&T's first facsimile machines that were made public in 1924. In 1932, he published a classic paper on stability of feedback amplifiers; the Nyquist stability criterion can now be found in all textbooks on feedback control theory. His early theoretical work on determining the bandwidth requirements for transmitting information laid the foundations for advances by Claude Shannon, which led to the development of information theory.

In particular, Nyquist determined that the number of independent pulses that could be put through a telegraph channel per unit time is limited to twice the bandwidth of the channel, published his results in the papers Certain factors affecting telegraph speed and Certain topics in Telegraph Transmission Theory. This rule is a dual of what is now known as the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem. Nyquist rate: sampling rate twice the bandwidth of the signal's waveform being sampled. Nyquist frequency: half the sample rate of a system. Nyquist filter Nyquist plot Nyquist ISI criterion Nyquist Nyquist stability criterion IEEE Global History Network page about Nyquist Nyquist criterion page with photo of Nyquist with John R. Pierce and Rudy Kompfner K. J. Astrom: Nyquist and his seminal papers, 2005 presentation Nyquist biography, p. 2

Joe Repya

Joseph "Joe" Repya is a Minnesota Independence Party politician, a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the U. S. Army. Repya served as an infantry rifle platoon leader during the Vietnam War from 1970 to 1971, he served as a helicopter pilot during Operation Desert Shield/Storm from 1990 to 1991. After retiring, Repya came out of retirement and returned to active duty from 2004 to 2006, at the age of 59 he served in Baghdad, Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2005. Repya has been active in Minnesota politics for some time. In 2003, he distributed 30,000 Support Our Troop lawn signs and organized demonstrations in support of the U. S. military. He served as a delegate from Minnesota to the Republican National Convention in 2004 and 2008, in 2007 ran unsuccessfully for chair of the Minnesota Republican Party, he left the party in June 2009, saying the party had become "dysfunctional." He was a candidate for the Independence Party nomination for Governor of Minnesota in 2010, withdrawing before the primary.

Repya is married to Deb, an attorney, has two grown daughters and one granddaughter


In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior, longer duration, greater magnitude, or shorter latency. There are two types of reinforcement, known as negative reinforcement. Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs. However, there is negative reinforcement, characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. Changing someone's job might serve as a negative reinforcer to someone who suffers from back problems, i.e. Changing from a labourers job to an office position for instance. In most cases, the term "reinforcement" refers to an enhancement of behavior, but this term is sometimes used to denote an enhancement of memory.

The memory-enhancing stimulus can be one whose effects are directly rather than only indirectly emotional, as with the phenomenon of "flashbulb memory," in which an highly intense stimulus can incentivize memory of a set of a situation's circumstances well beyond the subset of those circumstances that caused the significant stimulus, as when people of appropriate age are able to remember where they were and what they were doing when they learned of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Reinforcement is an important part of instrumental conditioning. Main section: Reinforcement#Operant conditioningIn the behavioral sciences, the terms "positive" and "negative" refer when used in their strict technical sense to the nature of the action performed by the conditioner rather than to the responding operant's evaluation of that action and its consequence. "Positive" actions are those that add a factor, be it pleasant or unpleasant, to the environment, whereas "negative" actions are those that remove or withhold from the environment a factor of either type.

In turn, the strict sense of "reinforcement" refers only to reward-based conditioning. Thus, "positive reinforcement" refers to the addition of a pleasant factor, "positive punishment" refers to the addition of an unpleasant factor, "negative reinforcement" refers to the removal or withholding of an unpleasant factor, "negative punishment" refers to the removal or withholding of a pleasant factor; this usage is at odds with some non-technical usages of the four term combinations in the case of the term "negative reinforcement,", used to denote what technical parlance would describe as "positive punishment" in that the non-technical usage interprets "reinforcement" as subsuming both reward and punishment and "negative" as referring to the responding operant's evaluation of the factor being introduced. By contrast, technical parlance would use the term "negative reinforcement" to describe encouragement of a given behavior by creating a scenario in which an unpleasant factor is or will be present but engaging in the behavior results in either escaping from that factor or preventing its occurrence, as in Martin Seligman's experiments involving dogs' learning processes regarding the avoidance of electric shock.

B. F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism. Skinner defined reinforcers according to the change in response strength rather than to more subjective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable to someone. Accordingly, foods or items considered pleasant or enjoyable may not be reinforcing. Stimuli and activities only fit the definition of reinforcers if the behavior that precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar situations in the future. If the frequency of "cookie-requesting behavior" increases, the cookie can be seen as reinforcing "cookie-requesting behavior". If however, "cookie-requesting behavior" does not increase the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing; the sole criterion that determines if a stimulus is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behavior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other theories may focus on additional factors such as whether the person expected a behavior to produce a given outcome, but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is defined by an increased probability of a response.

The study of reinforcement has produced an eno

Dick Cavett

Richard Alva Cavett is an American television personality and former talk show host notable for his conversational style and in-depth discussions. He appeared on nationally broadcast television in the United States in five consecutive decades, the 1960s through the 2000s. In years, Cavett wrote a column for the online New York Times, promoted DVDs of his former shows as well as a book of his Times columns, hosted replays of his TV interviews with Salvador Dalí, Groucho Marx, Katharine Hepburn, Judy Garland, Marlon Brando, Ingmar Bergman, Jean-Luc Godard, John Lennon, Richard Burton and others on Turner Classic Movies. Cavett was born in Nebraska, but sources differ as to the specific town, locating his birthplace in either Gibbon, where his family lived, or nearby Kearney, the location of the nearest hospital. Cavett himself has stated that Gibbon was his birthplace, his mother, Erabel "Era", his father, Alva B. Cavett, both worked as teachers; when asked by Lucille Ball on his own show about his heritage, he said he was "Scottish, Irish and partly French, a dose of German."

He mentioned that one grandfather "came over" from England, the other from Wales. Cavett's grandparents all lived in Nebraska, his paternal grandparents were Gertrude Pinsch. His paternal grandfather was from Diller and his paternal grandmother was an immigrant from Aachen, Germany, his maternal grandparents were the Rev. R. R. and Etta Mae Richards. The Rev. Richards was from Carmarthen and was a Baptist minister who served parishes across central Nebraska. Cavett himself is an agnostic. Cavett's parents taught in Comstock and Grand Island, where Cavett started kindergarten at Wasmer Elementary School. Three years both of his parents landed teaching positions in Lincoln, where Cavett completed his education at Capitol and Irving schools and Lincoln High School; when Cavett was ten, his mother died of cancer at age 36. His father subsequently married Dorcas Deland a teacher from Alliance, Nebraska. On September 24, 1995, Lincoln Public Schools dedicated the new Dorcas C. and Alva B. Cavett Elementary School in their honor.

In eighth grade, Cavett directed a live Saturday-morning radio show sponsored by the Junior League and played the title role in The Winslow Boy. One of his high-school classmates was actress Sandy Dennis. Cavett was elected state president of the student council in high school, was a gold medalist at the state gymnastics championship. Before leaving for college, he worked as a caddie at the Lincoln Country Club, he began performing magic shows for $35 a night under the tutelage of Gene Gloye. In 1952, Cavett attended the convention of the International Brotherhood of Magicians in St. Louis and won the Best New Performer trophy. Around the same time, he met fellow magician Johnny Carson, 11 years his senior, doing a magic act at a church in Lincoln. While attending Yale University, Cavett played in and directed dramas on the campus radio station, WYBC, appeared in Yale Drama productions. In his senior year, he changed his major from English to drama, he took advantage of any opportunity to meet stars going to shows in New York to hang around stage doors or venture backstage.

He would go so far as to carry a copy of Variety or an appropriate piece of company stationery in order to look inconspicuous while sneaking backstage or into a TV studio. Cavett took many odd jobs ranging from store detective to label typist for a Wall Street firm, as a copyboy at Time Magazine. In 1960, Cavett was living in a three-room, fifth-floor apartment on West 89th Street in Manhattan for $51 a month, equal to $441 today, he was cast in a film by the Signal Corps. He was an extra on The Phil Silvers Show in 1959, a TV remake of the film Body and Soul for the DuPont Show of the Month the same year, Playhouse 90 in 1960, he revived his magic act while working as a typist and as a mystery shopper in department stores. Meanwhile, his girlfriend and future wife Carrie Nye landed several Broadway roles. Cavett was a copyboy at Time magazine when he read a newspaper item about Jack Paar host of The Tonight Show; the article described Paar's concerns about constant search for material. Cavett wrote some jokes, put them into a Time envelope, went to the RCA Building.

He handed him the envelope. He went to sit in the studio audience. During the show, Paar worked. Afterward, Cavett got into an elevator with Paar. Within weeks, Cavett was hired as talent coordinator. Cavett wrote for Paar the famous line "Here they are, Jayne Mansfield" as an introduction for the buxom actress. Cavett appeared on the show in 1961, acting as interpreter for Miss Universe of 1961, Marlene Schmidt of Germany. While at Time, Cavett wrote a letter to film comedian Arthur Jefferson, better known as Stan Laurel of the comedy team of Laurel and Hardy; the two soon met at Laurel's Hollywood apartment. On the evening of that first visit, Cavett wrote a tribute to him. Laurel saw the broadcast which he appreciated. Cavett visited the legendary comedian several times, their final time together came three weeks prior to Laurel's death in 1965. In his capacity as talent coordinator for The Tonight Show, Cavett was sent to the Blue Angel nightclub to see Woody Allen's act, afterward struck up a friendship.

The next day, the funeral of playwright George S. Kaufman was held at the Frank E. Campbell funeral hom

Dennis Carothers Stanfill

Dennis Carothers Stanfill is an American business executive, Rhodes Scholar and philanthropist. He is best known for his stewardship of the 20th Century Fox Film Corporation from 1971 to 1981 as chairman and chief executive officer, succeeding Darryl F. Zanuck. Stanfill was born in Centerville, the son of Sam Broome and Hattie Stanfill. Stanfill's mother played basketball at the University of Tennessee earning a varsity letter, she was interviewed in Hoop Tales: Tennessee Lady Volunteers by Randy Moore After graduating valedictorian from Lawrenceburgh High School he attended the US Naval Academy. President Harry Truman awarded Stanfill the Class of 1897 Sword for outstanding leadership. In 1949 he won a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University, he served as vice president at the Times Mirror Company, at Lehman Brothers in New York as a corporate finance specialist. He joined Fox in 1969 in the newly created post of executive vice president-finance, at the same time became a member of Fox’s board of directors and executive committee.

In 1971, he succeeded Darryl F. Zanuck as chief executive officer. During his tenure at Fox the studio was turned around from near bankruptcy as a result of the extravagant prior managements. Under Stanfill’s guidance, Fox became a diversified, prosperous company through internal development and acquisition activities; the market value of Fox’s common stock in the early 1970s was $40 million. Stanfill was alleged to have said during his time. I am 20th Century Fox."When Fox was sold to Marvin Davis in June 1981, stockholders received over $800 million in cash and stock. Stanfill cashed in stock options worth $8 million. In 1981, Stanfill fired 20th Century Fox Television head Harris L. Katleman for alleged irregularities with his expense account, but the decision was overturned by new Fox owner Davis. With his authority undermined, Stanfill resigned. After leaving Fox in 1981 Stanfill, on the Board of Directors of KCET, Los Angeles public television affiliate station, was asked to take the non-salaried position of Chairman.

KCET was in considerable financial difficulty. The station had over-expanded. Stanfill's reputation in the financial world gave KCET much needed breathing room with its creditors. Stanfill got the other expenses under control and went on a fundraising drive. KCET moved to put its Hollywood production facility and offices up for sale while the station's top executives took a 10% cut in salary; when Stanfill accepted his position in 1982, the station was $5.5 million in debt. By the time he stepped down in 1986 KCET was in the black and in active production in both local and national programing, he is married to Therese Olivieri. They had three children, their daughter, Francesca Stanfill Nye, is a journalist. Their son, Dennis, is partner and managing director of Singapore. Another daughter, Michaela Sara Stanfill, was a historical researcher in Boston; the Stanfills have two grandchildren, Serena Tufo Robinson and Peter Stanfill Tufo

Morgan, Walls & Clements

Morgan, Walls & Clements was an architectural firm based in Los Angeles and responsible for many of the city's landmarks, dating back to the late 19th century. Morgan and Walls, with principals Octavius Morgan and John A. Walls, the firm worked in the area from before the turn of the century. Around 1910 Morgan's son O. W. Morgan was promoted, the elder Morgan retired, with the emergence of designer Stiles O. Clements the firm hit its stride with a series of theaters and commercial projects around MacArthur Park. Clements worked in Spanish Colonial revival and Mayan revival styles, but their major project was the black Art Deco Richfield Tower, a commanding presence in downtown from its 1928 completion to its 1969 destruction. Walls did not live to see the completion of the building, as he had died in 1922. Clements left the firm in 1937 to start his own practice, Stiles O. Clements & Associates, where he remained until his retirement in 1965, their work includes: Van Nuys Apartments, Los Angeles, 1913 The Haas Building, Los Angeles, 1915 D. Getson Embroidery, Los Angeles, 1923 El Capitan Theatre, Los Angeles, 1926 Hollywood Chamber of Commerce Building, Los Angeles, 1926 Music Box Theater, Los Angeles, 1926 Belasco Theater, Los Angeles, 1926 Ninth & Hill Building, Los Angeles, 1926 Mayan Theater, Los Angeles, 1927 Downtown Shopping News, Printing & Distribution Building, Los Angeles, 1927 Chapman Plaza, 1929 The Deco Building, 1929 Richfield Tower, Los Angeles, 1929 Samson Tire and Rubber Factory, California, 1929-30.

The façade was based on the palace of Sargon II. Security First National Bank, Los Angeles, 1929 Adamson House, California, 1930 Leimert Theatre, Leimert Park, Los Angeles, 1931 Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre, Los Angeles, 1931 Dominguez-Wilshire Building, Los Angeles, 1931 The Adams Square Building, Glendale, 1928 The Blackstone Building, refurbished 1939 The Bumiller Building, Los Angeles, 1906 The Olive J. Cobb Building, Los Angeles, 1924 the works of Morgan, Walls & Clements