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Harvard Mark I

The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer, used in the war effort during the last part of World War II. One of the first programs to run on the Mark I was initiated on 29 March 1944 by John von Neumann. At that time, von Neumann was working on the Manhattan Project, needed to determine whether implosion was a viable choice to detonate the atomic bomb that would be used a year later; the Mark I computed and printed mathematical tables, the initial goal of British inventor Charles Babbage for his "analytical engine". The Mark I was disassembled in 1959, but portions of it are displayed in the Science Center as part of the Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. Other sections of the original machine were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution; the original concept was presented to IBM by Howard Aiken in November 1937. After a feasibility study by IBM engineers, the company chairman Thomas Watson Sr. approved the project and its funding in February 1939.

Howard Aiken had started to look for a company to design and build his calculator in early 1937. After two rejections, he was shown a demonstration set that Charles Babbage’s son had given to Harvard University 70 years earlier; this led him to add references of the Analytical Engine to his proposal. It began computations for the U. S. Navy Bureau of Ships in May and was presented to the university on August 7, 1944; the ASCC was built from switches, rotating shafts, clutches. It used 765,000 electromechanical components and hundreds of miles of wire, comprising a volume of 816 cubic feet – 51 feet in length, 8 feet in height, 2 feet deep, it weighed about 9,445 pounds. The basic calculating units had to be synchronized and powered mechanically, so they were operated by a 50-foot drive shaft coupled to a 5 horsepower electric motor, which served as the main power source and system clock. From the IBM Archives: The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator was the first operating machine that could execute long computations automatically.

A project conceived by Harvard University’s Dr. Howard Aiken, the Mark I was built by IBM engineers in Endicott, N. Y. A steel frame 51 feet long and 8 feet high held the calculator, which consisted of an interlocking panel of small gears, counters and control circuits, all only a few inches in depth; the ASCC used 500 miles of wire with three million connections, 3,500 multipole relays with 35,000 contacts, 2,225 counters, 1,464 tenpole switches and tiers of 72 adding machines, each with 23 significant numbers. It was the industry’s largest electromechanical calculator; the enclosure for the Mark I was designed by futuristic American industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes. Aiken considered the elaborate casing to be a waste of resources, since computing power was in high demand during the war and the funds could have been used to build additional computer equipment; the Mark I had 60 sets of 24 switches for manual data entry and could store 72 numbers, each 23 decimal digits long. It could do 3 subtractions in a second.

A multiplication took 6 seconds, a division took 15.3 seconds, a logarithm or a trigonometric function took over one minute. The Mark I read its instructions from a 24-channel punched paper tape, it executed the current instruction and read in the next one. A separate tape could contain numbers for input. Instructions could not be executed from the storage registers; this separation of data and instructions is known as the Harvard architecture. Main sequence mechanism was unidirectional; this meant. A program loop was accomplished by loop unrolling or by joining the end of the paper tape containing the program back to the beginning of the tape. At first, conditional branching in the Mark I was performed manually. Modifications in 1946 introduced automatic program branching; the first programmers of the Mark I were computing pioneers Richard Milton Bloch, Robert Campbell, Grace Hopper. There was a small technical team whose purpose was to operate the machine, some of whom were IBM employees before being required to join the Navy to work on the machine.

This technical team was not informed of the purpose of their work while at Harvard. The 24 channels of the input tape were divided into three fields of eight channels; each accumulator, each set of switches, the registers associated with the input and arithmetic units were assigned a unique identifying index number. These numbers were represented in binary on the control tape; the first field was the binary index of the result of the operation, the second was the source datum for the operation and the third field was a code for the operation to be performed. In 1928 L. J. Comrie was the first to turn IBM "punched-card equipment to scientific use: computation of astronomical tables by the method of finite differences, as envisioned by Babbage 100 years earlier for his Difference Engine". Soon after, IBM started to modify its tabulators to facili

Chekkeranoru Chilla

Chekkaeran Oru Chilla is a 1986 Malayalam-language Indian feature film directed by Sibi Malayil and produced by Shankar, starring Shankar himself, along with Bharath Gopi and Nedumudi Venu, while Ambika played the leading lady. The film has musical score by Shyam; the film is a remake of the Hindi film Saaheb, starring Anil Kapoor, which itself was remade from a Bengali film of the same name. Shankar is a promising football goalkeeper and his only aim is to represent India, he is criticised by family members for not taking care of his family. His sister gets a good marriage proposal. Whether Shankar takes responsibility, forms the climax; the music was composed by Shyam and the lyrics were written by Chunakkara Ramankutty. This is actor Shankar's only home production. Chekkeranoru Chilla on IMDb

Tredegarville Baptist Church

Tredegarville Baptist Church is a Baptist chapel in the suburb of Roath, Cardiff. It was established to reach Roman Catholics with the Gospel and although this remains a part of their ministry, it was formed as an offshoot of Bethany chapel, located in Cardiff City Centre. The minister of Bethany, Alfred Tilly, together with 111 of his parishioners, left to found the new cause, they began in rooms in City Road in 1860. Work commenced the following year on a permanent place of worship; the site was donated by Lord Tredegar himself, said to have insisted that the church be cruciform in design. A schoolroom was opened on 3 December 1861, with the chapel itself following in 1862; the limestone used to build the church was once believed to have come from Italy, but is more to have hailed from Galway as ballast in coal ships. In its earlier years, the church had two small pinnacles on its roof, but these have since been removed. In addition to the gift of the and from Lord Tredegar, the church was generously supported by the wealthy Cory family.

Of an evangelical bent, it founded several missions elsewhere in Cardiff and engaged in missionary work abroad. William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army gave his first worship service in Cardiff at the church in 1863 because of Tredegarville's huge effort in establishing the cause; the missionary to China Timothy Richards was very grateful to Tredegarville for its financial support in his ministry. Tredegarville's missionary to the Congo Henry Richards is recognised today as one of the greatest Baptist missionaries of America when it adopted the David Livingstone mission as its own. Grade II Listed since 1999, the church has a present fellowship of around 100. Missionary work is still a feature of its activities, with operations in evangelising Muslims in Roath, a suburb with a diverse ethnic makeup, in 2013, the church's congregation had members from 84 different nations