Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
George Clifford III
George Clifford III was a wealthy Dutch banker and one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company. He is known for his keen interest in gardens, his estate Hartekamp had a rich variety of plants and he engaged the Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné, who stayed at his estate from 1736 to 1738, to write Hortus Cliffortianus, a masterpiece of early botanical literature published in 1738, for which Georg Dionysius Ehret did the illustrations. Many specimens from Clifford's garden were studied by Linnaeus for his Species Plantarum, his grandfather, Englishman George Clifford I, moved from Stow to Amsterdam around 1640, beginning an Anglo-Dutch banking dynasty. Subsequent members of the Clifford Family were prominent leaders in Amsterdam. Carl Linnaeus Johannes Burman Herman Boerhaave Dutch East India Company Biography from "The George Clifford Herbarium" National Herbarium Nederlands
North Holland is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, west of Friesland and Flevoland. In 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was an integral part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated. In the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland and known as the Noorderkwartier. In 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was turned into land; the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, the province's largest city is the Netherlands' capital Amsterdam. The King's Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, serving since 2010. There are three water boards in the province; the province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813.
This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed; the republic was reorganised into eight departments with equal populations. Holland was split up into five departments named "Texel", "Amstel", "Delf", "Schelde en Maas", "Rijn"; the first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland. In 1801 the old borders were restored; this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. In 1807, Holland was reorganised; this time the two departments were called "Amstelland" and "Maasland". This did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire. Amstelland and Utrecht were amalgamated as the department of "Zuiderzee" and Maasland was renamed "Monden van de Maas". After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so.
When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, the country was reorganised as regions. Zuiderzee and Monden van de Maas were reunited as the province of "Holland". One of the ministers on the constitutional committee suggested that the old name "Holland and West Friesland" be reintroduced to respect the feelings of the people of that region; this proposal was rejected. However, the division was not reversed; when the province of Holland was re-established in 1814, it was given two governors, one for the former department of Amstelland and one for the former department of Maasland. Though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still being treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. During this reorganisation the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling were returned to Holland and parts of "Hollands Brabant" went to North Brabant; the borders with Utrecht and Gelderland were definitively set in 1820. When the constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to split Holland once again, this time into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland".
The need for this was not felt in West Friesland. The impetus came from Amsterdam, which still resented the 1838 relocation of the court of appeal to The Hague in South Holland. After the Haarlemmermeer was drained in 1855 and turned into arable land, it was made part of North Holland. In exchange, South Holland received the greater part of the municipality of Leimuiden in 1864. In 1942, the islands Vlieland and Terschelling went back to the province of Friesland. In 1950, the former island Urk was ceded to the province of Overijssel. In February 2011, North Holland, together with the provinces of Utrecht and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces; this has been positively received by the First Rutte cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has been mentioned in the coalition agreement. The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province, is not named.
With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. North Holland is situated at 52°40′N 4°50′E in the northwest of the Netherlands with to the northeast the province of Friesland, to the east the province of Flevoland, to the southeast the province of Utrecht, to the southwest the province of South Holland, to the west the North Sea. North Holland is a broad peninsula for the most part, located between the North Sea, the Wadden Sea, the IJsselmeer, the Markermeer. More than half of the province consists of reclaimed polder land situated below sea level; the West Frisian islands of Noorderhaaks and Texel are part of the province. North Holland makes up a single region of the International Organization for Standardization world region code system, having the code ISO 3166-2:NL-NH; as of January 2019, North Holland is divided into 47 municipalities. Af
Bennebroek is a town and former municipality in the northwest Netherlands, now part of Bloemendaal, North Holland. Before its merger, it was the smallest municipality in the Netherlands, covering an area of only 1.75 km². Bennebroek was formed in the 13th century and its development was linked to the peat harvesting industry. On May 28, 1653, Bennebroek split off from the Heemstede fiefdom and Adriaen Pauw, son of Adriaan Pauw, became its first feudal lord, its population was dependent on animal transportation. On bulb flower cultivation became an important business here, yet since the second half of the 20th century, Bennebroek functions as a commuter community for the surrounding cities. On March 29, 2007, the municipal councils of Bennebroek and Bloemendaal agreed to merge into one municipality, which became reality on January 1, 2009; the last municipal council of Bennebroek before its merger consisted of 11 seats, which were divided as follows: VVD - 4 seats CDA - 4 seats PvdA - 3 seats Linnaeushof - a recreation park known as Europe's largest children's playground a botanical garden where Carl Linnaeus acted as hortulanus in the 18th century and where he wrote the Hortus Cliffortianus Hartekamp - an estate with an extensive public park.
Former railway station Vogelenzang-Bennebroek - railway station from 1842. George Clifford III Statistics are taken from the SDU Staatscourant
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
A buitenplaats was a summer residence for rich townspeople in the Netherlands. During the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, many traders and city administrators in Dutch towns became wealthy. Many of them bought country estates, at first to collect rents, however soon mansions started to be built there, which were used only during the summer. Buitenplaatsen or buitenhuizen could be found in picturesque regions which were accessible from the owner's home in town, they were near a clean water source. Most wealthy families kept their children in buitenhuizen during the summer to flee the putrid canals of the cities and the accompanying onset of cholera and other diseases. Though most buitenhuizen have been demolished, examples are still in existence are along the river Vecht, the river Amstel, the Spaarne in Kennemerland, the river Vliet and in Wassenaar; some still exist near former lakes like the Beemster, which were popular too. In the 19th century with improvements in water management, new regions came into fashion, such as the Utrecht Hill Ridge and the area around Arnhem.
Buitenplaatsen are mistaken for castles. Many buitenhuizen are built on top of the ruins of earlier castles that were destroyed during the Dutch revolt; the owners adopted the castle name. Like early English country houses, buitenhuizen were only used during the summer; the wealthy owners returned in the autumn to their residences in Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague, Haarlem and other prominent cities. By the end of the 18th century these places were lined up side by side along the banks of the more prominent rivers. William Thomas Beckford, who published an account of his letters back home from his Grand Tour, traveled by trekschuit from Amsterdam to Utrecht and wrote home on July 2, 1780 with this to say over the buitenhuizen along the Vecht river. Around it was a garden decorated with statues. There were an orangerie with exotic plants, an aviary or a grotto with shells; the buitenplaats was connected to a farm or a forest. During the 19th century buitenplaatsen became outmoded, they were too expensive to use in the summer.
In some regions buitenplaatsen disappeared altogether, in other regions, such as Vecht and Kennemerland they still exist. Most were torn down to make way for housing developments, infrastructural changes, apartment buildings. In the case of Hofwijck, whose inhabitants were so notable that the house is a museum today, the place was nearly flattened in the early 20th century to make way for the railway, today commuters between The Hague and Zoetermeer can get a good look at the old house; the street name or park name is a reminder of the old house. Few are open to the public however, as many of them are still inhabited, though not year round. Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn Beeckestijn in Velsen-Zuid Elswout in Bloemendaal Huys Clingendael in Wassenaar Frankendael in the Watergraafsmeer Goudestein in Maarssen Groeneveld in Baarn Hofwijck in Voorburg Huis Honselaarsdijk in Honselersdijk Trompenburgh in's-Graveland Hartekamp in Heemstede Berkenrode in Heemstede Iepenrode in Heemstede Huis te Manpad in Heemstede Villa Welgelegen in Haarlem Oud Poelgeest in Oegstgeest Keukenhof te Lisse Gunterstein in Breukelen Bolenstein in Maarssen Rustenhoven in Maartensdijk Sparrendaal in Driebergen Wester-Amstel in Amstelveen Castle Cottage Country house Dacha Stately home Summer house Buitenhuizen in the Dutch canon timeline of history
Heemstede is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Heemstede formed around the Castle Heemstede, built overlooking the Spaarne River around 1286. Before 1296, Floris V, Count of Holland, granted Heemstede as a fiefdom to Reinier of Holy. During the 14th century, a village formed near the castle, destroyed and rebuilt several times in this period. A resident of this castle was Adriaan Pauw, who bought it in 1620. In 1653, Bennebroek split off from Heemstede. Growth was slow, in 1787 Heemstede counted 196 families. At that early date Heemstede had gained the reputation it has today, of being a "bedroom community" for the cities of Haarlem and Amsterdam. Wealthy city families left the cities in the summer, escaping "canal fever" which caused illness from the putrid canals; as a result, many estates were built in the 17th and 18th centuries, some of which remain until today such as Oud-Berkenroede, Ipenrode, Huis te Manpad, Bosbeek, Meer en Bosch, Meer en Berg, Gliphoeve.
In 1857, the municipality Berkenrode was merged with Heemstede. In 1927, the northern portion of Heemstede, including a large part of the Haarlem Forest, was in turn added to the city of Haarlem. Groenendaal park: Designed by John Hope, it was formed by merging several country estates into one. Vrijheidsbeeld, statue by Mari Andriessen to celebrate freedom and commemorate Heemstede victims of the Dutch Revolt. Located on the Vrijheidsdreef in Groenendaal park. Slot Heemstede: The site of the Heemstede castle. Hartekamp: Heemstede summer home of George Clifford, who hired Linnaeus to write his'Hortus Cliffortianus', a detailed catalogue of the plant specimens in the herbarium and gardens of Hartecamp. George Clifford's house is closed to the public, but the surrounding gardens are used as a campus and are open to visitors. Linnaeusbos: Originally a part of Hartekamp, planted by George Clifford and documented by Linnaeus. In 2007, Heemstede celebrated Linnaeus's 300th birthday. De Naald: The'needle' is a monument placed by D.
J. van Lennep to honor Witte van Haemstede, the savior of Haarlem at a battle which on April 26, 1304 and to honor the wounded of another battle fought against the Spanish on July 8, 1573. Both battles took place right at the corner of David Jacob van Lennep's house Huis te Manpad, where the monument stands; the town is served by Heemstede-Aerdenhout railway station, which lies on the Oude Lijn between Haarlem and Leiden. Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Heemstede, June 2015 The municipal council of Heemstede consists of 21 seats, which are divided as follows: VVD - 6 seats CDA - 4 seats PvdA - 4 seats GroenLinks - 3 seats Heemsteeds Burger Belang HBB - 2 seats D66 - 1 seat Nieuw Heemstede - 1 seat Jeroen Bleekemolen – racing driver Annemieke Fokke – field hockey player Pieter Kooijmans – jurist and diplomat Roepie Kruize – field hockey player and coach Johan Limpers, Dutch sculptor Johan Neeskens – football player and manager Astrid Schulz – model and actress Joost Swarte – comic artist and graphical designer Julian Ras – actor Thierry Baudet – Dutch politician and leader of the Forum for Democracy Media related to Heemstede, North Holland at Wikimedia Commons Official website