Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, is a British former Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he won 212 of the 529 races he entered across several categories of competition and has been described as "the greatest driver never to win the World Championship". In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three. Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen, he was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the right bank of the River Thames. His father was an amateur racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Aileen Moss had been involved in motorsport, entering prewar hillclimbs at the wheel of a Singer Nine. Stirling was a gifted horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss, who became a successful rally driver and married Erik Carlsson. Moss was educated at several independent schools: Shrewsbury House School in Surbiton, Clewer Manor Junior School, the linked senior school and Imperial Service College, located at Hertford Heath, near Hertford.
Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Cooper 500, ERA, Lister Cars, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz and Vanwall single-seaters, Aston Martin, Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz sports cars, Jaguar saloons. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae on the same day, he preferred to race British cars, stating, "Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one". At Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing, he remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss began his career at the wheel of his father Alfred's 328 Frazer Nash, DPX 653. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Company's first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. He soon demonstrated his ability with numerous wins at national and international levels, continued to compete in Formula Three, with Coopers and Kiefts, after he had progressed to more senior categories, his first major international race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the race six more times, in 1951, 1955, 1958 and 1959, 1960 and 1961. A competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe d'Or for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally, he finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell and Autocar magazine editor John Cooper as co-drivers. In 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham team's 1.5-liter O. S. C. A. MT4 with American Bill Lloyd.
In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Moss's manager, Ken Gregory, about the possibility of Moss's joining the Mercedes Grand Prix team. Having seen him do well in a uncompetitive car, wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season, he bought a Maserati 250F, although the car's unreliability prevented his scoring high points in the 1954 Drivers' Championship he qualified alongside the Mercedes front runners several times and performed well in the races. He achieved his first Formula 1 victory when he won the non-Championship International Gold Cup in the Maserati. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes and Alberto Ascari in a Ferrari—and took the lead. Ascari retired with engine problems, Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed. Fangio took the victory, Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line.
Neubauer impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Moss's first World Championship victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, a race he was the first British driver to win. Leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, his friend and mentor, it has been suggested. Moss himself asked Fangio and Fangio always replied: "No. You were just better than me that day." The same year, Moss won the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia. In 1955 Moss won Italy's thousand-mile Mille Miglia road race, an achievement Doug Nye described as the "most iconic single day's drive in motor racing history." Motor Trend headlined it as "The Most Epic Drive. Ever."Moss 25 years old, drove one of four factory-entered Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR sports-racing cars. Based on the W196 Grand Prix car, they had spaceframe chassis and magnesium-alloy bodies, their modified W196 engines ran on a mixture of petrol and alcohol.
The team's main race rivals were the factory-entered Ferraris of Piero Taruffi, Eugenio Castellotti, Umberto Maglioli, Paolo Marzotto. Journalist Denis Jenkinson was Moss's navigator, he had intended to go with John Fitch
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Mercedes-Benz in motorsport
Throughout its long history, Mercedes-Benz has been involved in a range of motorsport activities, including sportscar racing and rallying, is active in Formula Three, Formula E and Formula One. The two companies which were merged to form the Mercedes-Benz brand in 1926 had both enjoyed success in the new sport of motor racing throughout their separate histories. A single Benz competed in the world's first motor race, the 1894 Paris–Rouen, where Émile Roger finished 14th in 10 hours 1 minute; the Mercedes Simplex of 1902, built by DMG, was Mercedes' first purpose built race car — much lower than their usual designs — which were similar to horse carriages. In 1914, just before the beginning of the First World War, the DMG Mercedes 35 hp won the French Grand Prix, finishing 1-2-3. Karl Benz's company, Benz & Cie. built the "bird beaked", Blitzen Benz that set land speed records several times, reaching 228.1 km/h in 1911. That record gained that model the reputation of being faster than any other automobile — as well as any train or plane.
They constructed many aerodynamically designed race cars. Benz was involved in Grand Prix motor racing from 1923, when the Benz Tropfenwagen was introduced to motorsport at the European Grand Prix at Monza. These, the brainchild of Benz chief engineer Hans Nibel, were inspired by the Rumpler Tropfenwagen and were intended to increase public acceptance of mid-engined cars, they resembled the Auto Unions, used the unchanged Rumpler chassis. They were fitted with a 1,991 cc DOHC inline six producing 80 hp and demonstrated "impeccable roadholding" at 90 mph and above. Despite a promising start, with a fourth and a fifth in their debut, they did no better in three years of Grands Prix and hillclimbing, the expected public acceptance did not materialize. Financial difficulties led to a merger with Daimler. In the 1930s, the new joint company, Daimler-Benz, with their mighty Mercedes-Benz Silver Arrows, dominated Grand Prix racing in Europe together with its rival, Auto Union. In fact the colour of the cars, to become legendary, was unintentional - they had been painted white as was traditional for German cars, but the paint was stripped away to reduce weight.
The cars set speed records up to 435 km/h. The team was guided by the great Rennleiter Alfred Neubauer until the company ceased racing at the start of WWII. In 1954 Mercedes-Benz returned to what was now known as Formula One racing, using the technologically advanced Mercedes-Benz W196, run in both open-wheeled and streamlined forms. Juan Manuel Fangio, a previous champion transferred mid-season from Maserati to Mercedes-Benz for their debut at the French Grand Prix on 4 July 1954; the team had immediate success and recorded a 1-2 victory with Fangio and Karl Kling, as well as the fastest lap. Fangio went on winning the Championship; the success continued into the 1955 season. The team's drivers and the young Stirling Moss, won 6 of the 9 rounds between them, finished first and second in that year's championship. Following the 1955 Le Mans disaster, Mercedes-Benz withdrew from all factory-sponsored motorsport. Mercedes made its return to Formula One in 1994 as an engine supplier to Sauber, with whom they had enjoyed success in sportscar racing, after 1993 funding their engine partner Ilmor and Sauber announced that the teams engines will be rebadged "Mercedes-Benz" for the 1994 season thus signaling Mercedes partial return to factory sponsored motorsport the first time since 1955.
In the one year that Sauber ran Mercedes badged engines they only managed to score twelve points. 1995 saw the aspirated Mercedes-Benz-Ilmor F1-V10 move to the Woking based McLaren team, replacing Peugeot who moved to supplying their engines to the Jordan team. In a season dominated by the Renault powered Benetton B195s and Williams FW17s, the McLaren-Mercedes partnership produced thirty points with 2 podium finishes from Mika Häkkinen. 1996 produced similar results to'95 with the team finishing behind the trio of Williams and Ferrari, but the team still scored three times as many podium positions in comparison to the previous year. Outside Formula One, Mercedes-Benz had increased its shareholding in the Ilmor company in 1996 and took full control nine years later, they have continued to build engines for McLaren. In the opening race of the 1997 Formula One season, David Coulthard produced victory for McLaren and ushered in a new era of success for the British based squad. Coincidentally this was the first race in which McLaren had competed with a silver livery due to West replacing Marlboro, who moved to Ferrari, as title sponsor.
The colour drew inevitable comparisons to the Silver Arrows of a previous era, the nickname was applied to the McLarens. This was a significant result in F1 racing, McLaren's first victory for three seasons and the first win for Mercedes-Benz since Juan Manuel Fangio's success at the 1955 Italian Grand Prix. McLaren and Mercedes-Benz still, finished fourth in the Constructors' Championship behind the same three teams as the previous two seasons, but they had collected more than twice as many points in'97 as they had in'95. With an Adrian Newey designed MP4/13 for 1998, McLaren went on to win both the Drivers' Championship with Häkkinen and the Constructors' title, their first in seven years, by twenty-three points to their nearest rivals Ferrari. Häkkinen went on to win the title for the secon
American open-wheel car racing
American open-wheel car racing known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional-level automobile racing in the United States and North America. As of 2019, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar. Competitive events for professional-level, single-seat open-wheel race cars have been conducted under the auspices of several different sanctioning bodies since 1902. A season-long, points-based, National Championship of drivers has been recognized in 1905, 1916, since 1920; the Indianapolis 500, which debuted in 1911, is the premier event of Indy car racing. The open-wheeled, single-seater cars have been similar to those in Formula One, though there are important differences; the fame of the Indianapolis 500 leads many to colloquially refer to the cars that compete on the American Championship circuit as "Indy cars." This form of racing has experienced high levels of popularity over the years in the post-World War II time frame. The "golden era" of the 1950s was followed by a decade of transition and innovation in the 1960s, which included increased international participation.
The sport experienced considerable growth and exposure during the rising popularity of the CART PPG Indy Car World Series in the 1980s and early 1990s. Two organizational disputes, in 1979 and 1996, led to a "split" that divided the participants among two separate sanctioning bodies. However, an official unification took place in 2008 that brought the sport back together under one single sanctioning body; the national championship was sanctioned by the Contest Board of the American Automobile Association. The AAA first sanctioned automobile motorsports events in 1902. At first it used the rules of the Automobile Club of America, but it formed its own rules in 1903, it introduced the first track season championship for racing cars in 1905. Barney Oldfield was the first champion. No official season championship was recognized from 1906–1915, single races were held. Official records regard 1916 as the next contested championship season. Years retroactive titles were named back to 1902; these post factum seasons are considered unofficial and revisionist history by accredited historians.
Racing did not cease in the United States during WWI, but the official national championship was suspended. The Indianapolis 500 itself was voluntarily suspended for 1917–1918 due to the war. In 1920, the championship resumed, despite the difficult economic climate that would follow, ran continuously throughout the Depression. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, all auto racing was suspended during World War II. From 1942 to 1945 no events were contested, banned by the U. S. government on account of rationing. Racing resumed in full in 1946; the 1946 season is unique, in that it included six Champ Car events, 71 "Big Car" races, as organizers were unsure about the availability of cars and participation. AAA ceased participation in auto racing at the end of the 1955 season, it cited a series of high-profile fatal accidents, namely Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis, the Le Mans disaster. Through 1922 and again from 1930 to 1937, it was commonplace for the cars to be two-seaters, as opposed to the aforementioned standard single-seat form.
The driver would be accompanied by a riding mechanic. The national championship was taken over by the United States Auto Club, a new sanctioning body formed by the then-owner of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Tony Hulman. Championship racing continued to grow in popularity in a stabilized environment for over two decades, with the two traditional disciplines of paved oval tracks and dirt oval tracks. During the 1950s, front-engined "roadsters" became the dominant cars on the paved oval tracks, while "upright" Champ Dirt Cars continued to dominate on dirt tracks. In the 1960s, drivers and team owners with road racing backgrounds, both American and foreign, began creeping into the series and the paved oval track cars evolved from front-engine "roadsters" to rear-engine formula-style racers. Technology and expense climbed at a rapid rate; the schedule continued to be dominated by oval tracks, but a few road course races were added to assuage the newcomers. Dirt tracks were dropped from the national championship after 1970.
During the 1970s, the increasing costs began to drive some of the traditional USAC car owners out of the sport. The dominant teams became Penske, Gurney, McLaren, all run by people with road racing backgrounds. There was a growing dissent between these teams and USAC management. Events outside Indianapolis were suffering from low attendance, poor promotion; the Indy 500 was televised on a same day tape delayed basis on ABC, most of the other races had little or no coverage on television. Towards the end of the decade, the growing dissent prompted several car owners to consider creating a new sanctioning body to conduct the races. Meanwhile, two events had a concomitant effect on the situation. Tony Hulman, president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and founder of USAC, died in the fall of 1977. A few months eight key USAC officials were killed in a plane crash. By the end of 1978, the owners had broken away and founded Championship Auto Racing Teams to wrest control of Championship racing away from USAC.
Championship Auto Racing Teams was formed by most of the existing team owners, with some initial assistance from the SCCA. Therefore, there were two national championships run each by USAC and CART; the Indianapolis 500 remained under USAC sanction. The top teams allied to CART, the CART championship became the more prestigious national championship. USAC
Gordini is a division of Renault Sport Technologies. In the past, it was a sports car manufacturer and performance tuner, established in 1946 by Amédée Gordini, nicknamed "Le Sorcier". Gordini became a division of Renault in 1968 and of Renault Sport in 1976. Amédée Gordini competed in motor races since the 1930s, his results prompted Simca to develop road cars. Their association continued after World War II. In 1946, Gordini introduced the first cars bearing his name, Fiat-engined single-seaters raced by him and Jose Scaron, achieving several victories. In the late 1940s, the company opened a workshop at the Boulevard Victor in Paris, entering sports car and Grand Prix races. Gordini and Simca started to diverge in 1951 because of political conflicts. Gordini competed in Formula One from 1950 to 1956, although it achieved a major success in Formula Two during that period. After its Formula One program ended, Gordini worked with Renault as an engine tuner, entering Renault-Gordini cars at the 24 Hours of Le Mans between 1962 and 1969.
It tuned engines for Alpine, a rival sports car manufacturer associated with Renault. In 1957, Gordini and Renault manufactured the Dauphine Gordini, a modified version of the Renault Dauphine, a sales success. Gordini-tuned Renault cars won various rallies during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1963, the Gordini company planned to move its headquarters to Noisy-le-Roi. At the end of 1968, Gordini sold a 70 % majority stake from his firm to Renault. Renault-Gordini was moved to Viry-Châtillon in 1969 and became a sport division of Renault, before being merged with Alpine to form Renault Sport in 1976. On 1 January 1976, René Vuaillat became director of Gordini; the Gordini company name became wholly owned by Renault in 1977. Renault sold Gordini-badged performance versions of models including the Renault 5, the Renault 8 the Renault 12 and the Renault 17. In November 2009, Renault announced that it would be reviving the Gordini name for an exclusive line of hot hatches, in a similar fashion to Fiat's revival of its Abarth name.
Modern models to bear the name include the Renault Clio. Dauphine Gordini Renault 8 Gordini Renault 12 Gordini Renault 17 Gordini Clio Gordini RS Twingo Gordini Twingo Gordini RS Wind Gordini Since its early Renault models the most characteristic colour scheme of Gordini cars has been bleu de France with white stripes, although different combinations have been used over the years
Automobiles Talbot S. A. was a French automobile manufacturer based in Hauts de Seine, outside Paris. The Suresnes factory had been built by Alexandre Darracq for his pioneering car manufacturing business begun in 1896, which he named A. Darracq & Cie, it was profitable. Alexandre Darracq built racing as well as “pleasure” cars and Darracq became famous for its motor racing successes. Darracq sold his remaining portion of his business in 1912. New owners renamed the Darracq business Automobiles Talbot in 1922. However, though its ordinary production cars were badged as Talbots, the new owners continued incorporating the Darracq name in Talbot-Darracq for their competition cars. Owing to the simultaneous existence of British Talbot cars, French products when sold in Britain were badged Darracq-Talbot or Talbot-Darracq, or simply Darracq. In 1932, after the onset of the Great Depression, Italo-British businessman Antonio Lago was appointed managing director in the hope that he might revive Automobiles Talbot’s business.
Lago began this process, but the owners were unable to stave off receivership beyond the end of 1934. The receiver did not close Automobiles Talbot, in 1936 Antonio Lago managed to complete a management buy-out from the receiver. For 1935, the existing range continued in production but from 1936 these were replaced with cars designed by Walter Becchia, featuring transverse leaf-sprung independent suspension; these included the 4-cylinder 2323 cc Talbot Type T4 "Minor", a surprise introduction at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, the 6-cylinder 2,696 cc Talbot "Cadette-15", along with and the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Major" and its long-wheelbase version, the Talbot "Master": these were classified as Touring cars. There was in the second half of the 1930s a range of Sporting cars which started with the Talbot "Baby-15", mechanically the same as the "Cadette-15" but using a shorter lighter chassis; the Sporting Cars range centred on the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Baby" and included the 3,996 cc 23 and sporting Lago-Spéciale and Lago-SS models with two and three carburettors, corresponding increases in power and performance.
The most specified body for the Lago-SS was built by Figoni et Falaschi, featured a eye-catching aerodynamic form. Lago was an excellent engineer who developed the existing six-cylinder engine into a high-performance 4-litre one; the sporting six-cylinder models had a great racing history. The bodies—such as of the T150 coupé—were made by excellent coachbuilders such as Figoni et Falaschi or Saoutchik. Although the proliferation of cars types and model names that followed Lago's acquisition of the business is at first glance bewildering, it involved only four standard chassis lengths as follows: Short Châssis: Minor T4 Junior 11 Baby-15 Baby 3 litres T150 3 litres Baby 4 litres Lago Spécial Extra short Châssis: Lago SS Normal Châssis: Cadette-15 Major 3 litres Major 4 litres Long Châssis: Master 3 litres Master 4 litres During the early years of the war Walter Becchia left Talbot to work for Citroen, but Lago was joined in 1942 by another exceptional engineer, Carlo Machetti, from the two of them were working on the twin camshaft 4483 cc six-cylinder unit that would lie at the heart of the 1946 Talbot T26.
After the war, the company continued to be known both for successful high-performance racing cars and for large luxurious passenger cars, with extensive sharing of chassis and engine components between the two. The period was one of economic stagnation and financial stringency; the company had difficulty finding customers, its finances were stretched. In 1946, the company began production of a new engine design, based on earlier units but with a new cylinder head featuring a twin overhead camshaft; this engine, designed under the leadership of Carlo Marchetti, was in many respects a new engine. A 4483 cc six-cylinder in-line engine was developed for the Talbot Lago Record and for the Talbot Grand Sport 26CV; these cars were priced against large luxurious cars from the likes of Delahaye, Delage and Salmson. Talbot would remain in the auto-making business for longer than any of these others, the Talbot name had the further dubious distinction of a resurrection in the early 1980s; the Talbot Lago Record T26 was a large car with a fiscal horsepower of 26 CV and a claimed actual power output of 170 hp, delivered to the rear wheels via a four-speed manual gear box, with the option at extra cost of a Wilson pre-selector gear box, supporting a claimed top speed of 170 km/h.
The car was sold as a stylish four-door sedan, but a two-door cabriolet was offered. There were coachbuilt specials with bodywork by traditionalist firms such as Graber; the T26 Grand Sport was first displayed in public in October 1947 as a shortened chassis, only 12 were made during 1948, the models's first full year of production. The car was noted for its speed; the engine which produced 170 hp in the Lago Record was adapted to provide 190 bhp or 195 bhp in the GS, a top speed of around 200 km/h was claimed, depending on the body, fitted. The