Mather House (Harvard College)
Mather House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University. Opened in 1970, it is named after Increase Mather, a Puritan in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who served as President of Harvard University from 1685 to 1692. Mather's Faculty Deans are Amala Mahadevan. Mather is known for its nineteen-story concrete tower built in a Brutalist style. Mather's blocky concrete architecture reflects the anti-uprising style of the day of its construction. Mather residents are guaranteed single bedrooms for all three years of their residency. Mather's second building, a low-rise surrounding a courtyard, has suites with large common rooms and small bedrooms, whereas suites in the high-rise have large bedrooms and no common rooms. Other than houses in the Radcliffe Quadrangle, Mather is the house farthest from Harvard Yard, but the school provides regular shuttle service between the Yard and Mather's courtyard. Mather House was a favorite choice for hard-partying varsity athletes before housing assignments were randomized by the school.
The house is known among students for its social life and a spacious, newly remodeled dining hall with a view of the Charles River. Mather's sister college is Morse College at Yale University. Opened in 1970, Mather House is the most constructed of Harvard's houses, it takes its name from Increase Mather, a Harvard alumnus and prominent Puritan minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who served as the University's president from 1685 to 1692. The architectural firm that designed Mather House, Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott, is responsible for the Art Institute of Chicago, the original campus of Stanford University, the Ames Building, the completion of Boston's Trinity Church; the open architecture of Mather's common spaces makes it easy to host social events. Mather's Housing Committee hosts happy hours every two weeks. In addition, the House hosts formal dances twice a year, as well as student-faculty dinners once a semester. Most prominent among Mather social gatherings is the Mather Lather, a College-wide foam party that takes place every spring in the dining hall.
Since its first run in 2003, the Lather has grown in scope and fame, earning the attention of the Boston media and The New York Times. The Louie Cup is a year-long Olympics-like tournament of games. An event is held every week in which one or more representatives of each team competes; the games include a pancake-eating contest, foosball, a dining hall version of Iron Chef, hot pepper-eating, as well as a wiffle ball home run derby, ping pong, Wii sports and boggle. The events tend to take place in Mather; the tournament is named after Louie's Superette, a convenience store across the street from Mather House, a large quantity of alcohol is awarded to the winning team at the end of the spring semester. The house's well-known rivalry with Kirkland House has sparked heated exchanges of practical jokes and pranks. While Mather is seen as the instigator and aggressor, the rivalry began when a number of Mather students transferred to Kirkland House. Mather won the Harvard Green Campus Initiative Green Cup in 2006 and 2011 and the Greenest HoCo award in 2008.
Other notable alumni include Michael Kinsley, David Laibson, Nicholas Ciarelli, Sarah Haskins, Luis Ubiñas. Mather House official site Mather Connect for Alums and Students
Lowell House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University, located at 10 Holyoke Place facing Mount Auburn Street between Harvard Yard and the Charles River. It is named for the Lowell family, but an ornate ALL woven into the ironwork above the main gate discreetly alludes to Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Harvard's president at the time of construction, its majestic neo-Georgian design, centered on two landscaped courtyards, received the 1938 Harleston Parker Medal and might be considered the model for Harvard houses nearby. Lowell House is close to the Yard, Harvard Square, other Harvard "River" houses, its blue-capped bell tower, visible for many miles, is a local landmark. Lowell was one of the first Houses built in the realization of President Lowell's long-held dream of providing on-campus accommodations for every Harvard College student throughout his career at the College, its first Master, was Mathematics Department chairman Julian Lowell Coolidge, who instituted Monday-night high table.
Historian Elliott Perkins was the first to hold the position of Resident Dean was Master from 1942 to 1963. Classicist Zeph Stewart was the third Master, William and Mary Lee Bossert served from 1975 to 1998. Current co-Masters Diana Eck and Dorothy Austin are thus only the fifth Masters in Lowell's 80 years. Lowell's sister college at Yale University is Pierson College. House traditions include Masters' Tea on Thursday afternoons, a May Day Waltz at dawn on the Weeks Footbridge, high table, the annual Lowell House Opera mounted in the dining hall. Springtime brings the Bacchanalia Formal with a live swing band in the courtyard. For each Arts First event, the first weekend in May, there is a courtyard performance of the 1812 Overture, during which those not part of the official orchestral ensemble are encouraged to assist on kazoos. There is a winter holiday dinner, various sophomore, senior and faculty dinners take place throughout the year. Language tables and special-interest tables are common features of everyday dinners.
Many House events are organized by Lowell's "House Committee" of elected undergraduates from within the House. The committee operates separately from the Harvard Undergraduate Council, to organize student events and manage funding; the HoCo, as with the other student government organizations in the Houses, is funded by the UC. Lowell House was the residence of Silas and Jamal in the 2001 comedy How High; as part of Harvard's House Renewal Project, Lowell House closed for renovation in the summer of 2017. Designed by the firm of Coolidge Shepley Bulfinch and Abbott and constructed in 1930 for $3,620,000, the House was named for the prominent Lowell family identified with Harvard since John Lowell graduated in 1721; the busts of President Abbott Lawrence Lowell and poet James Russell Lowell, are featured in the main courtyard. In the Dining Hall are portraits of his wife Anna Parker Lowell. Prior to the 1996 transition to randomized House assignments, Lowell's central location, picturesque courtyard, elegant dining hall, charming traditions made it a popular housing choice.
The Lowell House arms are those of the Lowell family, blazoned: Shield: sable, a dexter hand couped at the wrist grasping three darts, one in pale and two in saltire, all in argent. The crest is a stag's head cabossed, between the attires; the motto is Occasionem Cognosce (In more prosaic terms, a shield with a black field displays a right hand cut off at the wrist and grasping three arrows, one vertical and two crossed diagonally, in silver. Above is a stag's head mounted behind the ear, between its antlers is a barbed, broad arrowhead in blue; the house colors are white. For three-quarters of a century, Lowell House's bell tower was home to a set of authentic Russian zvon, one of the few complete sets of pre-revolutionary Russian bells surviving anywhere; the eighteen bells were bought in Russia around 1930 by Thomas Whittemore with the financial aid of millionaire Chicago plumbing magnate Charles R. Crane—who paid their value as scrap—just as they were to be melted down by Soviet authorities.
Crane donated them to Harvard in 1930. Like those seen today on Dunster and Eliot Houses, Lowell's tower was meant to be a clock-tower—Lowell's in particular is reminiscent of Philadelphia's Independence Hall, although it was modeled after a Dutch church. With word of Crane's gift, the planned tower was changed to the blue-capped bell tower seen today; the bells hung in Moscow's Danilov Monastery and were installed with the help, at first, of musician Konstantin Konstantinovich Saradzhev, Vsevolod Andronoff, a former resident of the monastery They range in weight from 22 pounds to 26,700 pounds. The bells are cons
Harvard Crimson baseball
The Harvard Crimson baseball team is the varsity intercollegiate baseball team of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The program has been a member of the Ivy League since the conference began sponsoring baseball at the start of the 1993 season; the team plays at Joseph J. O'Donnell Field, located across the Charles River from Harvard's main campus. Bill Decker has been the program's head coach since the 2013 season; the program has appeared in four 14 NCAA Tournaments. It has won five Ivy League Championship Series, eight Rolfe Division titles, 15 EIBL regular season titles, 12 Ivy League regular season titles; as of the start of the 2014 Major League Baseball season, 12 former Crimson players have appeared in Major League Baseball. Harvard College's first season of baseball came in 1865, it played five against semi-professional teams. Organized baseball at the college had begun a few years earlier, when "class nines" were first fielded. Despite these early years of competition, 1865 was the school's first varsity intercollegiate season.
Along with rowing, baseball was popular at Harvard in the late 19th century. A newspaper review of the 1871 book Four Years at Yale says that the book includes "interesting accounts of the sports common in colleges baseball and rowing, the principal matches which have taken place between Harvard and Yale." An 1884 edition of the Washington Bee reprinted a Lowell Courier humor section piece that reads, "Sixty Harvard freshman have dropped their Latin, eighty their Greek and 100 their mathematics. None of them have dropped their baseball or their boating and college culture is still safe."In a game against a semi-professional team from Lynn on April 12, 1877, Harvard catcher Jim Tyng became the first baseball player to use a catcher's mask. The mask was invented by another student, Frederick Thayer, manufactured by a Cambridge tinsmith. Tyng became the first Harvard player to appear in Major League Baseball when he played in a September 23, 1879, game for the Boston Red Caps. In the 1870s and 1880s, Harvard was a member of two loosely organized forerunners of the Ivy League.
The Intercollegiate Base Ball Association, which it played in from 1879 to 1886, included Yale, Dartmouth and Amherst. The College Baseball League, which it played in from 1887 to 1889, featured Yale and Columbia; the school continued to field a varsity baseball team through the end of the 19th century. It played both fall and spring regular season games in its early years, but moved to a spring-only schedule after the 1885–1886 season; the program's highest 19th-century win total was 34, a mark it reached in both 1870 and 1892. Through the end of the 1899 season, the program played without a head coach and was instead led by its captains. Two important changes to the program occurred near the end of the 19th century– at the start of the 1898 season, Harvard began playing home games at Soldier's Field, at the start of the 1900 season, it hired E. H. Nichols as its first head coach; the program went.500 or better in 15 of the 17 seasons from 1900 to 1916. Its highest win total in that stretch, 23, came in 1915 under head coach Percy Haughton.
Two head coaches served four-season tenures during the time period. L. P. Pieper coached from 1907 to 1910. Frank Sexton coached for four seasons. In the early 20th century, Harvard held tryouts in the spring, to select the members of the team from the student body. To start the regular season, the team traveled to the Southern United States to play games in warm weather, a practice that began in 1898. Up until the start of World War I, its scheduled included professional and semi-professional teams, in addition to collegiate teams. Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young a member of the Boston Americans, served as the team's pitching coach for a brief time in 1902. Another future Hall of Famer, Willie Keeler of the Brooklyn Superbas, served alongside Young as the team's hitting coach. William Clarence Matthews was Harvard's shortstop from 1902 to 1905. Matthews was black. A handful of black students graduated from Harvard around that time, but Matthews one of only a few black players in major college athletics during an era in which baseball was divided by the color line.
Harvard went 75–18 during Matthews's career. As a freshman, he scored the winning run in Harvard's 6–5 win in the decisive game of the Yale series. Matthews faced racial discrimination while a member of the team. During his freshman season, he was held out of games against Navy and Virginia due to their objections to Harvard's fielding a black player. In 1903, the following year, Harvard canceled its annual southern trip when it faced similar objections. After Harvard, Matthews went on to a career in law; the trophy given to the Ivy League's baseball champion is named for Matthews. He was inducted into the College Baseball Hall of Fame in 2014; the 1917 season was canceled because of World War I, but the program resumed play in 1918. Through the 1932 season, the program competed as an independent school. For the 1933 season, Harvard joined the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League, formed by several Ivy League schools for the star
Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts. The school offers a large full-time MBA program, doctoral programs, HBS Online and many executive education programs, it owns Harvard Business Publishing, which publishes business books, leadership articles, online management tools for corporate learning, case studies and the monthly Harvard Business Review. It is home to the Baker Library/Bloomberg Center; the school was established in 1908. Established by the humanities faculty, it received independent status in 1910, became a separate administrative unit in 1913; the first dean was historian Edwin Francis Gay. Yogev explains the original concept: This school of business and public administration was conceived as a school for diplomacy and government service on the model of the French Ecole des Sciences Politiques; the goal was an institution of higher learning that would offer a master of arts degree in the humanities field, with a major in business.
In discussions about the curriculum, the suggestion was made to concentrate on specific business topics such as banking, so on... Professor Lowell said the school would train qualified public administrators whom the government would have no choice but to employ, thereby building a better public administration... Harvard was blazing a new trail by educating young people for a career in business, just as its medical school trained doctors and its law faculty trained lawyers; the business school pioneered the development of the case method of teaching, drawing inspiration from this approach to legal education at Harvard. Cases are descriptions of real events in organizations. Students are positioned as managers and are presented with problems which they need to analyse and provide recommendations on. From the start the school enjoyed a close relationship with the corporate world. Within a few years of its founding many business leaders were its alumni and were hiring other alumni for starting positions in their firms.
At its founding, the school accepted only male students. The Training Course in Personnel Administration, founded at Radcliffe College in 1937, was the beginning of business training for women at Harvard. HBS took over administration of that program from Radcliffe in 1954. In 1959, alumnae of the one-year program were permitted to apply to join the HBS MBA program as second-years. In December 1962, the faculty voted to allow women to enter the MBA program directly; the first women to apply directly to the MBA program matriculated in September 1963. In 2012–2013, HBS administration implemented new programs and practices to improve the experience of female students and recruit more female professors. HBS established nine global research centers and four regional offices and functions through offices in Asia Pacific, United States, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa and Latin America. In 2018, HBS was tied for 1st with Chicago Booth by U. S. News & World ranked 5th in the world by the Financial Times.
HBS students can join more than 80 different clubs and student organizations on campus. The Student Association is the main interface between the MBA student body and the faculty/administration. In addition, HBS student body is represented at the university-level by the Harvard Graduate Council. In 2015, executive education contributed $168 million to HBS's total revenue of $707 million; the Advanced Management Program is a seven-week $82,000 residential course with the stated aim of "transforming proven leaders into global executives". It was first run in 1945, has had 20,000 attendees. There are "no formal educational requirements", on completion, "you will become a lifetime member of the HBS alumni community". In 2016, the BBC noted that attendees "can have an experience that more mimics the MBA degree, with the opportunity to develop closer friendships and full access to university alumni minus the rigorous admissions process." The Owner/President Management Program consists of three three-week $44,000 "units" spread over two years, aimed at "business owners and entrepreneurs".
There are "no formal educational requirements" Notable attendees include model-turned-businesswoman Tyra Banks, criticised for using phrases such as "I went to business school", from which people might infer that she earned a Harvard MBA. HBS Online HBX, is an online learning initiative announced by the Harvard Business School in March 2014 to host online university-level courses. Initial programs are the Credential of Readiness and Disruptive Strategy with Clayton Christensen. Leading with Finance, taught by Mihir A. Desai, was added to the catalog in August 2016. HBS Online created HBX Live, a virtual classroom based at WGBH in Boston; the duration of HBS Standard Online CORe course is 10 to 12 weeks and costs $2,250. The Summer Venture in Management Program is a one-week management training program for rising college seniors designed to increase diversity and opportunity in business education. Participants must be employed in a summer internship and be nominated by and have sponsorship from their organization to attend.
The school's faculty are divided into 10 academic units: Management. In the fall of 2010, Tata related companies and charities donated $50
New Balance Athletics, Inc. best known as New Balance, is an American multinational corporation based in the Boston, Massachusetts area. The company was founded in 1906 as the "New Balance Arch Support Company" and is one of the world's major sports footwear manufacturers. New Balance maintains a manufacturing presence in the United States, as well as in the United Kingdom for the European market, where they produce some of their most popular models such as the 990 model—in contrast to its competitors, which manufacture outside the United States and Europe; as a result, New Balance shoes tend to be more expensive than those of many other manufacturers. To offset this pricing difference, New Balance claims to differentiate their products with technical features, such as blended gel inserts, heel counters and a greater selection of sizes for narrow or wide widths; the company has made total profits of $69 billion since 1992. In 1906, William J. Riley, Irish emigrant, founded the New Balance Arch Support Company in the Boston area, manufacturing arch supports and other accessories designed to improve shoe fit.
His first product, a flexible arch support, was designed with three support points to provide greater balance and comfort in the shoe. It is believed that Riley came up with the name "New Balance" by observing chickens in his yard and demonstrated the way his arch supports worked by keeping a chicken foot on his office desk, he explained to customers. In 1927, Riley hired Arthur Hall to be a salesman. In 1934, Hall became a business partner and found his niche by marketing to people whose jobs required them to spend a lot of time standing. In 1956, Hall sold the business to her husband Paul Kidd. Eleanor and Paul Kidd continued to sell arch supports until 1960, when they designed and manufactured the "Trackster", the world's first running shoe made with a ripple sole, it was the first running shoe to come in varying widths. The "Trackster" was given a big boost through the YMCA programs in which it became the unofficial shoe. College track teams such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tufts University and Boston University adopted the New Balance Trackster for their cross-country teams, soon to be followed by other colleges and private high schools around the country.
Marketing was word-of-mouth or local sports fairs. Sales languished until 1972, when current Chairman Jim Davis bought the company on the day of that year's Boston Marathon. At the time, the company consisted of six people making 30 pairs of shoes daily and selling products through mail-order with a few U. S. retailers. Jim committed himself to uphold the company's traditional commitment to individual preferences, customer service and quality products, his future wife Anne, who joined the company in 1978, focused on building a distinct culture for New Balance employees and customers. Their timing was perfect, as the Boston area became a center for the running boom that struck the U. S. in the 1970s. Their product line expanded and sales grew once the shoes made its way to Washington, DC in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it was at this time that the shoe became a staple in shoe stores sold around the city for track runners and Moes alike. The company prospered, the Davises looked to expand New Balance into a global company.
The company was run by Rob DeMartini for 12 years until 2019. DeMartini's background includes Gillette Shave Company. Today, 30 percent of the New Balance shoes sold in the European market are manufactured at the New Balance facility in Flimby, England. In February 2015, the company announced its entry into the global soccer market. New Balance had started its soccer business through its subsidiary Warrior Sports in 2012, punctuated by a $40 million-a-year sponsorship deal with Liverpool, but made the move to rebrand based on the global reach of the parent brand. During 2016, New Balance opposed the Trans Pacific Partnership and condemned the Obama administration's support for it, arguing that it would hurt their domestic shoe manufacturing. Matt Lebretton, the company's Vice President of public affairs said in April 2016 "I would say that when Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump all agree on something it has to be given a closer look. After Donald Trump won the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Lebretton told a reporter "The Obama administration turned a deaf ear to us and frankly, with President-elect Trump, we feel things are going to move in the right direction."
Some news outlets reported that an ad-hoc boycott campaign was created out of an interpretation of Lebretton's remarks as supportive of Trump. Owner and Chairman Davis donated $400,000 to the Trump Victory Committee in September 2016. In 2013, New Balance launched a skateboarding shoe brand dubbed "New Balance Numeric", distributed by Black Box Distribution, a company founded by professional skateboarder Jamie Thomas. Following the announcement of the partnership in December 2012, Thomas stated in an interview with the TransWorld Business publication, "I am most hyped about the positive energy this partnership creates for the future of our distribution as well as how this partnership enables us to further support skate retailers with a new brand they can trust and depend on."The Numeric brand is overseen by Brand Manager Sebastian Palmer, with skate shoe brand eS, while Mike West, of Westlife Distribution and snowboarding brand 686, is Creative Director. West explained at the
The Harvard Rugby Football Club is a collegiate rugby team at Harvard College. Founded in 1872, the HRFC is the oldest Rugby Club in the United States. With around 60 members, Harvard Rugby is one of the largest club teams at Harvard. In past years, the club traveled to Berkeley, California for the National Tournament after having taken the Ivy League title. Harvard competes in the Ivy League; the first Ivy League Rugby Championship was played in 1969. Harvard has won the Ivy League Championships in 2007, 2003 and 1994 and were National Champions in 1984, as well as National Championship runner-up to Cal-Berkeley in 1981 and to Air Force in 2003. In 2009, the men joined a newly established Ivy Rugby Conference that kicked off as a separate conference in the Northeast Rugby Union. On May 14, 1874, Harvard University hosted Montreal’s McGill University at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the first recorded rugby game on American soil, which Harvard won; the Harvard Men's Team, along with the Princeton and Yale Rugby teams, began the tradition of U.
S. college students going on Spring Break to the Caribbean. The Harvard Rugby Football Club released a film, "Just a Club". Radcliffe, the women's team of Harvard, was founded in 1982; the Harvard athletic department announced that women’s rugby will become the university's 42nd varsity sport in the 2013-2014 season. Radcliffe were national champions in 1998; the Harvard Business School RFC is a rugby union team based at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts. Although affiliated with Harvard University, only graduate students compete on this team. Harvard and Radcliffe play their home matches on Roberto A. Mignone Field, located at Harvard's Soldiers Field Park. Edward "Ted" M. Kennedy Joseph "Joe" P. Kennedy, Jr Robert Bacon Lucius Littauer Kevin Rafferty Robert Winsor Ethan Taotafa Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti