Hearst Castle, San Simeon, is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark located on the Central Coast of California in the United States. The joint concept of William Randolph Hearst, the publishing tycoon, his architect Julia Morgan, it was built between 1919 and 1947. Known formally as "La Cuesta Encantada", referred to as San Simeon, Hearst himself called his castle, the "Ranch", his father George Hearst had purchased the original 40,000 acre estate in 1865 and Camp Hill, the site for the future Hearst Castle, was used for family camping holidays during Hearst's youth. Following his mother's death in 1919 Hearst inherited some $11,000,000 and estates including the land at San Simeon. Hearst used his fortune to further develop his media empire of newspapers and radio stations, the profits from which supported a lifetime of building and collecting. Within a few months of Phoebe Hearst's demise, Hearst had commissioned Julia Morgan to build "something a little more comfortable up on the hill", the genesis of the present castle.
Morgan was an architectural pioneer. Working in close collaboration with Hearst for over twenty years, the castle at San Simeon is her most renowned creation. In the Roaring Twenties and into the 1930s, Hearst Castle reached its social peak. Intended as a family home for Hearst, his wife Millicent and their five sons, by 1925 Hearst had separated from his wife and held court at San Simeon with his mistress, the actress Marion Davies, their guest list comprised most of the Hollywood stars of the period. Political luminaries covered Calvin Coolidge and Winston Churchill while other notables included Charles Lindbergh, P. G. Wodehouse and George Bernard Shaw. Visitors gathered each evening at Casa Grande for drinks in the Assembly Room, dined in the Refectory and watched the latest movie in the Theatre before retiring to the luxurious accommodation provided by the guest houses of Casa del Mar, Casa del Monte and Casa del Sol. During the days, they admired the views, played tennis, bowls or golf and swam in the "most sumptuous swimming pool on earth".
While Hearst entertained, Morgan built. Hearst, his castle and his lifestyle were satirized by Orson Welles in his 1941 film Citizen Kane. In the film, which Hearst sought to suppress, Charles Foster Kane's palace Xanadu is said to contain, "paintings, statues, the stones of many another palace — a collection of everything so big it can never be catalogued or appraised. Welles' allusion referred to Hearst's mania for collecting, the dealer Joseph Duveen called him the "Great Accumulator". With a passion for acquisition from childhood, Hearst bought architectural elements, antiques, statuary and textiles on an epic scale. Shortly after starting San Simeon, Hearst began to conceive of making the castle "a museum of the best things that I can secure". Foremost among his purchases were architectural elements from Western Europe Spain. Much was incorporated into the fabric of Hearst Castle. In addition, Hearst assembled antiques of high quality. In May 1947 ill health compelled Marion Davies to leave the castle for the last time.
He died in Los Angeles in 1951. In 1958, the Hearst family gifted many of its contents to the State of California, it has since operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument and attracts in the region of three quarters of a million visitors per year. The Hearst family retains ownership of the majority of the 82,000 acre wider estate and, under a land conservation agreement reached in 2005, has worked with the California State Parks Department and American Land Conservancy to preserve the undeveloped character of the area. Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearst's father, George Hearst purchased in 1865; the younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips. He inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. Although the large ranch had a Victorian mansion, the location selected for Hearst Castle was undeveloped, atop a steep hill whose ascent was a dirt path accessible only by foot or on horseback over five miles of cutbacks.
The original ranch house, constructed by George Hearst in the 1870s, remains a private property maintained by the Hearst Corporation. Hearst and his family occupied Casa Grande for the first time at Christmas, 1925. Thereafter, Milicent Hearst went back to New York, from 1926 until she left with Hearst for the last time in 1947, Heart's mistress Marion Davies acted as his chatelaine at the castle; the Hollywood and politi
Jefferson Park, Los Angeles
Jefferson Park is a neighborhood in the South region of the City of Los Angeles, California. Jefferson Park is a 1.28 square mile neighborhood. It is bounded by the Santa Monica Freeway on the north, Crenshaw Boulevard on the west, South Western Avenue and Arlington Avenue on the east and Jefferson Boulevard and Rodeo Road on the south. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, The 1.28 square miles neighborhood touches Arlington Heights to the north, Adams-Normandie to the east, the Exposition Park residential neighborhood on the southeast, Leimert Park on the south and West Adams to the west. Jefferson Park contains within it a smaller neighborhood called West Adams Terrace. With development commencing around the turn of the 20th century, Jefferson Park began as one of the city's wealthiest neighborhoods. On the hills rising west of Western Avenue, wealthy white Angelenos built luxury Edwardian and Art Deco mansions, with churches and commercial buildings of commensurate expense.
In 1903 there were trolley cars running down Adams Boulevard. Some wealthy blacks moved into the area as well, leading the neighborhood to be dubbed "Sugar Hill" by many African-Americans of the day. To the south, in the flatter areas along Jefferson Boulevard, a low-rise commercial corridor developed, with small single-story homes and low-rise apartment buildings in the blocks behind. After the 1948 Supreme Court ruling that banned segregationist covenants on property, most of Jefferson Park's white population decamped to other parts of the region, in turn being replaced by upper-middle and upper-class blacks whose descendants still reside in many of the district's spectacular homes; the Jefferson Park and Jefferson Boulevard area saw an influx of Creole peoples to the Los Angeles area in the post-World War II period. The resulting area was dubbed "Little New Orleans" and saw a large population of Creole people and Creole owned businesses such as the Big Loaf Bakery and Harold and Belle’s, an upscale creole restaurant.
The area and its Creole influence has been mentioned in the 2007 book One Drop: My Father's Hidden Life--A Story of Race and Family Secrets by Bliss Broyard. A total of 23,130 people lived in the neighborhood's 1.42 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 16,300 people per square mile, among the highest population density in the city as a whole. The median age was 31, about the same as the rest of the city. Within the neighborhood, African Americans made up 46.8% of the population, with Latinos 44.9%, Asian 2.9%, non-Hispanic Whites 2.7% and others 2.7%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 32.7% of the residents who were born abroad, considered an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $32,654, considered low when compared with all city and county neighborhoods; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large.
The average household size of 2.8 people was about the same as the rest of the city. Renters occupied 69.5% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. In 2000, there were 1,365 families headed by single parents, or 26.6%, a rate, high for the county and the city. Jefferson Park residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 11.8% of the population in 2000, considered low when compared with the city and the county as a whole. Schools within the Jefferson Park boundaries are: Joseph Pomeroy Widney High, LAUSD, special education, 2302 South Gramercy Place Twenty-Fourth Street Elementary, LAUSD, 2055 West 24th Street Mid City Magnet, LAUSD alternative, 3150 West Adams Boulevard Celerity Nascent Charter, LAUSD, 3417 West Jefferson Boulevard Sixth Avenue Elementary, LAUSD, 3109 Sixth Avenue Holy Name of Jesus Catholic Elementary, private, 1955 West Jefferson Boulevard; the school was founded in 1924 by families from New Orleans. It celebrates its Creole heritage with a music program in which every child in the school learns to read music and to play a musical instrument.
In 2013 24th Street Elementary School in Jefferson Park became the first campus in Los Angeles to make use of a "parent trigger" law that enabled its parents to install a new administration. The school serves a low-income and minority population, it failed to meet the state's educational standards in English and mathematics; the parents voted to take control of what had been a chronically underperforming school, they chose to organize it as a hybrid charter school, with the Los Angeles Unified School District operating kindergarten through 5th grade and a private entity, Crown Prep Academy, running grades 5 through 8. Benny H. Potter West Adams Avenues Memorial Park Second Avenue Park, 2413 Second Avenue Leslie N. Shaw Park, 2250 West Jefferson Boulevard Jefferson - Vassie D. Wright Memorial Branch Library, 2211 W. Jefferson Boulevard Auguste R. Marquis Residence; this 1904 Queen Anne-style house — the city's 602nd historic cultural monument - was used to depict the Fisher & Sons Funeral Home in the HBO series Six Feet Under.
It is located at 2501 Arlington Avenue. Trinity Baptist Church. Located at 36th and Normandie, it moved to its present location at 2040 W. Jefferson Boulevard in 1948; the master plan for the church was designed by noted African-American architect Paul Williams. It was one of the first non-white land owners in the area in the 1940s, it was Trinity, along with its membership, that went to court to tear down white-only covenants in the area. The First African Methodist Episcopal Church. Considered the spiritual heart of South Los Angeles and the usual v
Ray Charles Robinson was an American singer, songwriter and composer. Among friends and fellow musicians he preferred being called "Brother Ray", he was referred to as "The Genius". Charles started losing his vision at the age of 5, by 7 he was blind, he pioneered the soul music genre during the 1950s by combining blues and blues, gospel styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic. He contributed to the integration of country music and blues, pop music during the 1960s with his crossover success on ABC Records, notably with his two Modern Sounds albums. While he was with ABC, Charles became one of the first black musicians to be granted artistic control by a mainstream record company. Charles cited Nat King Cole as a primary influence, but his music was influenced by Louis Jordan and Charles Brown, he became friends with Quincy Jones. Their friendship lasted until the end of Charles's life. Frank Sinatra called Ray Charles "the only true genius in show business", although Charles downplayed this notion.
In 2002, Rolling Stone ranked Charles number ten on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", number two on their November 2008 list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Billy Joel said, "This may sound like sacrilege, but I think Ray Charles was more important than Elvis Presley". Ray Charles Robinson was the son of Bailey Robinson, a laborer, Aretha Williams, his mother was a teenage orphan making a living as a sharecropper. They lived in Florida with Robinson's father and his wife, Mary Jane Robinson; the Robinson family had informally adopted Aretha, she took the surname Robinson. When she became pregnant by Bailey, incurring scandal, she left Greenville late in the summer of 1930 to be with family members in Albany, Georgia for the baby's birth, after which mother and child returned to Greenville, she and Mary Jane shared in Ray's upbringing. He was devoted to his mother and recalled her perseverance, self-sufficiency, pride as guiding lights in his life, his father abandoned the family, left Greenville, married another woman elsewhere.
In his early years, Charles showed an interest in mechanical objects and would watch his neighbors working on their cars and farm machinery. His musical curiosity was sparked at Wylie Pitman's Red Wing Cafe, at the age of three, when Pitman played boogie woogie on an old upright piano. Charles and his mother were always welcome at the Red Wing Cafe and lived there when they were in financial distress. Pitman would care for Ray's younger brother George, to take some of the burden off their mother. George drowned in his mother's laundry tub. Charles started to lose his sight at the age of four or five, was blind by the age of seven as a result of glaucoma. Destitute and mourning the loss of her younger son, Aretha Robinson used her connections in the local community to find a school that would accept a blind African-American pupil. Despite his initial protest, Charles attended school at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind in St. Augustine from 1937 to 1945. Charles further developed his musical talent at school and was taught to play the classical piano music of J.
S. Bach and Beethoven, his teacher, Mrs. Lawrence, taught him how to use braille music, a difficult process that requires learning the left hand movements by reading braille with the right hand and learning the right hand movements by reading braille with the left hand, combining the two parts. While Charles was happy to play classical music, he was more interested in the jazz and country music he heard on the radio. On Fridays, the South Campus Literary Society held assemblies at which Charles would play piano and sing popular songs. On both Halloween and George Washington's birthday, the black department of the school held socials at which Charles would play, it was here he established "RC Robinson and the Shop Boys" and sang his own arrangement of "Jingle Bell Boogie". During this time, he performed on WFOY radio in St. Augustine. Ray Charles' mother died in the Spring of 1944, when Ray was 14, her death came as a shock to him. Charles returned to school after the funeral but was expelled in October for playing a prank on his teacher.
After leaving school, Charles moved to Jacksonville with a couple, friends with his late mother. He played the piano for bands at the Ritz Theatre in LaVilla for over a year, he joined the musicians' union in the hope. He befriended many union members, but others were less kind to him because he would monopolize the union hall's piano, since he did not have one at home, he started to build a reputation as a talented musician in Jacksonville, but the jobs did not come fast enough for him to construct a strong identity. He decided to move to a bigger city with more opportunities. At age 16, Charles moved to Orlando, where he lived in borderline poverty and went without food for days, it was difficult for musicians to find work, as since World War II had ended there were no "G. I. Joes" left to entertain. Charles started to write arrangements for a pop music band, in the summer of 1947 he unsuccessfully auditioned to play piano for Lucky Millinder and his sixteen-piece band. In 1947, Charles moved to Tampa, where he had two jobs: one as a pianist for Charles Brantley's Honeydippers.
In his early career, he modeled himself on Nat King Cole. His first four recordings—"Wondering and Wondering", "Walking and Talkin
The American Craftsman style, or the American Arts and Crafts movement, is an American domestic architectural, interior design, landscape design, applied arts, decorative arts style and lifestyle philosophy that began in the last years of the 19th century. As a comprehensive design and art movement, it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in decorative arts and architectural design, it has continued with numerous revivals and restoration projects through present times; the American Craftsman style was developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement, which began as early as the 1860s. The British movement was reacting against the Industrial Revolution's perceived devaluation of the individual worker and resulting degradation of the dignity of human labor; the movement emphasized handwork over mass production, with the problem that expensive materials and costly skilled labor restricted acquisition of Arts and Crafts productions to a wealthy clientele ironically derided as "champagne socialists".
While the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian "over-decorated" aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts style's American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. The American Arts and Crafts movement shared the British movement's reform philosophy, encouraging originality, simplicity of form, local natural materials, the visibility of handicraft, but distinguished itself in the Craftsman Bungalow style, with a goal of ennobling modest homes for a expanding American middle class. In the 1890s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and educators were determined to bring the design reforms of the British Arts and Crafts movement to America, its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Present at this meeting were local museum trustees, including General Charles Loring, William Sturgis Bigelow, Denman Ross, they succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 400 objects made by over 100 designers and craftspeople, half of whom were women.
Some of the exhibit's supporters included: the founder of Harvard’s School of Architecture, Langford Warren. The exhibition's success led to the formation of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897 with Charles Eliot Norton as president; the society aimed to "develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts." The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was soon expanded into a credo which read: This Society was incorporated for the purpose of promoting artistic work in all branches of handicraft, it hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, to encourage workmen to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in workmen an appreciation of the value of good design, it will insist upon the necessity of sobriety and restraint, of ordered arrangement, of due regard for the relation between the form of an object and its use, of harmony and fitness in the decoration put upon it.
The society held its first exhibition in 1899 at Copley Hall. In China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. In architecture, reacting to both Victorian architectural opulence and common mass-produced housing, the style incorporated a visible sturdy structure, of clean lines and natural materials; the movement's name American Craftsman came from the popular magazine, The Craftsman, founded in October 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker, editor Gustav Stickley. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, others; the designs, while influenced by the ideals of the British movement, found inspiration in American antecedents such as Shaker furniture and the Mission Revival Style, the Anglo-Japanese style. Emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are traceable not only to changes in taste and style but to the shift from the upper- to middle-class patronage.
The American Victorian took the form of a two-story square house with a hip roof disguised behind a variety of two-storied bays, with an assortment of gables as well as octagonal or round turrets and wraparound porches presenting a complex facade. The basic square house was complemented by a back wing complete with its own entrances, a stairwell, that housed the kitchen and scullery on the first floor and the servants' quarters on the second. Fitted with inferior-quality woodwork and hardware, noticeably smaller bedrooms and lower ceiling heights, the Victorian kitchen-servants' wing embodied the aristocratic class distinctions of the Old World. With the large bays and rear wing removed, the front porch simplified, the ceilings lowered somewhat, it is not difficult to see how the American Foursquare developed from the common American Queen Anne; the middle-class housewife of t
Palms, Los Angeles
Palms is a diverse, densely populated community in the Westside region of Los Angeles, founded in 1886 and the oldest neighborhood annexed to the city, in 1915. The 1886 tract was marketed as an agricultural and vacation community. Today it is a residential area, with a large number of apartment buildings, ribbons of commercial zoning and a single-family residential area in its northwest corner. In Spanish and Mexican days, the area that became Palms was a part of the Rancho La Ballona, where in 1819 Agustín and Ygnacio Machado, along with Felipe Talamantes and his son, Tomás, acquired grazing rights to 14,000 acres of land, it was thenceforth used as grazing land for cattle and sheep. According to Culver City History, a 2001 work by Julie Lugo Cerra, published for the Culver City Unified School District: The family lore relates that Agustín was chosen, by virtue of his skill as a horseman to ride his fastest steed, from dawn until dusk, beginning at the foot of the Playa del Rey hills to claim Rancho La Ballona, or Paso de las Carretas.
It stretched to Pico Boulevard and to what we know as Ince Boulevard, where Rancho Rincón de los Bueyes began. Agustin Machado died in 1865, the same year La Ballona School was constructed to serve all elementary-age children within the Ballona School District. In 1871, Ygnacio Saenz established a general store at the crossing which became Washington Boulevard and Overland Avenue; the store, a way stop on the county road between Los Angeles and the ocean housed the area's first post office. By 1882, the county's electoral district serving Palms was known as Ballona, with voting at La Ballona School. Deke Keasbey, real estate investment specialist for Tierra Properties, has noted that: "The Southern Pacific completed its Los Angeles route in 1883, only three years the Santa Fe finished its Los Angeles spur. With a huge investment in their new coast-to-coast rail lines and large Los Angeles land holdings, the railroads set forth a long-term plan for growth. Southern California citrus. Tourism and the building of towns were promoted to attract investors, to raise land values, to increase the value of railroad shipments".
La Ballona Valley was part of that land rush. In 1882, several Midwestern families chartered a reconditioned freight car and left their homes in Le Mars, Iowa, to settle in the valley, they held their first Sunday school in the old La Ballona School on Washington Boulevard, in fall 1883 they organized a United Brethren Church with 11 members. About that time the valley drew the attention of three speculators – Joseph Curtis, Edward H. Sweetser and C. J. Harrison, they paid $40,000 for 500 acres. They surveyed their land and cut it up, they sold it to the new arrivals, they planted 5,000 trees along eight miles of graded streets. They named it The Palms though they had to bring in palm trees and plant them near the train station, their first tract map was dated December 26, 1886, now considered the birth date of Palms. The site was midway between Los Angeles and Santa Monica on the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad. Before the massive urban growth engendered by the Los Angeles Aqueduct, Palms was located within a farming and ranching area.
The subdividers gave the United Brethren Church $200 in cash to get started. In 1887 the church building was completed, in 1889 the parsonage was built. In 1908 the old chapel was moved to the rear of the lot and new sanctuary built. In 1916 the old parsonage sold and a new one built. A bungalow was added next door to be a Sunday school. Although its exact location has been lost, contemporary sources indicate the existence of a Palms Villa, Palm Villa, or Villa Hotel at least from no than 1890 through 1904, it may have stood on Tabor Street, known as Villa Avenue at the time. The residential development of a vast area west of the Los Angeles city limits brought a pressure for annexation to the city. Noted was, the construction by L. A. of a new outfall sewer that could serve the area and, plans by the city engineer for a flood control project for the La Cienega region. Agitation for annexation was begun by Palms residents, but the reach was extended all the way west to the then-separate city of Sawtelle limits so that municipality could be annexed later.
There were two annexation elections. Both were hard fought; the first, on April 28, 1914, was voted down, according to the Los Angeles Times, "because the people in the suburban territory are afraid of the municipal bond craze, of which the power scheme is the last straw, the threatened burden of extra high taxation." The vote was 387 in 264 against. A new petition was immediately submitted, leaving out all the areas that had voted against annexation. Harry Culver, the founder of Culver City, denounced the new plan as a gerrymander and opposed it, but The Times wrote: "This district comprises some of the richest country between the city and the sea and is directly in the path of the residence expansion westward. Because its growth is inevitable and its population certain to be increased soon, advocates of annexation believe the necessity for securing adequate and permanent water rights is urgent and are working diligently to secure the required two-thirds vote". On June 1, 1914, the annexation succeeded, by a 342–136 vote, on May 4, 1915, Los Angeles voters approved the annexation of the Palms district, as well as that of the extensive San Fernando Vall
A movie palace is any of the large, elaborately decorated movie theaters built between the 1910s and the 1940s. The late 1920s saw the peak of the movie palace, with hundreds opened every year between 1925 and 1930. With the advent of television, movie attendance dropped and many movie palaces were razed or converted into multiple screen venues or performing arts centers. There are three architectural design types of movie palaces. First, the classical style movie palace, with its opulent, luxurious architecture. Paid exhibition of motion pictures began on April 14, 1894, at Andrew M. Holland's phonograph store, located at 1155 Broadway in New York City, with the Kinetoscope. Dropping a nickel in a machine allowed a viewer to see a short motion picture, devoid of plot; the machines were installed in Kinetoscope parlors, department stores and drugstores in large American cities. The machines were popular from 1894 to 1896, but by the turn of the century had disappeared as Americans rejected the solitary viewing experience and boring entertainment.
Around 1900, motion pictures became a small part of vaudeville theatres. The competitive vaudeville theatre market caused owners to look for new entertainment, the motion picture helped create demand, although the new form of entertainment was not the main draw for patrons, it was used as a "chaser"—shown as the end of the performance to chase the audience from the theatre. These theatres were designed much like legitimate theatres; the Beaux-Arts architecture of these theatres was ornate. They were not designed for motion pictures, but rather live stage performances. In 1902, the storefront theatre was born at Thomas Lincoln Tally's Electric Theatre in Los Angeles; these soon spread throughout the country as empty storefronts were equipped with chairs, a Vitascope projector, a muslin sheet on which the motion picture was exhibited, darkened windows, a box by the door to service as a ticket office Storefront theatres, supplied with motion pictures made in Chicago and New York, spread throughout America.
These theatres exhibited a motion picture at a specific time during the day. Air domes became popular in warm climates and in the summertime in northern climates. With no roof and only side walls or fences, the air domes allowed patrons to view motion pictures in a venue, cooler than the stifling atmosphere of the storefront theatre. In 1905, the Nickelodeon was born. Rather than exhibiting one program a night, the Nickelodeon offered continuous motion picture entertainment for five cents, they were popular. By 1910, Nickelodeons grossed $91 million in the United States; the Nickelodeons were like simple storefront theatres, but differed in the continuous showings and the marketing to women and families. The movie house, in a building designed for motion picture exhibition, was the last step before the movie palace. Comfort was paramount, with upholstered climate controls. One of the first movie houses was Tally's Broadway Theater in Los Angeles; the movie palace was developed as the step beyond the small theaters of the 1910s.
As motion pictures developed as an art form, theatre infrastructure needed to change. Storefront theatres and Nickelodeons catered to the busy work lives and limited budgets of the lower and middle classes. Motion pictures were only thought to be for the lower classes at that time as they were simple and cost only five cents to attend. While the middle class began to attend the Nickelodeons by the early 1910s the upperclass continued to attend stage theater performances such as the opera and big-time vaudeville. However, as more sophisticated and longer films featuring prominent stage actors were developed, the upperclass desires to attend the movies began to increase and a demand for higher class theaters began to develop. Nickelodeons could not meet this demand as the upperclass feared the moral repercussions of intermingling between women and children with immigrants. There were real concerns over the physical safety of the Nickelodeon theaters themselves as they were cramped with little ventilation and the nitrate film stock used at the time was flammable.
The demand for an upscale film theater, suitable to exhibit films to the upperclass, was first met when the Regent Theater, designed by Thomas Lamb, was opened in February 1913, becoming the first movie palace. However the theater's location in Harlem prompted many to suggest that the theater be moved to Broadway alongside the stage theaters; these desires were satisfied when Lamb built the Strand Theatre on Broadway, opened in 1914 by Mitchel H. Mark at the cost of one-million dollars; this opening was the first example of a success in drawing the upper middle class to the movies and it spurred others to follow suit. As their name implies movie palaces were advertised to, "make the average citizen feel like royalty." To accomplish this these theaters were outfitted with a plethora amenities such as larger sitting areas, air conditioning, childcare services. Between 1914 and 1922 over 4,000 movie palaces were opened. Notable pioneers of movies palaces include the Chicago firm of Rapp and Rapp, which designed the Chicago, the Uptown, the Oriental Theatres.
S. L. "Roxy" Rothafel, originated the deluxe presentation of films with themed stage shows. Sid Grauman, built the first movie palace on the West Coast, Los Angeles' Million Dollar Theater, in 1918. Following World War II movie ticket sales began to decline due to the w