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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,800 undergraduate students and about 14,000 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history, influence and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. The Harvard Corporation, chartered in 1650, is the governing body of Harvard. In its early years, Harvard College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who succeeded Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical campus.

James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II. The university is organized into eleven principal academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout Greater Boston: its 209-acre original undergraduate campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university. While the nominal cost of attendance is high, the university's sizeable endowment allows it to offer generous, no-loan financial aid packages and use need-blind admission; the Harvard Library is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 369 Rhodes Scholars, 252 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2019, 160 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers.

In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, 108 Olympic medals, as well as founded many notable companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust", it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model‍—‌many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge‍—‌but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas. In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences."

Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence; this dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge; the library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern

Hidden World (novel)

Hidden World is a satiric science fiction novel by American writer Stanton A. Coblentz, it was published as a magazine serial in Wonder Stories as In Caverns Below. It was first published in book form in 1957 by Avalon Books. Underlying the Basin and Range province of North America, giant caverns, some many miles in diameter, form a network, occupied by people who have evolved the adaptations for living underground. Isolated from the upper world, the people have created a civilization, technologically more advanced than that of 1935 America. While exploring an abandoned silver mine in Nevada, Philip Clay and Frank Comstock are separated from their team and trapped by a cave-in triggered by a series of earthquakes; as they try to find a way out of the trap they come to a corridor with smooth walls and floor. They see light, follow it, come to a place overlooking a vast cavern, filled with yellow-green light, where a mighty battle plays out before them. Spotted by the combatants and fired upon, the two men run for their lives and get separated from each other in the confusion.

Frank is taken to a large underground city. The chalk-faces attempt to put Frank to death as a spy. One chalk-face notices the book, examines it, takes Frank into his custody; the chalk-face is Professor Tan Torm, who wants to study Frank and his primitive culture. He gives the task of teaching Frank the local language to his daughter Loa, who falls in love with Frank; the standard of beauty in this underground realm is fat and wrinkled, so Frank employs various pretenses of decorum to keep a good distance from Loa. Once he learns the language he goes to work for the Ventilation Company, the corporation that supplies the underground realm of Wu with fresh air from the surface. Frank discovers that the vast caverns comprising the realms of Wu and Zu span hundreds of miles under Nevada and Arizona; those realms have been at war with each other less continuously for thousands of years. War both provides big profits for large corporations. Frank works his way up the social scale and discovers a hidden way to turn off Wu’s air supply.

Using the latter, he takes his place. Frank’s efforts to reform the society of Wu meet so much resistance and resentment that he is compelled to renew the war with Zu, whose own dictator has just been deposed; the new dictator of Zu turns out to be Philip Clay in disguise. The two men meet in secret and pursued by their erstwhile minions, they flee to a ventilation shaft where Frank has stashed climbing equipment, they return to the upper world and stagger into a mining camp in California, where they are rescued. Barron, Neil. Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction, 5th Edition. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited. Pg 167. ISBN 1-59158-171-0. Clute and David Langford. "Coblentz, Stanton A." The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Eds. John Clute, David Langford, Peter Nicholls and Graham Sleight. Gollancz, 25 Augugust 2015. Web. 7 Sept. 2016. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. Pg 106. ISBN 0-911682-20-1; the book is listed at The Library of Congress as http://lccn.loc.gov/57012666 WorldCat as OCLC 2854677

Fannie Lee Chaney

Fannie Lee Chaney was an American baker turned civil rights activist after her son James Chaney was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan during the 1964 Freedom Summer rides in Mississippi. After her son's murder, Chaney sued five restaurants in Meridian for racial discrimination, she could not find other work. Crosses were burned on her lawn, a firebomb intended for her family's house destroyed that of a neighbor, she moved to New York City. After 30 years, she moved to New Jersey. In 2005 she testified for the State of Mississippi in the murder case against Edgar Ray Killen, one of her son's killers. Killen was cleared of murder by the jury, but convicted of manslaughter and given a 60 years sentence, which he served until his death in January 2018. Fannie Lee Chaney was born on September 4, 1921, in Meridian, where she lived until 1965, she changed her name after marrying Ben Chaney Sr.. Ben Chaney Sr. worked as a plasterer, she worked as a baker, earning $28 a week. The two had five children, two sons named James Earl Chaney, Ben Chaney Jr. and three daughters named Barbara and Julia.

Her oldest son, became involved in the civil rights movement early in his life. Both Fannie Lee and Ben Sr. were skeptical of his work, however Fannie Lee learned more about the civil rights movement and supported her son's work. Ben Chaney did not support James' work and left the family as a result. Chaney's oldest son, James Earl Chaney became involved in the Freedom Summer movement in Mississippi, as a result was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan with his co-workers Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner; these murders, known as the Mississippi Burning case, put a national spotlight on the family. In the aftermath of the murders, Chaney began giving speeches about racial justice and voting rights in Meridian, she filed a racial discrimination lawsuit against five restaurants in Meridian after losing her job as a baker and being unable to find other work. Chaney and her family faced significant backlash as a result of her outspokenness on civil rights, she lost her job as a baker, was unable to find work in Meridian.

The family received threatening phone calls, their house as well as James' grave was vandalized. A cross was burned on the family's lawn, bullets were fired at their house; as a result of the numerous hate crimes against her and her family in Meridian and her family moved to Willows Point, New York in 1965. There, she began caring for her four children. In 2000, after 35 years in New York, Chaney retired and moved to Willingboro, New Jersey, where her daughter Julia lived. In 2005, Edgar Ray Killen, the Klansman who had orchestrated the murder of James Chaney was brought to trial; this trial, 41 years after the murders of James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, was in part a result of the work of the James Earl Chaney foundation, founded by Ben Chaney Jr. At the age of 82, Chaney returned to Mississippi to testify against Edgar Ray Killen. In her emotional testimony, she highlighted the relationship between her oldest son and her youngest son, Ben, she recounted the last time she saw James alive, leaving her house with the two men he was killed with, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman.

Her testimony included an account of when she learned that her son had died, first hearing from a neighbor who notified her that they were unable to find James, learning his cause of death after seeing his burnt car on TV, testifying to the court that “J. E. never come back”. Her testimony covered the violence and threats she faced after the murders, her testimony lasted about 12 minutes, there was no cross-examination. Edgar Ray Killen was found guilty of three counts of manslaughter. Chaney was happy about the verdict, her son Ben saying that “she believes that the life of her son has some value to the people in this community” Chaney passed away on the 22nd of May, 2007 from undisclosed causes, she was buried on June 2, 2007 in Okatibbee Baptist Church outside of Meridian, next to her son James. Her funeral service was held at First Union Missionary Baptist Church, the same church where James' funeral service was held, she is survived by her son, Ben Chaney Jr. as well as her three daughters Barbara Dailey, Janice Chaney, Julia Chaney-Moss.

She is remembered by the James Earl Chaney Foundation, founded by Ben Chaney Jr. which now works to protect the constitutional rights of all Americans. How the Mississippi Burning Case Was Reopened Fannie Lee Chaney on IMDb