Harvard College

Harvard College is the undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, now the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world. Part of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard College is Harvard University's traditional undergraduate program, offering AB and SB degrees, it is selective, with fewer than five percent of applicants being offered admission in recent years. Harvard College students participate in more than 450 extracurricular organizations and nearly all live on campus—first-year students in or near Harvard Yard, upperclassmen in community-oriented "houses." The college has produced many distinguished alumni including high-ranking politicians, renowned scholars, business leaders. The school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student.

In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board. Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times; the Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model.

Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics—generally all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as the President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate matters for women, though women were formally admitted to and graduated from Radcliffe until a final merger in 1999. About 2,000 students are admitted each year. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible.

Concentrations encompass fields in the arts and humanities, the social sciences, the sciences, as well as the engineering and applied sciences. Most concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are dual degree music programs permitting students to earn both a Harvard AB and a Master of Music from either the New England Conservatory of Music or the Berklee College of Music over five years. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in a few designated fields; each student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well." While some introductory courses have large enrollments, most courses are small: the median class size is just 12 students. With Harvard University being a preeminent research institution, students have access to abundant research opportunities as early as their freshman year.

Undergraduate research can be conducted in science and engineering, the social sciences, as well as the arts and humanities, among other academic disciplines. Numerous mechanisms for funding and faculty mentorship are available for both the term and the summer. In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course; the university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. For the 2019-2020 academic year, tuition was about $48,000, contributing to about $70,000 in billed costs. Harvard offers one of the most generous financial aid programs in the country, with need-blind admission and 100% of demonstrated financial need met for both domestic and international students. Families with incomes below $65,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, families earning between $65,000 and $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. Financial aid is based on need. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in

Stéphane Breitwieser

Stéphane Breitweiser is a Frenchman notorious for his art thefts between 1995 and 2001. He admitted to stealing 239 artworks and other exhibits from 172 museums while travelling around Europe and working as a waiter, an average of one theft every 15 days; the Guardian called him "arguably the world's most consistent art thief."He differs from most other art thieves in that he did not steal for any profit motive. He was a self-described art connoisseur who stole in order to build a vast personal collection of 16th and 17th century masters. At his trial, the magistrate quoted him as saying, "I enjoy art. I love such works of art. I collected them and kept them at home." Despite the immensity of his collection, he was still able to recall every piece. He interrupted the lengthy reading of his collection during his trial several times to correct various details, his first theft came in March 1995 during a visit to the medieval castle at Gruyères, with his then-girlfriend Anne-Catherine Kleinklauss.

He became entranced with a small painting by Christian Wilhelm Dietrich saying, "I was fascinated by her beauty, by the qualities of the woman in the portrait and by her eyes. I thought it was an imitation of Rembrandt." With his girlfriend keeping watch, he worked out the nails holding the painting in its frame and slipped it under his jacket. He would use similar methods for at least 170 other museums for his thefts in the ensuing years, he would visit small collections and regional museums, where security was lax, Kleinklauss would serve as his lookout as he cut the paintings from their frames. The most valuable work of art he stole was Sybille, Princess of Cleves by Lucas Cranach the Elder from a castle in Baden-Baden in 1995, its estimated value at auction would be £5-£5.6 million. He cut it from its frame at a Sotheby's auction. Although he amassed such a large collection of art, he never attempted to sell any of it for profit, instead enjoying thinking about how he was "the wealthiest man in Europe."

It was all kept in his bedroom in his mother's house in France. His room was kept in semi-darkness. A local framer did not recognize the art which he would re-frame for Nikolaus as being some of Europe's masterpieces, his mother, Marielle Schwengel, did not realize that the works were stolen and thought they were legitimately bought at auction, only suspecting that he had not bought them legitimately. Around 110 pieces from his collection have been recovered, leaving another 60 unaccounted for, presumed destroyed, his collection included: Pieter Brueghel the Younger - Cheat Profiting From His Master**, cut with scissors Antoine Watteau - Two Men* François Boucher - Sleeping Shepherd**, which Breitwieser kept by his pillow and his mother put in the garbage disposal Corneille de Lyon - Madeleine of France, Queen of Scotland**, garbage disposal David Teniers - The Monkey's Ball**, shredded with scissorsBreitwieser and Kleinklauss were first caught in 1997, when they walked off with a William van Aelst landscape from a private collection in a gallery, which they were allowed to see with special permission from the owner.

Alerted to the theft, the owner ran out and recognized the two as they got into Breitwieser's mother's car. Another artifact was found in the car; because it was his first offense on Swiss soil, he was given only an eight-month suspended sentence and banned from entering Switzerland until May 2000. However, his job was across the border from France in Switzerland, he continued working under his mother's maiden name, he continued his thefts returning to museums of prior crimes to steal again. In November 2001, he was caught after stealing a bugle dating from 1584, one of only three like it in the world and with an estimated value of £45,000, from the Richard Wagner Museum in Lucerne, Switzerland. A security guard spotted Breitwieser. However, he returned to the museum two days later; that day, a journalist, Erich Eisner, was walking his dog on the museum grounds when he noticed a man who seemed out of place in a nice overcoat, surveying the museum. Aware of the recent theft, Eisner alerted the main guard, who happened to be the same guard who had seen Breitwieser at the heist and alerted the authorities, who arrested Breitwieser.

Lucerne police awarded Eisner's dog a lifetime supply of food in appreciation. Breitwieser spent two years in prison in Switzerland before being extradited to France. However, it took Swiss authorities 19 days to acquire the international search warrant necessary to search Breitwieser's mother's house, they found nothing, Breitwiser did not confess until a few months giving authorities a detailed account of the works he had stolen. Meanwhile, when Breitwieser's mother had heard of her son's arrest from Kleinklauss, able to evade authorities, she proceeded to destroy many of the works by cutting or carving them up, leaving the remains of the frames in the trash over a period of several weeks and forcing the shredded paintings down her garbage disposal unit. Other artifacts, such as vases, jewelry and statuettes, were thrown into the nearby Rhone-Rhine Canal, where some were recovered through dredging, she claimed that she destroyed the paintings out of anger at her son, but police believe it was to destroy incriminating evidence against him.

She had no inkling of the large monetary value of the works she destroyed. Police found nothing besides the cord of the stolen antique bugle when they first searched her home, she took seven months to admit to destroying the artwork, after some pieces had washed up on the sho

Nossa Senhora da Graça Fort

The Nossa Senhora da Graça Fort Conde de Lippe Fort and known as La Lippe, is a fort in the village of Alcáçova, about 1 kilometre north of the town of Elvas in the Portalegre District of Portugal. It stands in a dominant position on the Monte da Graça and forms part of the Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications, which on 30 June 2012 was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, the fort became part of a new project under the aegis of the Portuguese Ministry of National Defense, with the support of Turismo de Portugal, which features historical itineraries based on Portuguese heroes; the strategic importance of the fort was demonstrated during the Portuguese Restoration War, when in 1658 Spanish troops occupied the site during the siege of the town of Elvas prior to the Battle of the Lines of Elvas on 14 January 1659. A century during the Seven Years' War King Joseph I of Portugal and the Marquis of Pombal called on Marshal Lippe to reorganize the Portuguese army and draw up plans for the modernization of the stronghold.

He drew a nearly identical copy of his home fortress Wilhelmstein, which he built in 1761. The work began in 1763 and continued into the reign of Maria I of Portugal, with the fort reopening in 1792 under the name of Conde de Lippe Fort after its designer; the fort resisted Spanish troops during the 1801 War of the Oranges and a attack in 1811 during the Peninsular War by the troops of Marshall Jean-de-Dieu Soult. In September 1808, when the Spanish General Galluzzo heard of the signing of the Convention of Cintra, under which the defeated French were allowed to evacuate their troops from Portugal, he refused to acknowledge it. Instead he proceeded to carry out "a trifling bombardment of La Lippe from an immense distance, the utmost damage sustained or to be sustained by that fortress, was the knocking away the cornices and chimney's of the governor's house, every other part being protected by bomb proofs of the finest masonry." The French commander of the La Lippes's garrison, Captain Girod de Novillars, held out against the Spanish until late November when the 1,200 French troops inside marched out following the arrival of the British.

Subsequently used as a military prison, by 2014 the site was in a near ruinous condition and awaited transfer to the Municipality of Elvas for restoration. The necessary work on the infrastructure was completed in September 2015 with the aim of turning the fort into a functional museum; the fort is a 150 metres quadrangle with pentagonal bastions at the corners. Four ravelins cover the curtain wall; the central part of the square features a circular redoubt with two floors and a parapet with gun ports. The fort's circular tower has two vaulted floors: the first consisting of a decorated chapel and the second the Governor's House. Below the chapel, carved into the rock, there is a cistern. Externally, the structure is completed by a dry wide moat. A 19th century visitor described the fort thus: "There is a reservoir supplied with water sufficient for the garrison of 2000 men for two years, stores of corn and provisions for that time are laid up. There is a mill within the walls for grinding corn, an oven for baking sufficient bread, so that as there are no means for taking the fort but by treachery, surprise, or famine, the siege of La Lippe must be a work of patience, not to mention the loss.

There is a curious circumstance in natural history connected with fort La Lippe: a well, of amazing depth, yields water which mixes with oil, produces a thick fluid resembling milk, but the flavour of, disagreeable." Although many 18th and 19th century military commentators considered the fort impregnable, French General Dumouriez noted that because many of its batteries were set into the rock, they were vulnerable to cannonade fire while he considered the hornwork carried "the defences to great a distance". Video of Forte da Graca/Fort La Lippe Plan of the fort at the Bibliothèque nationale de France