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Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766, his epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox", "the Just", "the Upright", or "the Rightly-Guided". Al-Rashid ruled during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age, he established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. Portions of the fictional One Thousand and One Nights are set in Harun's court and some of its stories involve Harun himself.

Harun's life and court have been the subject of both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam. Hārūn was born in Rey part of Jibal in the Abbasid Caliphate, in present-day Tehran Province, Iran, he was the son of al-Mahdi, the third Abbasid caliph, al-Khayzuran, a former slave girl from Yemen, a woman of strong personality and who influenced affairs of state in the reigns of her husband and sons. Before becoming caliph, in 780 and again in 782, Hārūn had nominally led campaigns against the Caliphate's traditional enemy, the Eastern Roman Empire, under the de facto rule of empress Irene of Athens; the latter expedition was a huge undertaking, reached the Asian suburbs of Constantinople. Hārūn became caliph in 786. On the day of accession, his son al-Ma'mun was born, al-Amin some little time later: the latter was the son of Zubaida, a granddaughter of al-Mansur, he began his reign by appointing able ministers, who carried on the work of the government so well that they improved the condition of the people.

Under Hārūn ar-Rashīd Baghdad flourished into the most splendid city of its period. Tribute paid by many rulers to the arts and court luxuries. In 796, Hārūn moved the entire court to Raqqa on the middle Euphrates, where he spent 12 years, most of his reign, he appointed the Hanafi jurist Muhammad al-Shaybani qadi, but dismissed him in 803. He visited Baghdad only once. Several reasons may have influenced the decision to move to Raqqa: its closeness to the Byzantine border, its excellent communication lines via the Euphrates to Baghdad and via the Balikh river to the north and via Palmyra to Damascus, rich agricultural land, the strategic advantage over any rebellion which might arise in Syria and the middle Euphrates area. Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, in his anthology of poems, depicts the splendid life in his court. In Raqqa the Barmakids managed the fate of the empire, both heirs, al-Amin and al-Ma'mun, grew up there. At some point the royal court relocated again to Al-Rayy, the capital city of Khorasan, where the famous philologist and leader of the Kufan school, Al-Kisa'i, accompanied the caliph with his entourage.

When al-Kisa ` i became ill while in Al-Rayy, it is said. It seems al-Shaybani and al-Kisa'i both died there on the same day in 804. Harun is quoted as saying: "Today Law and Language have died". For the administration of the whole empire, he fell back on his mentor and longtime associate Yahya bin Khalid bin Barmak. Rashid appointed him as his vizier with full executive powers, for seventeen years and his sons served Rashid faithfully in whatever assignment he entrusted to them. Harun made pilgrimages to Mecca several times, e.g. 793, 795, 797, 802 and last in 803. Tabari concludes his account of Harun's reign with these words: "It has been said that when Harun ar-Rashid died, there were nine hundred million odd in the state treasury." According to Shia belief, Harun imprisoned and poisoned Musa ibn Ja ` the 7th Imam, in Baghdad. Hārūn was influenced by the will of his powerful mother in the governance of the empire until her death in 789, his vizier Yahya the Barmakid, Yahya's sons, other Barmakids controlled the administration.

The position of Persians in the Abbasid caliphal court reached its peak during al-Rashid's reign. The Barmakids were a Persian family that dated back to the Barmak, a hereditary Buddhist priest of Nava Vihara, who converted after the Islamic conquest of Balkh and became powerful under al-Mahdi. Yahya had helped Hārūn to obtain the caliphate, he and his sons were in high favor until 798, when the caliph threw them in prison and confiscated their land. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari dates this event to 803 and lists various reasons for it: Yahya's entering the Caliph's presence without permission; the fall of the Barmakids is far more due to their behaving in a manner that Harun found disrespectful and making decisions in matters of

2016 North Dakota gubernatorial election

The 2016 North Dakota gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 2016, to elect the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota, concurrently with the 2016 U. S. presidential election, as well as elections to the United States Senate and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. This would have been the first time North Dakotans selected a Governor under new voter ID requirements, in which a student ID was insufficient identification to vote, but a court ruling in August 2016 struck the down the provision, the election was held under the 2013 rules; the primaries took place on June 14. This is the first open seat election since 2000. Incumbent Republican Governor Jack Dalrymple announced that he would not run for re-election to a second full term in office. Doug Burgum defeated Marvin Nelson in the General Election to become the new Governor of North Dakota. In December 2010, Republican Governor John Hoeven resigned after being elected to the U.

S. Senate. Jack Dalrymple, the Lieutenant Governor, was sworn in as Governor and was elected to a full term in 2012. In August 2015, Dalrymple announced that he will not run for re-election to a second full term in office; the North Dakota Republican Party will endorse a candidate at their state convention April 1–3, but ballot access is controlled by North Dakota's primary election held Tuesday, June 14. Wayne Stenehjem, North Dakota Attorney GeneralRunning mate: Nicole Poolman, State Senator and wife of Jim Poolman Doug Burgum, former Senior Vice President of Microsoft and former Chairman & CEO of Great Plains SoftwareRunning mate: Brent Sanford, Watford City Mayor Paul Sorum, architect Running mate: Michael Coachman, human resources executive Rick Becker, state representative Tom Campbell, state senator Kevin Cramer, U. S. Representative Jack Dalrymple, incumbent Governor Ed Schafer, former Governor and former United States Secretary of Agriculture Kelly Schmidt, North Dakota State Treasurer Drew Wrigley, Lieutenant Governor To endorse a candidate, delegates to the Republican state convention voted for one candidate in a series of rounds.

After the first round, all candidates would remain on the ballot, but after subsequent rounds of voting, the recipient of the lowest number of votes would be removed. The first candidate to receive more than half the cast vote would receive the state party endorsement. After no candidate received the majority in the first round, a second round of voting was completed, in which enough delegates voted for Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem to give him the endorsement without having to remove a candidate from the ballot or vote again. Marvin Nelson, state representativeRunning mate: Joan Heckaman, state senator Ellen Chaffee, nominee for lieutenant governor in 2012 Heidi Heitkamp, U. S. Senator and nominee for governor in 2000 Tim Mathern, State Senator and nominee for governor in 2008 Tracy Potter, former state senator, nominee for U. S. Senate in 2010 and nominee for Superintendent of Public Instruction in 2012 George B. Sinner, State Senator and nominee for North Dakota's at-large congressional district in 2014 Ryan Taylor, USDA Rural Development State Director, former state senator, nominee for governor in 2012 and nominee for Agriculture Commissioner in 2014 Sarah Vogel, former North Dakota Agriculture Commissioner and candidate for the North Dakota Supreme Court in 1996 Marty Riske and former state party chairmanRunning mate: Joshua Voytek Complete video of debate, October 10, 2016 - C-SPAN United States gubernatorial elections, 2016 Doug Burgum for Governor Marvin Nelson for Governor

London Underground diesel locomotives

Diesel locomotives have seen limited use on the London Underground because exhaust gases cannot be discharged when the vehicles are working in tunnels. A prototype diesel engine numbered DEL120 was built in 1939 from two 1915 stock motor cars, expected to be part of a batch of ten, but experience with battery locomotives showed that these were a better alternative. Three 0-6-0 diesels were obtained in 1971, to replace the last steam engines, but were too short to operate the signalling system, too heavy for some of the bridges. In 1996, fourteen diesels were supplied by Schöma of Germany, which were used during the construction of the Jubilee line tunnels, they were fitted with exhaust scrubbers. To speed up track renewals on the subsurface lines, class 66 locomotives have been hired in since 2006 to handle permanent way trains, but again suffer from being too heavy for some of the bridges; because they are not fitted with tripcock safety devices, pull trains much longer than the signalling system is designed for, they are restricted to slow speed running.

The design of a prototype diesel locomotive which could work through London's tube tunnels was first considered in 1936, work began on its construction at Acton Works in 1939. It was designed to use its diesel engine when in the open air, but to draw current from the third and fourth rail when underground. Two Brush built 1915 Stock driving motors, numbered 3937 and 3941, withdrawn from the Central London line, were converted into the electro-diesel locomotive; the work involved scrapping the passenger saloons and joining the two driving ends together to form a double ended locomotive. The central bay held a six-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine, manufactured by Petters, coupled to a direct current generator; the prototype, the first electro-diesel locomotive to be constructed in Britain, was completed in November 1940, was painted in Metropolitan'Lake', with gold lining. It was intended to build ten similar locomotives, to replace the fleet of steam engines, a further 18 withdrawn motor cars were stored at Cockfosters depot with this in mind.

The construction of further locomotives was delayed by the outbreak of the Second World War, experience with the 1935 fleet of battery locomotives showed that these were a better solution. DEL120 entered normal service in 1941, but was not a success, as the complicated operating system resulted in frequent breakdowns and repairs, it was used around Watford, was transferred to Hainault to work ballast trains after an overhaul in 1952. It was moved to Golders Green depot temporarily, to operate a works train while an experimental ground wheel lathe was installed; the diesel engine was removed in 1954, after which it was only used for shunting at Hainault and at Acton. It was not ideal as a shunting engine, as visibility from the cab was poor, access difficult, so it was idle from 1956 being scrapped in 1958. Three Rolls-Royce-engined diesel-hydraulic locomotives were built in 1967-68, were supplied to an open-cast iron ore mine at Corby; when the iron ore was worked out, the locomotives were surplus to requirements, were acquired by London Underground in 1971.

They were numbered in the range DL81-DL83. All three were standard 0-6-0DH Sentinel diesel shunters obtained from Thomas Hill Ltd, they were painted dark green and operated at Neasden and Lillie Bridge depots where they replaced the last of the ex-GWR pannier tank steam locomotives. The locomotives had a wheelbase of only 9 feet 8 inches, this was too short to operate the track circuits. Since this made their use impracticable, each was permanently coupled to a tender, which consisted of a bogie removed from a redundant District line Q Stock car; the weight of the bogie was increased to 17 tons, it was fitted with tripcocks and sleet brushes, so that it could be used for clearing snow and ice from the current rails. Although the tenders were permanently coupled to the locomotives, they carried separate numbers, were identified as DT81, DT82 and DT83; the tender increased the wheelbase to 28 feet 6 inches. One locomotive was operational at each of the depots, with the third kept as a spare. Transfers between the works occurred.

Movement outside of the depots was restricted when the civil engineering department decided that the short wheelbase and 16-ton axle loading might cause overloading problems on a number of bridges. Both the free end of the locomotive and the tender were fitted with'Ward' type couplers as well as normal buffers and couplings to allow them the couple to any Departmental rolling stock; the locomotives had all been withdrawn from service by March 1993, as engineers trains were no longer operated from Neasden Depot. Two locomotives were subsequently preserved. DL82 on the Mid-Norfolk Railway and no. DL83 on the Nene Valley Railway; the third locomotive, no. DL81, was sold for further use with an industrial user. In connection with the construction of the Jubilee Line Extension project, fourteen diesel-hydraulic locomotives were purchased from Schöma of Germany to assist in equipping the tunnels prior to electrification. Weighing 33.88 tonnes each, they are 28 feet long, are powered by 500-horsepower six-cylinder inline diesel engines, which give them a maximum speed of 31 mph.

They entered service from February 1996, are built to tube tunnel loading gauge, were fitted with buckeye couplers when built. They are equipped with exhaust scrubbers to prevent soot

Shapley–Shubik power index

The Shapley–Shubik power index was formulated by Lloyd Shapley and Martin Shubik in 1954 to measure the powers of players in a voting game. The index reveals surprising power distribution, not obvious on the surface; the constituents of a voting system, such as legislative bodies, shareholders, individual legislators, so forth, can be viewed as players in an n-player game. Players with the same preferences form coalitions. Any coalition that has enough votes to pass a bill or elect a candidate is called winning, the others are called losing. Based on Shapley value and Shubik concluded that the power of a coalition was not proportional to its size; the power of a coalition is measured by the fraction of the possible voting sequences in which that coalition casts the deciding vote, that is, the vote that first guarantees passage or failure. The power index is normalized between 0 and 1. A power of 0 means; the sum of the powers of all the players is always equal to 1. There are some algorithms for calculating the power index, e.g. dynamic programming techniques, enumeration methods and Monte Carlo methods.

Since Shapley and Shubik have published their paper, several axiomatic approaches have been used to mathematically study the Shapley-Shubik power index, with the Anonymity Axiom, the Null Player Axiom, the Efficiency Axiom and the Transfer Axiom being the most used. However, these have been criticised the Transfer Axiom, which has led to other axioms being proposed as a replacement. Suppose decisions are made by majority rule in a body consisting of A, B, C, D, who have 3, 2, 1 and 1 votes, respectively; the majority vote threshold is 4. There are 4! = 24 possible orders for these members to vote: For each voting sequence the pivot voter – that voter who first raises the cumulative sum to 4 or more – is bolded. Here, A is pivotal in 12 of the 24 sequences. Therefore, A has an index of power 1/2; the others have an index of power 1/6. Curiously, B has no more power than C and D; when you consider that A's vote determines the outcome unless the others unite against A, it becomes clear that B, C, D play identical roles.

This reflects in the power indices. Suppose that in another majority-rule voting body with 2 n + 1 members, in which a single strong member has k votes and the remaining 2 n members have one vote each, it turns out that the power of the strong member is k 2 n + 2 − k. As k increases, the strong member's power increases disproportionately until it approaches half the total vote and this person gains all the power; this phenomenon happens to large shareholders and business takeovers. The index has been applied to the analysis of voting in the Council of the European Union; the index has been applied to the analysis of voting in the United Nations Security Council. The UN Security Council is made up of fifteen member states, of which are permanent members of the council. For a motion to pass in the Council, it needs the support of every permanent member and the support of four non permanent members; this is equivalent to a voting body where the five permanent members have eight votes each, the ten other members have one vote each and there is a quota of forty four votes, as there would be fifty total votes, so you need all five permanent members and four other votes for a motion to pass.

Note that a non-permanent member is pivotal in a permutation if and only if they are in the ninth position to vote and all five permanent members have voted. Suppose that we have a permutation in which a non-permanent member is pivotal. There are three non-permanent members and five permanent that have to come before this pivotal member in this permutation. Therefore, there are ways of choosing these members and so 8! × different orders of the members before the pivotal voter. There would be 6! Ways of choosing the remaining voters after the pivotal voter; as there are a total of 15! permutations of 15 voters, the Shapley-Shubik power index of a non-permanent member is: 15! = 4 2145. Hence the power index of a permanent member is 421 2145. Shapley value Arrow theorem Banzhaf power index Online Power Index Calculator Computer Algorithms for Voting Power Analysis Web-based algorithms for voting power analysis Power Index Calculator Computes various indices for weighted voting games online. Includes some examples.

Computing Shapley-Shubik power index and Banzhaf power index with Python and R

Steinsberg Castle (Graubünden)

Steinsberg Castle is a ruined castle in the former municipality of Ardez of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. During the High Middle Ages a fortified church with a ring wall and a tower was built near the current castle. By the end of the 12th century, these fortifications were demolished and a new castle was built above fortified plateau and the Church of St. Lazius, it was built for a local noble family. In 1209 Albert von Frickingen sold all his estates and villages as well as the castle above Ardez to the Bishop of Chur. Count Albert von Tirol had a claim on the lands, but in 1228 relinquished his claim to the Bishop of Chur; the castle became the center of the ecclesiastical estates in the area. In 1348 the Bishop pledged the castle and lands to the Planta family for a loan of 150 Marks. In 1359, the Bishop again pledged the castle to the Lords of Katzenstein for 700 Gulden. In 1411 it was pledged to Georg Scheck. Despite attempts from the Bishop to regain ownership of the castle, the Scheck family retained it until 1502.

In 1499, during the Swabian War, the castle was captured by imperial troops on 25 March. They burned the current owner Balthasar Scheck was taken to Merano and executed. In 1502 the damaged castle was pledged to Hans von Planta, he and his son spent the remainder of the 16th century trying to get the Bishop of Chur to pay interest owed on the loan. At some point during that century, they abandoned the ruined castle; as the Three Leagues grew in power, they denied the Bishop the right to appoint a vogt over Steinsberg. The nearby church was abandoned during the Protestant Reformation. In 1861 Emanuel von Planta-Wildenberg purchased the ruins and surrounding lands from the Bishop for 1000 Gulden; the ruins were repaired in 1964 and 1985. The castle is located on a hill outside the village of Ardez; the top of the hill has about 100 by 100 meters of space for buildings with steep sides all around. The castle occupies the highest point on the hill, its four story keep. The style of the stone work changes above the second story, indicating that it was either added or repaired.

The high entrance was to the south on the second floor. The upper stories have window seats from the 14th century and were either added or they were part of the new construction or repair. A residential wing was built east against the ring wall; the castle was encircled by the ring wall, though only traces remain. The ruins of the Romanesque church of St. Luzius are north of the castle. Unusually, the nave of this church runs south. List of castles in Switzerland

Consumers Council of Canada

The Consumers Council of Canada is a non-profit, volunteer-based consumer organization, promoting consumer rights and responsibilities in Canada. Founded in 1994, the organization is based in Toronto; the Consumers Council of Canada was a member of the Canadian Consumer Initiative. The initiative, initiated by the Office of Consumer Affairs of Industry Canada, has involved the development common policy positions and sharing of resources by organizations serving consumers in Canada; the Consumers Council of Canada advocates for the eight basic consumer rights detailed in the Consumer Bill of Rights, as well as a ninth, the right to privacy, which the Council has added. The rights are. Consumers Council's Website