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Hartford County, Connecticut

Hartford County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Connecticut. According to the 2010 census, the population was 894,014, making it the second-most populous county in Connecticut. In 2018, it's population declined to an estimated 892,697. Hartford County contains the city of Hartford, the state capital of Connecticut and the county's most populous city, with an estimated 123,400 residents in 2017. Hartford County is included in the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford metropolitan statistical area. Hartford County was one of four original counties in Connecticut established on May 10, 1666, by an act of the Connecticut General Court; the act establishing the county states: This Court orders that the Townes on the River from yee north bounds of Windsor wth Farmington to ye south end of ye bounds of Thirty Miles Island shalbe & remaine to be one County wch shalbe called the County of Hartford. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe kept at Hartford on the 1st Thursday in March and on the first Thursday in September yearely.

As established in 1666, Hartford County consisted of the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Middletown. The "Thirty Miles Island" referred to in the constituting Act was incorporated as the town of Haddam in 1668. In 1670, the town of Simsbury was established, extending Hartford County to the Massachusetts border. In the late 17th to early 18th centuries, several more towns were established and added to Hartford County: Waterbury in 1686, Windham in 1694, Hebron in 1708, Coventry in 1712, Litchfield in 1722. In 1714, all of the unincorporated territory north of the towns of Coventry and Windham in northeastern Connecticut to the Massachusetts border were placed under the jurisdiction of Hartford County. Windham County was constituted in 1726, resulting in Hartford County losing the towns of Windham, Coventry and Ashford. Northwestern Connecticut, placed under the jurisdiction of New Haven County in 1722, was transferred to Hartford County by 1738. All of northwestern Connecticut was constituted as the new Litchfield County in 1751.

In 1785, two more counties were established in what was now the U. S. state of Connecticut: Tolland and Middlesex. This resulted in the modern extent of Hartford County. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the establishment of several more towns resulted in minor adjustments in the bounds of the county; the final adjustment resulting in the modern limits occurred on May 8, 1806, when the town of Canton was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau in 2010, the county had a total area of 751 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Connecticut by land area. The county is divided into two unequal parts by the Connecticut River, watered by Farmington, Podunk and other rivers; the surface is diverse: part of the river valleys are alluvial and subject to flooding, while other portions of the county are hilly and mountainous. Hampden County, Massachusetts Tolland County New London County Middlesex County New Haven County Litchfield County In Connecticut, there is no county-level executive or legislative government.

Each city or town is responsible for local services such as schools, snow removal, fire department and police departments. In Connecticut and towns may agree to jointly provide services or establish a regional school system. Bristol Hartford New Britain As of the census of 2000, there were 857,183 people, 335,098 households, 222,505 families living in the county; the population density was 1,166 people per square mile. There were 353,022 housing units at an average density of 480 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.90% White, 11.66% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 2.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 6.43% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. 11.55 % of the population were Latino of any race. 15.2% were of Italian, 11.2% Irish, 9.1% Polish, 6.5% English, 5.7% French and 5.3% German ancestry. 78.4% spoke English, 10.3% Spanish, 2.6% Polish, 1.9% French and 1.6% Italian as their first language. There were 335,098 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families.

27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,756, the median income for a family was $62,144. Males had a median income of $43,985 versus $33,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,047. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 894,014 people, 350,854 households

Frank Toovey Lake

Frank Toovey Lake died while serving in Japan with the British Royal Navy. After his death at the age of 19, he was interred on the island of Sanuki Hiroshima in the Seto Inland Sea. Since his burial – and until the present day – the islanders have steadfastly maintained the grave; this led to admiration among the late 19th-century British community in Japan including prominent members such as the British Ambassador Sir Ernest Satow, a number of newspaper articles appeared around the world in 1899 recounting the story and praising the conscientiousness of the local people. Since the grave's story has continued to feature in the world's media, continues to be celebrated in Japan as a demonstration of the historic relationship between the two countries. Lake's story involves Richard Henry Brunton and Thomas B Glover as well as the aforementioned Ernest Satow, all of whom had important roles in Japan's modernisation during the Meiji era. In 2018, celebrations to mark the 150 anniversary of his death took place around his grave.

Frank Toovey Lake was born into a professional family in 1849. His father was a civil engineer involved with the construction of the Grand Junction Canal and his mother's family were mill-owners in Kings Langley, England, he was the middle son of three siblings. When the three children were still young, their mother died of cholera at the age of 29 in 1854. Both were boarders Lake left school at the age of fourteen and entered the Royal Navy as a Naval Cadet, joining HMS Britannia to begin his officer training. In order to gain entry to the Royal Navy he needed to pass an entrance exam taken at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth; this he took in April 1864 and was awarded a Second Class Cadetship along with 48 First Class entrants and 11 further Second Class entrants. They all joined HMS Britannia. A year he took a second exam and was able to join a sea-going ship as a midshipman where he continued his training. Lake's naval record shows that the first ship he joined was HMS Argus – at that time stationed in Hong Kong - which he reached after four months sailing from England.

Argus was a wooden hulled paddle-sloop, a fighting vessel with six cannon and a complement of 175 and, after sailing from Hong Kong with Lake on board, she spent most of her time in Japanese watersEighteen months in 1867, Lake transferred to HMS Manilla stationed in Shanghai. She remained in Chinese waters for a number of months before sailing east to Japan. In November 1868, HMS Manilla was assigned duties to help Richard Henry Brunton survey potential sites for the erection of lighthouses around Japan's coastline. Brunton, along with his assistant Arthur W Blundell and a party of Japanese officials, embarked at Yokohama and sailed south with a list of fourteen sites to visit; the island of Sanuki Hiroshima was one of the sites on Brunton's list. They reached here on the morning of Sunday 20 December. Prayers were said and the ‘Engineers Party’ disembarked to start their survey. At 2.5pm, the Ships Log records ‘Departed this life, Frank Toovey Lake, Navigating Midshipman.’ No explanation was written in the Log or Muster book as to the reason for his death.

However, it is known Lake's death was sudden and unexpected as, in his memoirs Schoolmaster to an Empire published many years Brunton wrote, "Eventually we reached Hiroshima. Here an incident occurred, worth narrating, as showing another, but this time a most pleasing and praiseworthy phase of Japanese character. One of the midshipmen on the Manilla, a lad of nineteen, died quite while the vessel was at anchor." The next day, Lake was buried on Sanuki Hiroshima in the village of Enoura. The ship's log records, ‘9.30 Officers and Ships Company landed to inter the remains of the late Mr Lake, Navigating Midshipman.’ Brunton described the funeral in his memoirs,'He was buried on the shore of a beautiful bay, the whole ship's crew accompanying the coffin. The officers, fellow countrymen of the dead youth, stood in a group at a respectful distance, while the ceremony was proceeding; when it was over they approached, the Tokio officer made a sympathetic little speech. He finished it by saying that in Japan it was the custom to present flowers to the dead, but as there were none in the locality, he asked permission to place a headstone at the grave, explained that he had written to his government asking that orders be given to have the tomb preserved and taken care of by the local authorities.

After the funeral ceremony was over, a pretty sight was presented by quite a number of aged men and women approaching with shrubs and twigs, which they reverently laid on the grave. These proceedings at Hiroshima enhanced the European's opinion of Japanese character, so far at least as kindliness of disposition is concerned.' After the funeral party returned to the Manilla at 10.40, a volley of blank cartridges was fired, the anchor weighed and the Manilla sailed towards Nagasaki. (All this noted in HMS Manilla's log

Jan Drohojowski

Jan Drohojowski was a Polish diplomat for the governments of the Second Polish Republic and Polish government in exile and the People's Republic of Poland. Born on 27 January 1901 in Tarnów, he begun his diplomatic career around early 1920s, but retired following the May Coup, emigrated to the United States, where he was a journalist for some Polish-American press. Following the onset of WWII he became involved with the Polish government in exile, first working in the Polish embassy in the USA, he was Poland's chargé d' affaires to Cuba, a representative to China, a consul in Jerusalem, following that he became a deputy minister of information and documentation in the government-in-exile until 1944. Following the war he joined the diplomatic service of the communist Polish government, becoming an envoy or an ambassador to Mexico and Egypt, he was a representative of Poland to the United Nations. From April 1952 to April 1953 he was a director of the Powszechna Kasa Oszczędności Bank Polski, he received the Order of Polonia Restituta twice.

Following a purge, he was arrested and held until March 1955. He spent the rest of his life as a writer and journalist, publishing several books on Latin America, in addition to his memoirs, he died on 2 January 1979 in Warsaw. Jan Drohojowski married twice. First around 1930 he married Texas oil heiress Katharyn Silva Cornell, they divorced in 1935, with Cornell alleging that Drohojowski "told risque stories... came to lunch in pajamas". Drohojowski requested, but did not receive, alimony from Cornell, "an unusual plea in court annals." Around 1940 he married his fellow diplomat Natalia Aszkenazy. They had a son, Adam Francisco Drohojowski, born in Mexico in 1947. Jana Drohojewskiego wspomnienia dyplomatyczne Abraham Lincoln Meksyk bogów, krzyża i dolarów Indianin prezydentem Meksyku Religie i wierzenia w życiu Ameryki Łacińskiej Róg obfitości Ameryka Łacińska z bliska Polacy w Ameryce Drohojowski Jan. Zgon. Kultura 1979 nr 2 s.2.. Liter. 1979 s.746-747.. Lud. 1979 nr 4 s.4.. 1979 nr 3 s.2, nr 5 s.5, nr 6 s.5..


Natalia Ivanova (wrestler)

Natalia Ivanova is a retired amateur Russian and Tajik freestyle wrestler, who competed in the women's middleweight category. Considered one of Russia's top female wrestlers of her decade, Ivanova has yielded a remarkable tally of six career medals, including two silver at the World Championships, before she acquired a dual citizenship to compete for Tajikistan in 2002. Since she scored a sixth spot in the 63-kg division at the 2002 Asian Games in Busan, South Korea, finished eleventh at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Ivanova is a member of the wrestling squad for Pobeda Sports and Military Games Club in Angarsk, under her personal coach Valery Saiziev. While competing for the Russian team, Ivanova emerged herself into a sporting fame at the 1995 World Wrestling Championships in Atlanta, United States, where she captured a silver medal in the 61-kg division, losing to Austria's Nikola Hartmann. By the following year, she campaigned for her runner-up defense in the same tournament in Sofia and boasted for the bronze at the European Championships in Oslo, Norway.

Before leaving for the Tajik squad in 2002, Ivanova held a remarkable record of six medals. When she entered the 2002 Asian Games in Busan, South Korea as a crowd favorite in the women's middleweight category, Ivanova missed a chance to capture another medal to her career hardware, placing sixth in the process; when women's wrestling made its debut at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Ivanova qualified for her naturalized Tajik squad in the inaugural 63 kg class. Earlier in the process, she placed third and guaranteed a spot on the Tajik wrestling team from the Olympic Qualification Tournament in Tunis, Tunisia. Ivanova lost two straight matches each to Belarus' Volha Khilko and eventual Olympic bronze medalist Lise Legrand of France, leaving her on the bottom of the pool and placing eleventh in the final standings. Profile – International Wrestling Database

Otto of Bavaria

Otto was King of Bavaria from 1886 to 1913. However, he never ruled because of alleged severe mental illness, his uncle and his cousin, served as regents. Ludwig deposed him in 1913, a day after the legislature passed a law allowing him to do so, became king in his own right. Otto was the son of Maximilian II and his wife, Marie of Prussia, the younger brother of Ludwig II. Prince Otto was born on 27 April 1848, two months premature, in the Munich Residenz, his parents were King Maximilian II of Marie of Prussia. His uncle, King Otto I of Greece, served as his godfather. Otto had Crown Prince Ludwig, they spent most of their childhood with teachers at Hohenschwangau Castle. Their parents were distant and formal, they were at such a loss about what to say to Otto and Ludwig that they ignored and avoided them, their mother took an interest in what the brothers wore: she ordered for Ludwig to be always dressed in blue and for Otto to wear always red. Their father was strict with the brothers Ludwig, the heir apparent.

Between 1853 and 1863, the brothers spent their summer holidays at the Royal Villa in Berchtesgaden, specially built for their father. Otto served in the Bavarian army from 1863, he was appointed sub-lieutenant on 27 April 1863 and admitted to the Cadet Corps on 1 March 1864. On 26 May 1864, he was promoted to full lieutenant. On 10 March 1864, Otto's father died and his brother, succeeded as King of Bavaria. Between 18 June and 15 July 1864, the two brothers received state visits by the emperors of Austria and Russia. Otto was promoted to Captain on 27 April 1866 and entered active military service in the Royal Bavarian Infantry Guards, he participated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and as colonel in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. His experiences on the battlefield traumatized him and caused him to suffer from depression and insomnia; when Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor on 18 January 1871 at the Palace of Versailles, Prince Otto and his uncle, represented King Ludwig II, who refused to participate.

Otto criticized the celebration as ostentatious and heartless in a letter to his brother. Ludwig and Otto despised their ambitious Prussian relatives and cordially disliked their Prussian mother and so they were appalled by the creation of the new German Empire; the hostility of both was no secret to the Prussian government. Otto and Ludwig were seen together during the early years of Ludwig's reign, but they became estranged over time. Ludwig was shy and introverted and became a recluse. Otto was cheerful and extroverted until the Franco-Prussian War. In 1868, Otto received the Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception, the house order of the House of Wittelsbach. In 1869, he joined the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, on the initiative of Cardinal Karl-August von Reisach. After the Franco-Prussian War, Otto became depressed and anxious, which worried his family. Otto had spells during which he slept poorly for days and acted out, followed by periods of time during which he was normal and lucid.

His illness progressively grew worse. Ludwig was horrified because he had been counting on Otto to marry and have a son who could inherit the throne. Otto was placed under medical supervision, reports about his condition were sent by spies working for the Prussian Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. Doctors reported that Otto was mentally ill in January 1872. From 1873, he was held in isolation in the southern pavilion of Nymphenburg Palace, his attending physician was Dr. Bernhard von Gudden, who diagnosed Otto's brother, Ludwig, as mentally ill without bothering to examine him and without asking him a single question, which raises questions about his competence and his motives. Both Ludwig and Otto despised Prussia, their uncle and Gudden supported Prussia's rise to dominance; some contemporaries believed that Gudden's diagnoses of Otto and Ludwig were motivated by political considerations and that more could and should have been done to help and treat Otto. Some contemporaries believed that Bismarck did not want Ludwig or Otto to remain in power and decided to replace the brothers with their malleable uncle, Luitpold.

During Corpus Christi Mass in 1875 in the Frauenkirche in Munich, who had not attended the church service, rushed into the church wearing hunting clothes and fell on his knees before the celebrant, Archbishop Gregor von Scherr, to ask forgiveness for his sins. The High Mass was interrupted, the prince did not resist when he was led away by two church ministers. Otto was moved to Schleissheim Palace and was held prisoner there, much to his dismay. Gudden made no effort to treat him. Otto's last public appearance was his presence at the side of his brother at the King's parade on 22 August 1875, at the Marsfeld in Munich. From 1 June 1876, he stayed for a few weeks in the castle at Ludwigsthal in the Bavarian Forest. In the spring of 1880, his condition worsened. In 1883, he was confined under medical supervision in Fürstenried Palace near Munich, where he would remain for the rest of his life; the palace had been specially converted for his confinement. Ludwig visited him at night and ordered for no violence to be used against him.

Otto became king after Ludwig died, but he was never allowed to reign. In 1886, the senior royal medical officer wrote a statement declaring that Otto was mentally ill, it has been claimed that Ludwig had a schizotypal personality disorder and that Otto suffered from schizophrenia. It has been per

First Congo War

The First Congo War nicknamed Africa's First World War, was a civil war and international military conflict which took place in Zaire, with major spillovers into Sudan and Uganda. The conflict culminated in a foreign invasion that replaced Zairean President Mobutu Sese Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Following years of internal strife and economic decline, Zaire was a dying state by 1996; the eastern parts of the country had been destabilized due to the Rwandan genocide and other regional conflicts, in many areas state authority had collapsed, with infighting militias and rebel groups in power. The population of Zaire had become restless and resentful of the inept and corrupt regime, whose military was in a catastrophic condition, while President Mobutu was terminally ill and no longer able to keep the different factions in his government under control. Furthermore, most neighboring states had become enemies, while Mobutu's international support had completely eroded; the situation escalated when Rwanda invaded Zaire in 1996 to defeat a number of rebel groups which had found refuge in the country.

This invasion escalated, as more states joined the invasion, while a Congolese alliance of anti-Mobutu rebels was assembled. Though the Zairean government attempted to put up an effective resistance, was supported by allied militias as well as Sudan, Mobutu's regime collapsed in a matter of months. Despite the war's short duration, it was marked by widespread destruction and extensive ethnic violence, with hundreds of thousands killed in the fighting and accompanying pogroms. A new government was installed, Zaire was renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo, but this brought little true change. Kabila soon alienated his Ugandan allies. To avert a coup, Kabila expelled all Ugandan forces from the Congo; this event was a major cause of the Second Congo War the following year. Some experts prefer to view the two conflicts as one war. An ethnic Ngbandi, Mobutu came to power in 1965 and enjoyed support from the United States government because of his anti-communist stance while in office. However, Mobutu's totalitarian rule and corrupt policies allowed the Zairian state to decay, evidenced by a 65% decrease in Zairian GDP between independence in 1960 and the end of Mobutu's reign in 1997.

Following the end of the Cold War circa 1990, the United States stopped supporting Mobutu in favour of what it called a "new generation of African leaders", including Rwanda's Paul Kagame and Uganda's Yoweri Museveni. A wave of democratisation swept across Africa during the 1990s. Under substantial internal and external pressure for a democratic transition in Zaire, Mobutu promised reform, he ended the one-party system he had maintained since 1967, but proved unwilling to implement broad reform, alienating allies both at home and abroad. In fact, the Zairian state had all but ceased to exist; the majority of the Zairian population relied on an informal economy for their subsistence, since the official economy was not reliable. Furthermore, the Zairian national army, Forces Armées Zaïroises, was forced to prey upon the population for survival. Mobutu's rule encountered considerable internal resistance, given the weak central state, rebel groups could find refuge in Zaire's eastern provinces, far from the capital, Kinshasa.

Opposition groups included leftists who had supported Patrice Lumumba, as well as ethnic and regional minorities opposed to the dominance of Kinshasa. Laurent-Désiré Kabila, an ethnic Luba from Katanga province who would overthrow Mobutu, had fought Mobutu's régime since its inception; the inability of the Mobutuist régime to control rebel movements in its eastern provinces allowed its internal and external foes to ally. Tensions had existed between various ethnic groups in eastern Zaire for centuries between the agrarian tribes native to Zaire and semi-nomadic Tutsi tribes that had emigrated from Rwanda at various times; the earliest of these migrants arrived before colonisation in the 1880s, followed by emigrants whom the Belgian colonizers forcibly relocated to Congo to perform manual labour, by another significant wave of emigrants fleeing the social revolution of 1959 that brought the Hutu to power in Kigali. Tutsi who emigrated to Zaire before Congolese independence in 1960 are known as Banyamulenge, meaning "from Mulenge", had the right to citizenship under Zairian law.

Tutsi who emigrated to Zaire following independence are known as Banyarwanda, although the native locals do not distinguish between the two, call them both Banyamulenge and consider them foreigners. After coming to power in 1965, Mobutu gave the Banyamulenge political power in the east in hopes that they, as a minority, would keep a tight grip on power and prevent more populous ethnicities from forming an opposition; this move aggravated the existing ethnic tensions by strengthening the Banyamulenge's hold over important stretches of land in North Kivu that indigenous people claimed as their own. From 1963 to 1966 the Hunde and Nande ethnic groups of North Kivu fought against Rwandan emigrants — both Tutsi and Hutu – in the Kanyarwandan War, which involved several massacres. Despite a strong Rwandan presence in Mobutu's government, in 1981, Zaire adopted a restrictive citizenship law which denied the Banyamulenge and Banyarwanda citizenship and therewith all political rights. Though never enforced, the law angered individuals of Rwandan descent and contributed to a rising sense of et