Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
Newtown Public Schools
Newtown Public Schools is a school district in Fairfield County, United States. As of 2013 it contained seven schools, with a total enrollment of 5298, an increase of 1663 since 1994, it comprises 2.64% of Fairfield county. Teachers in the school district are paid more than average for the area, which has in the past led to complaints from neighbouring districts of staff being poached from them; the building that now houses Hawley School was built from donations to Newtown by Mary Elizabeth Hawley in 1921, was in fact named after her parents. It was a modern building for the time, having as it did central heating, an auditorium, a chemistry laboratory, fireproofing. By 1950, the school had become so overcrowded that an extension was built at the rear of the building and some of the old one-room schoolhouses were re-opened; the Newtown High School was located in this building from 1921 to 1953, when it was moved to a new building on Queen Street. The Hawley building was re-used as an elementary school, serving kindergarten to grade 8.
The high school moved from Queen Street in 1970, the Queen Street building became what is today Newtown Middle School, with the Hawley elementary school reduced to serving kindergarten to grade 4. The playground facilities used by Hawley School were once the Newtown Fairgrounds, they became Taylor Field, owned by Cornelius Byron Taylor, who donated the field to the town at the same time as Hawley donated the building. On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot his mother at home killed 26 people and himself at Sandy Hook Elementary School, it was the fourth-deadliest shooting in U. S. history, after the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings, the second-deadliest school shooting in U. S. history, after the Virginia Tech shootings, the deadliest of any U. S. elementary school. The Sandy Hook building did not reopen after the shooting. Donna Page, the school's former principal, became the interim principal, telling parents it was her "calling" to return after the tragedy.
She was the principal for 14 years before retiring in 2010. Many residents of Newtown expressed support for turning the site of the shooting at the former Sandy Hook Elementary School building into a memorial; the township decided the most appropriate course of action would be to demolish the old school and build a replacement on the same site. Demolition took place in October and November 2013; the demolition of the school was guarded and workers were required to sign confidentiality agreements to protect the victims and their families. The town accepted a state grant of $49.3 million to cover the costs of the demolition and construction. The new school opened in August 2016. List of school districts in Connecticut "Newtown Schools". Newtown, Connecticut: past and present. League of Women Voters of Newtown. 1955. Pp. 89 et seq
The New Hampshire Gazette
For the named but unrelated student newspaper based at the University of New Hampshire, see The New Hampshire. The New Hampshire Gazette is a non-profit, alternative, bi-weekly newspaper published in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, its editors claim that the paper, published on-and-off in one form or another since 1756, is the oldest newspaper in the United States and has trademarked the phrase "The Nation's Oldest Newspaper." The New Hampshire Gazette was founded in Portsmouth on October 7, 1756, by printer Daniel Fowle as the first newspaper in the Province of New Hampshire. Fowle lived in Boston before founding the Gazette, was the first to print the words of Samuel Adams, he spent time in prison for printing anti-British pamphlets "The Monster of Monsters" and "A Total Eclipse of Liberty." The Gazette continued publishing after Fowle's death in 1787, in 1839, was recognized as the oldest newspaper in America after the Maryland Gazette ceased publication. Starting in the 1890s, the Gazette was published by The Portsmouth Herald on weekends as a supplement to the Herald.
In 1960, the Gazette was renamed the Herald Weekend Edition, although the masthead indicated that the paper was "Continuing the New Hampshire Gazette." During the American Revolution it published a eulogy, dated Epsom, July 1775, to Andrew McClary, who died during the Battle of Bunker Hill. It read: "The Major discovered great intrepidity and presence of mind in the action, his noble soul glowed with ardor and the love of his country..."In 1989, a descendant of Daniel Fowle's, Steven Fowle, discovered that the Herald relinquished the trade name for the Gazette. Fowle registered the rights to the name and that spring began publishing the Gazette as an independent entity "episodically, in a small format" until May 1, 1999, when the publishers began its current format and schedule; the Hartford Courant, founded as a weekly in 1764, calls itself the nation's oldest continuously published newspaper, is cited as such in standard journalism history texts. It was an independent company until being absorbed by the Times Mirror chain in 1979 Tribune Corporation acquired Times Mirror.
In contrast, the New Hampshire Gazette has changed owners "over two-dozen times", by its owner's count, has sometimes been merged with other publications. The Newport Mercury in Rhode Island was identified as the nation's oldest newspaper during one of the New Hampshire Gazette's lulls, it was founded in 1758. The Mercury was published by The Newport Daily News as a weekly by-mail edition, reprinting stories from the daily for out-of-town subscribers. Most it became a tabloid magazine and web site using the addess newportmercury.com but using the name Mercury Magazine. The Gazette, as an alternative paper, is more focused on commentary than the reporting of current events, its editorial content can be described as "liberal". In recent years the paper has cemented its self-imposed mission as an independent voice railing against corporate media and conservative political control. Published every two weeks as a smaller format broadsheet of 14–20 pages, the Gazette's front page is an editorial called "The Fortnightly Rant", covering a few subjects of national or regional importance, accompanied by a political cartoon by Mike Dater reflecting the editorial.
The motto of the newspaper is the motto of the state of New Hampshire, Live die. Among articles of varying size and content are regular columns such as "Moving Pictures" by Rodman Philbrick and most notedly a regular essay, "History Matters," covering two pages or more by Portsmouth historian J. Dennis Robinson. Other regular features include "Hate Mail, Mash Notes, & Other Correspondence", the "Northcountry Chronicle", an editorial by William Marvel, "Free the Media Press", a reprinting of "Vintage News" from past issues of the Gazette dating to the mid-19th century; the most popular section of the newspaper is "Admiral Fowle's Piscataqua River Tidal Guide" on the last page which, in addition to a chronology of the tides to take place over each day of the upcoming two weeks, contains an idiosyncratic, hilarious listing of significant events from that day in history. The paper's circulation, at over 5,500 readers, is small, but as it is a non-profit independent paper with no marketing, it can be considered a significant number.
Its readership is very loyal, with nearly 1,000 mail subscribers throughout the country. For many years, the website for the Gazette had many resources in relation to its history, including a 19th-century reproduction of its first issue, a timeline and explanation of its position as oldest newspaper, much more. Beginning the summer of 2007, the website changed format to that of a blog-type website. Content from each issue of the paper is minimal in comparison with how most newspapers publish articles online as well as in print, though the Gazette does offer a.pdf of an issue a couple of weeks after its publication. Frothingham, Richard; the Command in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Charles C. Little & James brown, Boston. A 1998 interview with Steven Fowle University of New Hampshire history of early New Hampshire media beginning featuring the Gazette Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Joseph Roswell Hawley
Joseph Roswell Hawley was the 42nd Governor of Connecticut, a U. S. politician in the Republican and Free Soil parties, a Civil War general, a journalist and newspaper editor. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was a four-term U. S. Senator. Hawley, a direct descendant of Joseph Hawley, first of the name in America, through Ebenezer and Samuel, was born in Stewartsville, near Laurinburg, North Carolina, where Hawley's father, a native of Connecticut, was pastor of a Baptist church, he was born at the Stewart-Hawley-Malloy House. His father returned to Connecticut in 1837 and Joseph attended and graduated from Hamilton College in New York in 1847, he was practiced law in Hartford, Connecticut for six years. An ardent opponent of slavery, Hawley became a Free Soiler, was a delegate to the National Convention which nominated John Parker Hale for the presidency in 1852, subsequently served as chairman of the party's State Committee and editor of the party's newspaper, the Charter Oak.
In 1856, he took a leading part in organizing the Republican Party in Connecticut, in 1857 became editor of the Hartford Evening Press, a newly established Republican newspaper. Hawley served in the Federal army with distinction throughout the Civil War, rising from the rank of captain to that of brevet major general of volunteers. In April 1861, Hawley organize an infantry company, he was mustered into the three-month 1st Connecticut Infantry with the rank of captain of Company A on April 22. He first saw combat at the First Battle of Bull Run in July, receiving praise from his brigade commander, General Erasmus D. Keyes. After mustering out, he assisted Col. Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Connecticut Infantry, a three-year regiment, was named as lieutenant colonel, he participated in the Port Royal Expedition in November, commanded the forces assigned to garrison two captured forts. He was a part of the four-month siege that culminated in the capture of Fort Pulaski in April 1862. Again, he commanded the garrison force.
With Colonel Terry's promotion to brigade command, Hawley succeeded him as commander of the 10th Connecticut, leading the regiment in the battles of James Island and Pocotaligo. He was in Brannan's expedition to Florida in January 1863, commanded the post at Ferandina, near Jacksonville. In April, he participated in an unsuccessful expedition to capture South Carolina. In the summer, he commanded a brigade on Morris Island during the siege of Charleston, was involved in the attacks on Fort Wagner in September. During the autumn, he procured enough Spencer breech-loading rifles to outfit his regiment with the rapid-fire weapon; the following year, Hawley commanded a brigade under General Truman Seymour in the Battle of Olustee in Florida. He and his men were reassigned to the front lines in Virginia as a part of Terry's Division, X Corps, Army of the James, he was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown Road, other actions near Bermuda Hundred and Deep Bottom. With openings created by battlefield losses and reassignments, Hawley commanded a division during the Siege of Petersburg and was promoted in September 1864 to brigadier general of volunteers.
Concerned over keeping the peace during the November elections, Hawley commanded a hand-picked brigade shipped to New York City to safeguard the election process. In January 1865, Hawley succeeded his mentor Alfred Terry as divisional commander when Terry was sent to command troops in the attacks on Fort Fisher. Hawley joined him in North Carolina as Chief of Staff for the X Corps. After the capture of Wilmington, North Carolina, Hawley took over command of the forces in southeastern North Carolina. In June, following the surrender of the Confederate armies, Hawley rejoined Terry and served as Chief of Staff for the Department of Virginia, serving until October when he returned home to Connecticut, he was breveted as a major general in September 1865, mustered out of the army on January 15, 1866. After the war, Hawley served as governor of Connecticut from April 1866 to April 1867, but was not re-elected. A few months after stepping down from that office, he bought the Hartford Courant newspaper, which he combined with the Press.
Under his editorship, this became the most influential newspaper in Connecticut and one of the leading Republican papers in the country. Hawley was the permanent chairman of the Republican National Convention in 1868, was a delegate to the conventions of 1872, 1876 and 1880, he represented Connecticut in the U. S. Congress from December 1872 until March 1875 and again in 1879–81, having lost the two elections in between. From 1873 to 1876, he served as president of the United States Centennial Commission, which planned and ran the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, he was a trustee of Hamilton College and received his LL. D. degree in 1875. Hawley was a United States Senator from 1881 to 1905, being one of the key Republican leaders both in the House and the Senate, he was chairman of the committee on civil service, vigorously promoted civil service reform legislation. He chaired a special committee called to investigate the production of military ordnance and warships. In this capacity, he wrote a detailed report on the heavy steel industry and gun making in the United States and England.
He died in Washington, D. C. two weeks after stepping down from the Senate. He was buried in Connecticut. Hawley has a battery named in his honor in Phippsburg, Maine. Hawley and his wife Harriet Foote Hawley adopted one of her nieces.
Tribune Publishing Company is an American newspaper print and online media publishing company based in Chicago, Illinois. The company's portfolio includes the Chicago Tribune, the New York Daily News, The Baltimore Sun, the Orlando Sentinel, South Florida's Sun-Sentinel, the Hartford Courant, additional titles in Pennsylvania and Virginia, syndication operations, websites, it publishes several local newspapers in its metropolitan regions, which are organized in subsidiary groups. It is the nation's third-largest newspaper publisher, with eleven daily newspapers and commuter tabloids throughout the United States. Incorporated in 1847 with the founding of the Chicago Tribune, Tribune Publishing operated as a division of the Tribune Company, a Chicago-based multimedia conglomerate, until it was spun off into a separate public company in August 2014. On June 20, 2016, the company adopted the name tronc, short for "Tribune online content", its principal shareholder, with a 17.9% stake, is the American business magnate Michael W. Ferro, Jr.
In 2016 The New York Times described him as being "one of the country’s most significant and unpredictable media moguls". In 2018, Tronc announced that it would sell its California papers, including the Los Angeles Times, San Diego Union-Tribune and other smaller titles in the California News Group to an investment firm headed by Patrick Soon-Shiong for US$500 million; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. In October 2018, the company reverted again to Tribune Publishing. Tribune Publishing's history dates back to 1847, when the Chicago Tribune published its first edition on June 10 of that year, in a one-room plant at LaSalle and Lake Streets in Chicago; the Tribune constructed its first building, a four-story structure at Dearborn and Madison Streets, in 1869. The Tribune resumed printing two days with an editorial declaring "Chicago Shall Rise Again"; the newspaper's editor and part-owner, Joseph Medill, was elected mayor and led the city's reconstruction. A native Ohioan who first acquired an interest in the Tribune in 1855, Medill gained full control of the newspaper in 1874 and ran it until his death in 1899.
Medill's two grandsons, cousins Robert R. McCormick and Joseph Medill Patterson, assumed leadership of the company in 1911; that same year, the Chicago Tribune's first newsprint mill opened in Thorold, Canada. The mill marked the beginnings of the Canadian newsprint producer known as QUNO, in which Tribune held an investment interest until 1995; the Chicago Tribune-New York News Syndicate was formed in 1918, leading to Joseph Patterson's establishment of the company's second newspaper, the New York Daily News on June 26, 1919. Tribune's ownership of the New York City tabloid was considered "interlocking" due to an agreement between McCormick and Patterson; the company acquired the Fort Lauderdale-based Sun-Sentinel newspaper in 1963. In 1973, the company began sharing stories among 25 subscriber newspapers via the newly formed news service, the Knight News Wire. By 1990, this service was known as Knight-Ridder/Tribune and provided graphics and news content to its member newspapers. KRT became McClatchy-Tribune Information Services, owned by the Tribune Company and McClatchy, when The McClatchy Company purchased Knight-Ridder Inc. in 2006.
Tribune acquired the Newport News, Virginia-based Daily Press in 1986. In the wake of a dispute with some of its labor unions, the New York Daily News was sold to British businessman Robert Maxwell in 1991. In June 2000, Tribune acquired the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company in a merger deal worth $8.3 billion, the largest acquisition in the history of the newspaper industry. The merger added seven daily newspapers to Tribune's portfolio, including the Los Angeles Times, the Long Island-based Newsday, The Baltimore Sun and the Hartford Courant. Tribune Media Net, the national advertising sales organization of Tribune Publishing, was established in 2000 to take advantage of the company's expanded scale and scope. In the decade, Tribune launched daily newspapers targeting urban commuters, including the Chicago Tribune's RedEye edition in 2002, followed by an investment in AM New York one year later. In 2006, Tribune acquired the minority equity interest in AM New York, giving it full ownership of the newspaper.
The company sold both Newsday and AM New York to Cablevision Systems Corporation in 2008, with the sale of the latter paper closing on July 29 of that year. On April 2, 2007, Chicago-based investor Sam Zell announced plans to buy out the Tribune Company for $34.00 a share, totaling $8.2 billion, with intentions to take the company private. The deal was approved by 97% of the company's shareholders on August 21, 2007. Privatization of the Tribune Company occurred on December 20, 2007 with Tribune's stock listing being terminated at the close of the trading day. On December 8, 2008, faced with a high debt load totaling $13 billion, related to the company's leveraged buyout and subsequent privatization, a sharp downturn in newspaper advertising revenue, Tribune filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in what was the largest bankruptcy in the history of the American media industry. Company plans called for it to emerge from bankruptcy by May 31, 2010, but the company would end up in protracted bankruptcy proceedings for four years.
On July 13, 2012, the Tribune Company received approval of a reorganization plan to allow the company to emerge from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in a Delaware bankruptcy court. Oak
Waterbury is a city in the U. S. state of Connecticut on the Naugatuck River, 33 miles southwest of Hartford and 77 miles northeast of New York City. Waterbury is the second-largest city in Connecticut; as of the 2010 census, Waterbury had a population of 110,366, making it the 10th largest city in the New York Metropolitan Area, 9th largest city in New England and the 5th largest city in Connecticut. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, Waterbury had large industrial interests and was the leading center in the United States for the manufacture of brassware, as reflected in the nickname the "Brass City" and the city's motto Quid Aere Perennius?. It was noted for the manufacture of watches and clocks; the city is along Interstate 84 and Route 8 and has a Metro-North railroad station with connections to Grand Central Terminal. Waterbury is home to Post University and the regional campuses of the University of Connecticut, University of Bridgeport, Western Connecticut State University as well as Naugatuck Valley Community College.
The land was inhabited by the Algonquin bands. According to Samuel Orcutt's history, some Puritan residents of nearby Farmington "found it expedient to purchase the same lands from different tribes, without attempting to decide between their rival claims." The original settlement of Waterbury in 1674 was in the area now known as the Town Plot section. In 1675, the turbulence of King Philip's War caused the new settlement to be vacated until the resumption of peace in 1677. A new permanent location was found across the river to the east along the Mad River; the original Native American inhabitants called the area "Matetacoke" meaning "the interval lands." Thus, the settlement's name was Anglicised to "Mattatuck" in 1673. When the settlement was admitted as the 28th town in the Connecticut Colony in 1686, the name was changed to Waterbury in reference to the numerous streams that emptied into the Naugatuck River from the hills on either side of the valley. At that time, it included all or parts of what became the towns of Watertown, Wolcott, Naugatuck and Middlebury.
Growth was slow during Waterbury's first hundred years, the lack of arable land due to the constant flooding of the Naugatuck River in particular, discouraged many potential settlers. Furthermore, the residents suffered through a great flood in 1691 and an outbreak of disease in 1712. After a century, Waterbury's population numbered just 5,000. Waterbury emerged as an early American industrial power in the early 19th century when the city began to manufacture brass, harnessing the waters of the Mad River and the Naugatuck River to power the early factories; the new brass industry attracted many immigrant laborers from all over the world, leading to an influx of diverse nationalities. Waterbury was incorporated as a city in 1853 and, as the "Brass Capital of the World", it gained a reputation for the quality and durability of its goods. Brass and copper supplied by Waterbury was notably used in Nevada's Boulder Dam and found myriad applications across the United States, as well. Another famous Waterbury product of the mid-19th century was Robert H. Ingersoll's one-dollar pocket watch, five million of which were sold.
After this, the clock industry became as important as Waterbury's famed brass industry. Evidence of these two important industries can still be seen in Waterbury, as numerous clocktowers and old brass factories have become landmarks of the city. Of note in Waterbury's industrial history was the production of silverware, starting in 1858 by Rogers & Brother, in 1886 by Rogers & Hamilton. In 1893, Rogers & Brother exhibited wares at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. In 1898, both companies became part of the International Silver Company, headquartered in nearby Meriden. Production continued at the R&B site until 1938. Today designs by the two companies are in the collections of the Mattatuck Museum in Waterbury, the Brooklyn Museum in New York, the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, in many historical societies and museums across the United States. In June 1920, labor unrest occurred in the town, with striking workers fighting with police on the street. Over 30 were arrested Lithuanians, Russians and Italians.
The strikers numbered some 15,000, with most being employed at Scovill, Chase Rolling Mill, Chase Metal Works. One striker was shot to death by police. At its peak during World War II, 10,000 people worked at the Scovill Manufacturing Co sold to Century Brass; the city's metal manufacturing mills occupied more than 2 million square feet and more than 90 buildings. The first Unico Club was founded in Waterbury in 1922 by Dr. Anthony P. Vastola, it now has 150 regional groups. The membership is composed of business and professional people of Italian lineage or those who are married to an Italian-American; the clubs sponsor educational and civic programs. Waterbury's Fr. Michael J. McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut, on February 2, 1882. Though the first councils were all in Connecticut, the Order spread throughout the United States in the following years. Established in 1894, St. Joseph's Church holds the distinction of being the first Lithuanian worshiping community in Connecticut and second oldest in the country.
Sacred Heart was the first Catholic high school in Connecticut, September 6, 1922. One of the first full-length sound motion pictures was made in the 1920s at the studios of the Bristol Co. at Platts Mills by Professor William Henry Bristol, who experime