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Harvard College Observatory

The Harvard College Observatory is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy. It is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, US, was founded in 1839. With the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it forms part of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. HCO houses a collection of 500,000 astronomical plates taken between the mid-1880s and 1989; this 100-year coverage is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe. The Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard project is digitally scanning and archiving these photographic plates. In 1839, the Harvard Corporation voted to appoint William Cranch Bond, a prominent Boston clockmaker, as "Astronomical Observer to the University"; this marked the founding of the Harvard College Observatory. HCO's first telescope, the 15-inch Great Refractor, was installed in 1847; that telescope was the largest in the United States from installation until 1867.

Between 1847 and 1852 Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor telescope to produce images of the moon that are remarkable in their clarity of detail and aesthetic power. This was the largest telescope in North America at that time, their images of the moon took the prize for technical excellence in photography at the 1851 Great Exhibition at The Crystal Palace in London. On the night of July 16–17, 1850, Whipple and Bond made the first daguerreotype of a star. Harvard College Observatory is important to astronomy, as many women including Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Williamina Fleming performed pivotal stellar classification research. Cannon and Leavitt were hired as "computers" to perform calculations and examine stellar photographs, but made insightful connections in their research. From 1898 to 1926, a series of Bulletins were issued containing many of the major discoveries of the period; these were replaced by Announcement Cards which continued to be issued until 1952.

In 1908, the observatory published the Harvard Revised Photometry Catalogue, which gave rise to the HR star catalogue, now maintained by the Yale University Observatory as the Bright Star Catalogue. William Cranch Bond 1839–1859 George Phillips Bond 1859–1865 Joseph Winlock 1866–1875 Edward Charles Pickering 1877–1919 Solon Irving Bailey 1919–1921 Harlow Shapley 1921–1952 Donald H. Menzel 1952–1953. Field 1971–1972 Irwin Shapiro 1983–2004 Charles Alcock 2004– Harvard Computers Sears Tower – Harvard Observatory The Minor Planet Center credits many asteroid discoveries to "Harvard Observatory." See List of largest optical refracting telescopes, for other'great refractors' Dava Sobel. The Glass Universe:. Viking. ISBN 978-0670016952. HCO home page Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Harvard College Observatory Bulletins Harvard College Announcement Cards

Taunoa v Attorney-General

Taunoa v Attorney-General was a case in the Supreme Court of New Zealand concerning breaches of prisoners' Bill of Rights protected rights by the Department of Corrections in the Behaviour Management Regime programme at Auckland Prison between 1998 and 2004. In March 1998, 25 prisoners had taken over their cellblock and started fires in protest against new cell search policies at Auckland Prison, known as Paremoremo Prison. In response to the riot the Department of Corrections instituted and operated from 1998 to 2004 a programme at the prison known as the "Behaviour Modification Regime" and "Behaviour Management Regime"; the programme was designed to deter bad behaviour of difficult to control prisoners through principles of behaviour modification and involved a progression through less restrictive phases. Around 200 prisoners were subjected to the BMR. BMR involved "cell confinement and the denial of association with other inmates for 22 to 23 hours a day, combined with a significant reduction in the ordinary conditions and privileges of maximum security inmates in the east division.

All prisoners remained there for at least 14 days. Privileges were restored as prisoners moved to phases, but misconduct could result in summary regression to a previous phase." Prison bosses were found to have ignored warning from psychiatric staff that the programme was too harsh and a breach of international guidelines. In 2000 the Office of the Ombudsman had raised questions as to the legality of the programme. Aspects of the treatment of prisoners on BMR included: Cell conditions "well short of the proper standard of hygiene". Five prisoners launched legal action against the programme. In the High Court the BMR was found to have been in breach of section 23 of the Bill of Rights Act 1990. Section 23 of BoRA states that, "Everyone deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the person." The High Court granted declarations that the prisoners Bill of Rights had been breached and awarded damages. Damages for the five prisoners were set at: Taunoa, $65,000.

The Court of Appeal upheld the finding and awards of the High Court, held that putting one of the prisoners, Lesley Tofts, into the BMR, was disproportionately severe treatment contrary to section 9 of BoRA. Section 9 of BoRA states, "Everyone has the right not to be subjected to torture or to cruel, degrading, or disproportionately severe treatment or punishment."Three of the prisoners appealed against the lower courts findings that the BMR did not breach section 9 in their case, sought higher awards of damages, sought declarations that their rights to the observance of natural justice as protected by section 27 of BoRA had been breached as "they were not given opportunities to be heard on the placement and its continued application to them", a court direction that the Attorney-General conduct an independent investigation into their treatment on the BMR. The Attorney-General cross-appealed against the decision of the Court of Appeal seeking to lower or extinguish the awards of damages in respect of all prisoners except Tofts.

All of the judges of the court issued their own judgments. By a majority the Court dismissed the appeals; the cross-appeals were allowed to an extent and the damages reduced to: Taunoa, $35,000. The Court dismissed the applications for declarations that natural justice rights had been breached and for a direction to Corrections to hold an independent inquiry. All of the court held. However, in the case of Taunoa, who spent 2 years and 8 months on BMR, Justice Blanchard like Elias CJ held there had been a breach of s 9. There were three different interpretations of section 9 of the Bill of Rights Act given in the judgments. Chief Justice Elias held that s 9 is concerned with the "prevention of treatment properly characterised as “inhuman”". Elias categorised torture as "the deliberate infliction of severe suffering for a purpose such as obtaining information". Cruel, degrading or disproportionately severe treatment, Elias held must be "seriously deficient" or "grossly disproportionate" rather than "excessive".

Adopting European and Canadian authorities, Elias held that treatment must "deprive inmates of the minimal civilised measure of life's necessities" according to the "contemporary standards of decency" or be "so excessive as to outrage standards of decency". Elias CJ held that for a breach

World IPv6 Day and World IPv6 Launch Day

World IPv6 Day was a technical testing and publicity event in 2011 sponsored and organized by the Internet Society and several large Internet content services to test and promote public IPv6 deployment. Following the success of the 2011 test day, the Internet Society carried out a World IPv6 Launch day on June 6, 2012 which, instead of just a test day, was planned to permanently enable IPv6 for the products and services of the participants. World IPv6 Day was announced on January 12, 2011 with five anchoring companies: Facebook, Yahoo, Akamai Technologies, Limelight Networks; the event ended 23:59 the same day. The main motivation for the event was to evaluate the real world effects of the IPv6 brokenness as seen by various synthetic tests. To this end, during World IPv6 Day major web companies and other industry players enabled IPv6 on their main websites for 24 hours. An additional goal was to motivate organizations across the industry – Internet service providers, hardware makers, operating system vendors and web companies – to prepare their services for IPv6, so as to ensure a successful transition from IPv4 as address space runs outThe test consisted of websites publishing AAAA records, which allow IPv6 capable hosts to connect using IPv6.

Although Internet service providers have been encouraged to participate, they were not expected to deploy anything active on that day, just increase their readiness to handle support issues. The concept was discussed at the 2010 Google IPv6 Conference. Many companies and organizations participated in the experiment, including the largest search engines, social networking websites and Internet backbone & content distribution networks. There were more than 400 participants in the original World IPv6 Day. Included some of the most accessed destinations on the Internet, content distribution networks, as well as various Internet service and infrastructure providers including: Comcast, Yahoo, Yandex YouTube, Akamai Technologies, Limelight Networks, Vonage, AOL, Mapquest, T-Online, Juniper Networks, the US Department of Commerce, MasterCard, the BBC, Telmex. Major carriers measured the percentage of IPv6 traffic of all Internet traffic as increasing from 0.024 to 0.041 with respect to native and tunneled stacks combined.

Most IPv6 traffic in consumer access networks was to Google sites. Demonstrating the need for content sites to adopt IPv6 for success, the biggest increase was in 6to4 transitional technologies. Early results indicated that the day passed according to plan and without significant problems for the participants. Cisco and Google reported no significant issues during the test. Facebook called the results encouraging, decided to leave their developer site IPv6-enabled as a result, but the consensus was that more work needed to be done before IPv6 could be applied. The participants said. Many participants found it worthwhile to continue to maintain dual-stacks. Following the success of the original World IPv6 Day, the exercise was repeated on June 6, 2012 as the World IPv6 Launch, this time with the intention of leaving IPv6 permanently enabled on all participating sites; the event was billed as "this time, it's for real". Participants in the World IPv6 Launch included participants from the 2011 test day, many more, including the Wikimedia Foundation, which permanently enabled IPv6 on its sites, including Wikipedia.

According to Alain Fiocco of Cisco, content that receives 30% of global World Wide Web IPv4 pageviews should now have become available via IPv6 after World IPv6 Launch Day. IPv6 traffic on AMS-IX rose from 2 Gbit/s to 3 Gbit/s. IPv6 traffic on AMS-IX was measured by ether type distribution as 0.4 percent, while IPv4 was measured as 99.6 percent on average in both daily and weekly graphs. IPv6 deployment IPv6 brokenness and DNS whitelisting Internet Society – World IPv6 Day Internet Society – World IPv6 Launch 8After World IPv6 Day, what's next? – Engineers from Cisco, Hurricane Electric, Yahoo! Discuss the deployment work done for World IPv6 Day and share the experience learned

The Double Cross

The Double Cross is the tenth studio album by Canadian rock band Sloan. The title of the album is a nod to their 20th anniversary. At a length of 34 minutes, it is Sloan's shortest album to date, it is the band's first album to be released on the Outside Music label. The album was named as a longlisted nominee for the 2011 Polaris Music Prize; the album was nominated for "Rock Album of the Year" at the 2012 Juno Awards. The band first announced plans to release the album in 2011, to coincide with the 20th anniversary of their first show; the album's lead-off track, "Follow the Leader", was the first song released from the album as an online giveaway track. The album's lead single, "Unkind", was released on March 29. All songs were performed by Sloan. "Follow the Leader" – 2:56 "The Answer Was You" – 2:18 "Unkind" – 4:15 "Shadow of Love" – 2:04 "She's Slowing Down Again" – 3:05 "Green Gardens, Cold Montreal" – 2:01 "It's Plain to See" – 1:57 "Your Daddy Will Do" – 3:04 "I've Gotta Know" – 1:22 "Beverly Terrace" – 3:01 "Traces" – 4:58 "Laying So Low" – 2:57 "Then Again" – 3:18 "Jesus Loves Me"

1963 Nordic Athletics Championships

The 1963 Nordic Athletics Championships was the second edition of the international athletics competition between Nordic countries and was held in Gothenburg, Sweden. It consisted of 22 for men and 12 for women; this covered a field programme plus a men's marathon race. Finland defended its team title in the men's points classification with 225.5 points and Sweden repeated as women's team champions with 104 points. Iceland took part in the men's competition only and was the only nation not to have an athlete top the podium. Among the athletes in attendance were 1962 European Athletics Championships medalists Pentti Nikula, Stig Pettersson, Rainer Stenius and Pentti Eskola. Ulla-Britt Wieslander of Sweden was the most successful athlete of the tournament, defending both her 100 metres and 200 metres titles as well as adding the 80 metres hurdles championship to her honours. Bengt-Göran Fernström was the only man to win two individual titles, taking the 200 m and 400 metres races. Athletes to defend their 1961 titles were Carl Fredrik Bunæs, Stig Pettersson, Stein Haugen, Birger Asplund, Karen Inge Halkier and Nina Hansen.

Nordic Championships. GBR Athletics. Retrieved 2018-04-29

Tiotixene

Tiotixene, or thiothixene, sold under the brand name Navane among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene class, related to chlorprothixene and is used in the treatment of psychoses like schizophrenia and bipolar mania. It was introduced in the United States in 1967 by Pfizer. It's related to thioproperazine and pipotiazine, members of the phenothiazine class. Tiotixene acts as a potent antagonist of the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, it is an antagonist of the histamine H1, α1-adrenergic, serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, as well as of various other receptors to a much lesser extent. It does not have any anticholinergic activity. Antagonism of the D2 receptor is thought to be responsible for the antipsychotic effects of tiotixene. Tiotixene was introduced in 1967. Tiotixene is a member of the thioxanthene class of antipsychotics. Analogues include chlorprothixene, clopenthixol and zuclopenthixol