Josiah Quincy III
Josiah Quincy III was a U. S. educator and political figure. He was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, Mayor of Boston, the historic Quincy Market in downtown Boston is named in his honor. Quincy, the son of Josiah Quincy II and Abigail Phillips, was born in Boston, on part of Washington Street that was known as Marlborough Street. His father had traveled to England in 1774, partly for his health, Josiah Quincy II died off the coast of Gloucester on April 26,1775. His son, young Josiah, was not yet three years old and he entered Phillips Academy, when it opened in 1778, and graduated from Harvard in 1790. After his graduation from Harvard he studied law for three years under the tutorship of William Tudor, Quincy was admitted to the bar in 1793, but was never a prominent advocate. In 1797 Quincy married Eliza Susan Morton of New York, younger sister of Jacob Morton and they had seven children, Eliza Susan Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Jr. Abigail Phillips Quincy, Maria Sophia Quincy, Margaret Morton Quincy, Edmund Quincy, and Anna Cabot Lowell Quincy.
In 1798 Quincy was appointed Boston Town Orator by the Board of Selectmen and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. From 1805 to 1813, he was a member of the United States House of Representatives where he was one of the small Federalist minority. He attempted to secure the exemption of fishing vessels from the Embargo Act, urged the strengthening of the United States Navy and this was probably the first assertion of the right of secession on the floor of Congress. Quincy left Congress because he saw that the Federalist opposition was useless, in 1812, Quincy was a founding member of the American Antiquarian Society. After leaving Congress, Quincy was a member of the Massachusetts Senate until 1820, in 1821–22 he was a member and speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Quincy resigned from the legislature to become judge of the court of Boston. On April 8,1822 Quincy was a candidate for Mayor in Bostons first election under a city charter, after the first ballot the votes of this first election were split between Quincy and Harrison Gray Otis.
Because neither had a majority of the electorate neither was elected, after the first vote resulted in neither man receiving a majority of the votes they both withdrew their candidacies and John Phillips was elected Bostons first mayor. In 1823 Quincy was elected as the mayor of Boston. During his terms as mayor Quincy Market was built, the fire and police departments were reorganized, from 1829 to 1845, he was President of Harvard University, of which he had been an overseer since 1810, when the board was reorganized. He has been called the great organizer of the university, during his term Dane Hall was dedicated, Gore Hall was built, and the Astronomical Observatory was equipped
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
The XL Center is a multi-purpose arena and convention center located in downtown Hartford, Connecticut. It is owned by the City of Hartford and operated by Spectra, in December 2007, the Center was renamed when the arenas naming rights were sold to XL Group insurance company in a 6-year agreement. The arena is ranked the 28th largest among college basketball arenas, opened in 1974 as the Hartford Civic Center and originally located adjacent to Civic Center Mall, which was demolished in 2004. It consists of two facilities, the Veterans Memorial Coliseum and the Exhibition Center, on March 21,2007, the CDA selected the Northland/Anschutz Entertainment Group proposal. It was revealed that Northland will assume responsibility for the building paying for any and all losses. In 2012, the oversite for the XL Center along with Rentschler Field was legislated to the Capital Region Development Authority, CRDA issued an RFP for management services of both facilities. Starting in the late 1990s, the UConn men moved most of their important games—including the bulk of their Big East Conference games—to the Coliseum.
During the 2011–2012 season, for instance, they played 11 home games at the Coliseum and only eight at their on-campus facility and this practice continued when the Huskies joined the American Athletic Conference, successor to the original Big East, in 2013. The Uconn Mens Hockey team uses the XL Center as its home as the newest member of Hockey East. It was the home of the Connecticut Coyotes and the New England Sea Wolves of the Arena Football League, the graduation ceremonies of Central Connecticut State University and other local colleges are held annually at the XL Center. As originally built in 1975, it seated 10,507 for hockey, the building was heavily renovated and re-opened January 17,1980. The Arena hosted the Hartford Whalers from January 11,1980 to April 13,1997, shortly thereafter the team relocated to Raleigh to become the Carolina Hurricanes. In 1994, new owner Peter Karmanos purchased the team and pledged to keep the Whalers in Connecticut until 1998, unless they could not sell over 11,000 season tickets.
After failed negotiations to build a new arena for the Whalers with then-Governor John G. Rowland, on March 25,1997. The New York Rangers, looking to capitalize on Hartford as a potential market, after a short stint as the Connecticut Whale, they reverted to the Wolf Pack moniker in 2013. Renovations were complete in October 2014, which is set to serve the arena until its fiftieth birthday, a portion of the $35 million allocation went towards a study on the arena’s long-term viability, either more major renovations or replacing it with a new facility. The tournament champion received a bid to the 1977 NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Tournament. The Grateful Deads performance, on May 28,1977, was recorded and released as an album, entitled To Terrapin
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837 and was the founder of the Democratic Party. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson served in Congress, as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the common man against what he saw as a corrupt aristocracy and to preserve the Union. Jackson was born in 1767 somewhere near the border between North and South Carolina, into a recently immigrated Scots-Irish farming family. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson acted as a courier, at age 13, he was captured and mistreated by the British. He moved to Tennessee and practiced as a lawyer, in 1791, he married Rachel Donelson Robards. The couple learned that Rachels previous husband had failed to finalize their divorce, Jackson served briefly in the U. S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate. Upon returning to Tennessee, he was appointed a judge on the Tennessee Supreme Court, in 1801, Jackson was appointed colonel in the Tennessee militia, and was elected its commander the following year.
He built the Hermitage plantation in 1804, in 1806, he killed a man in a duel over a matter of honor regarding his wife. He led Tennessee militia and U. S. Army regulars during the Creek War of 1813-1814, Jackson won a decisive victory in the War of 1812 over the British army at the Battle of New Orleans, making him into a national hero. Because Spanish Florida was a refuge for blacks escaping slavery, who allied with the Seminole Indians, Jackson invaded the territory in 1816 to destroy the Negro Fort. He led an invasion in 1818, as part of the First Seminole War, resulting in the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819. Jackson briefly served as Floridas first Territorial Governor in 1821, Jackson was nominated by several state legislatures to be a candidate for president in 1824. Although he earned a plurality in both the electoral and popular vote against three major candidates, Jackson failed to get a majority and lost in the House of Representatives to John Quincy Adams, Jacksons supporters founded what became the Democratic Party.
He ran again for president in 1828 against Adams and expanding upon his base of support in the West and South, he won in a landslide. He blamed the death of his wife, which occurred after the election, on the Adams campaigners, as president, Jackson faced a threat of secession by South Carolina over the Tariff of Abominations, which Congress had enacted under Adams. In contrast to several of his successors, he denied the right of a state to secede from the union or to nullify federal law. The Nullification Crisis was defused when the tariff was amended and Jackson threatened the use of force if South Carolina attempted to secede. Jackson believed strongly in majority rule and he supported direct election of senators and abolition of the Electoral College, believing that these reforms would provide average citizens with greater power
Hartford is the capital of the U. S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, as of the 2010 Census, Hartfords population was 124,775, making it Connecticuts third-largest city after the coastal cities of Bridgeport and New Haven. Census Bureau estimates since have indicated Hartfords subsequent fall to fourth place statewide as a result of sustained growth in the coastal city of Stamford. Nicknamed the Insurance Capital of the World, Hartford houses many insurance company headquarters, founded in 1635, Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States. In 1868, resident Mark Twain wrote, Of all the towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief. Following the American Civil War, Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades, Hartford is one of the poorest cities in the nation with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty line. In sharp contrast, the Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production, various tribes, all part of the loose Algonquin confederation, lived in or around present-day Hartford.
The area was referred to as Suckiaug, meaning Black Fertile River-Enhanced Earth, the first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch, under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post, the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop, or the House of Hope, in 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to perhaps a couple families and a few dozen soldiers, the area today is known as Dutch Point, and the name of the Dutch fort, House of Hope, is reflected in the name of Huyshope Avenue. The fort was abandoned by 1654, but its neighborhood in Hartford is still known as Dutch Point, the Dutch outpost, and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers that were stationed there, did little to check the English migration.
The Dutch soon realized they were vastly outnumbered, the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was steadily swallowed up by waves of English settlers. The English began to arrive 1637, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown, the settlement was originally called Newtown, but was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stones hometown of Hertford, England. Hooker created the town of Windsor. The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, the Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer, which in full maturity was referred to by the medieval hunting term hart. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River had issues with the authority by which it was to be governed because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colonys charter. Historians suggest that Hookers conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders went on to inspire the Connecticut Constitution, one of Connecticuts nicknames is the Constitution State
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by land area and the 9th least populous of the 50 United States. Concord is the capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state and in northern New England, including Vermont. It has no sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle and its license plates carry the state motto, Live Free or Die. The states nickname, The Granite State, refers to its extensive granite formations, the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the New England region and it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Massachusetts to the south, and Vermont to the west.
New Hampshires major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003. Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport and its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshires Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut define the Canada–U. S, the Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the states only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth.
The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine, the U. S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. New Hampshire still claims sovereignty of the base, the largest of New Hampshires lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles, is a distant second, Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. It is the state with the highest percentage of area in the country. New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests
Lake Champlain /ʃæmˈpleɪn/ is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States but partially situated across the Canada–U. S. Border, in the Canadian province of Quebec, the New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of Clinton County and Essex County. Most of this area is part of the Adirondack Park, there are recreational opportunities in the park and along the relatively undeveloped coastline of Lake Champlain. The cities of Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont are on the western and eastern shores, respectively. The Quebec portion is in the county municipalities of Le Haut-Richelieu. There are a number of islands in the lake, the largest include Grand Isle, Isle La Motte, and North Hero, all part of Grand Isle County, Vermont. The Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a system known as the Great Appalachian Valley. The Champlain Valley is a section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley. Lake Champlain is one of large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States.
Although it is smaller than each of the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain is a body of fresh water. Approximately 1,269 km2 in area, the lake is roughly 201 km long and 23 km across at its widest point, the lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft above mean sea level. Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, and approximately 250,000 people get their water from the lake. The lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Missisquoi and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, and Otter Creek. In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy, Salmon, in Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River. It is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal, parts of the lake freeze each winter, and in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as closing. In July and August, the temperature reaches an average of 70 °F. The Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation extends from Tennessee to Quebec. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the oldest reefs are around The Head of the south end of the island, slightly younger reefs are found at the Fisk Quarry, and the youngest are in fields to the north
Burning of Washington
The Burning of Washington was a British attack against Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812. S. government. The attack was in part a retaliation for the recent American destruction of Port Dover in Upper Canada and it marks the only time in U. S. history that Washington, D. C. has been occupied by a foreign force. President James Madison, military officials, and his government fled the city in the wake of the British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg. They eventually found refuge for the night in Brookeville, a town in Montgomery County, Maryland. President Madison spent the night in the house of Caleb Bentley, bentleys house, known today as the Madison House, still stands in Brookeville. Less than a day after the attack began, a sudden, following the storm, the British returned to their ships, many of which were badly damaged. The occupation of Washington lasted only about 26 hours, after the Storm that saved Washington, as it soon came to be called, the Americans were able to regain control of the city.
The British government, already at war with Napoleonic France, adopted a strategy against the United States when the Americans declared war in 1812. Reinforcements were held back from Canada and reliance was made on local militias. However, after the defeat and exile of Napoleon Bonaparte in April 1814 and it was decided to use these forces in raids along the Atlantic seaboard to draw American forces away from Canada. The commanders were under orders, not to carry out operations far inland. He planned to carry the war into the United States by attacks in Virginia, Rear Admiral George Cockburn had commanded the squadron in Chesapeake Bay since the previous year. On June 25 he wrote to Cochrane, stressing that the defenses there were weak, Cochrane suggested attacking Baltimore and Philadelphia. On July 17, Cockburn recommended Washington as the target, because of the ease of attacking the national capital. Cochrane instructed, You will spare merely the lives of the inhabitants of the United States.
Ross and Cockburn surveyed the torching of the Presidents Mansion, during which time a storm arose unexpectedly out of the southeast. They were confronted a number of times while on horseback by older women from around Washington City and elderly clergymen and they requested protection from abuse and robbery by enlisted personnel from the British Expeditionary Forces whom they accused of having tried to ransack private homes and other buildings. Major-General Ross had two British soldiers put in chains for violation of his general order, throughout the events of that day, a severe storm blew into the city, worsening on the night of August 24,1814
The Federalist Party was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to 1816, its remnants lasted into the 1820s, the Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France. The party controlled the government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamiltons fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound, the only Federalist president was John Adams, although George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, he remained officially non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794.
Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and successfully argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, the Jay Treaty passed, and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s. They held a strong base in the cities and in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the election of 1800. They recovered some strength by their opposition to the War of 1812. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. James Madison was Hamiltons ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, even though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles. Parties were considered to be divisive and harmful to republicanism, No similar parties existed anywhere in the world.
By 1790 Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition and his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress, brought strong responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a faction and then, finally. The Federalist Party supported Hamiltons vision of a centralized government. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between France and Great Britain, the majority of the Founding Fathers were originally Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and many others can all be considered Federalists and these Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed
Samuel Dexter was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinet. After he passed the bar in 1784, he began practicing in Lunenburg and he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives and served from 1788 to 1790. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Federalist and he served in the United States Senate from March 4,1799, to May 30,1800. Dexter responded by questioning why Catholics were not required to denounce allegiance to the Pope, in December 1799, he delivered the Senate eulogy for George Washington. Dexter served in the Senate for less than a year, during his time at the War Department he urged congressional action to permit appointment and compensation of field officers for general staff duty. When Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr. resigned in December 1800, Adams appointed Dexter as interim Secretary, in a letter to his wife on March 5,1801, Gallatin said that Dexter had behaved with great civility.
He returned to Boston in 1805 and resumed the practice of law and he left the Federalists and became a Democratic-Republican because he supported the War of 1812. He was a candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1814,1815 and 1816. Dexter was an ardent supporter of the movement and presided over its first formal organization in Massachusetts. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and he died on May 4,1816, shortly before his 55th birthday and is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Simon Newton Dexter and Andrew Dexter, Jr. were his nephews, samuel W. Dexter, founder of Dexter, was his son. Samuel Dexter is the namesake of Dexter, the USRC Dexter was named in his honor. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Old State House (Connecticut)
The Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut is generally believed to have been designed by noted American architect Charles Bulfinch as his first public building. The State House is currently managed by the Office of Legislative Management of the Connecticut General Assembly, the exterior building and the Senate have been restored to its original Federal style, the Representatives chamber is Victorian, and the halls and courtroom are Colonial Revival. The Hartford State House is, in appearance, very similar to the Town Hall of Liverpool, built in the mid-18th century, all materials came from the United States. Its first story is 20 feet high and constructed from Portland, the second and third stories are brick patterned in Flemish bond. The State House has been modified somewhat since it was first built, an original stone spiral staircase behind the northern arch, designed by Asher Benjamin, led to the second and third floors, it no longer exists. In 1814, the Hartford Convention was held there, in 1839, the start of the Amistad trial was held there.
The building had been in danger of closing in 2008 due to financial constraints and Hartford officials have recently signed a 99-year lease placing Connecticuts Old State House under new management. The lease puts the city-owned historic building under the control of the state Office of Legislative Management and it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. Exhibits focus on the history of Hartford and important events in Connecticut history, visitors can tour the original legislative rooms. The Museum of Natural and Other Curiosities is located on the floor of the Old State House. The museum features a recreation of Joseph Stewards original 1798 collection of natural history displays, over the years, several eyewitnesses have claimed to experience paranormal activity inside the building. In 2009, the Old State House was investigated by the investigators of TAPS on episode 524 of the Sci Fi Channel program Ghost Hunters, the episode aired on December 9,2009. Following the investigation, TAPS announced that they captured audio of strange sounds inside the building, before giving a final verdict of haunted or not, the team plans to head back to the Old State House for a more in depth investigation.
So until then, this remains open
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days