Harvill Secker

Harvill Secker is a British publishing company formed in 2005 from the merger of Secker & Warburg and the Harvill Press. Secker & Warburg was formed in 1935 from a takeover of Martin Secker, in receivership, by Fredric Warburg and Roger Senhouse; the firm became renowned for its political stance, being both anti-fascist and anti-communist, a position that put them at loggerheads with the ethos of many intellectuals of the time. When George Orwell parted company with Communist Party sympathizer Victor Gollancz over his editing of The Road to Wigan Pier, he took his next book Homage to Catalonia to Secker & Warburg, who published it in 1938, they published, after 18 months of rejections and setbacks, Animal Farm, Orwell's subsequent books. Orwell and Warburg became intimate friends. Secker & Warburg published other books by key figures of the anti-Stalinist left, such as Minty Alley, World Revolution, The Black Jacobins by C. L. R. James, Rudolf Rocker and Boris Souvarine, as well as works by Lewis Mumford.

In February 1941 the company launched a series of "long pamphlets" or "short books" called Searchlight Books, edited by George Orwell and T. R. Fyvel; the series was planned to include 17 books, but was discontinued after the publication of 10 when bombing destroyed paper stocks. With its financial position devastated by paper shortages during and after the war, Secker & Warburg were forced to join the Heinemann group of publishers in 1951. During the 1950s and 1960s Secker & Warburg published the works of, among others, Simone de Beauvoir, Colette, J. M. Coetzee, Alberto Moravia, Günter Grass, Angus Wilson, Michael Moorcock, Melvyn Bragg and Julian Gloag, as well as the British Buddhist Lobsang Rampa. Heinemann was purchased by the Octopus Publishing Group in 1985. Random House bought the adult trade division of Reed Books in February 1997. Tom Rosenthal, chairman of the Institute of Contemporary Arts, was head of Secker & Warburg from 1971 to 1984; the Harvill Press was founded in 1946 by Marjorie Villiers.

The imprint was acquired by the Glasgow-based publishing firm William Collins and Sons, which in 1989 merged with the American publishers Harper & Row to form HarperCollins. In 1996 Harvill Press became independent following a management buyout; the firm was bought by Random House in 2002, was merged with Secker & Warburg in 2005 to become Harvill Secker. As of 2019, Harvill Secker is an imprint of Vintage Publishing UK

Roman Catholic Diocese of Timmins

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Timmins is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ottawa. It was elevated as the Diocese of Haileybury on 31 December 1915 and renamed as the Diocese of Timmins on 10 December 1938; the Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming was set up bounded on the north by Hudson Bay and the Great Whale River. It was erected on 22 Sept. 1908, by dividing the Diocese of Pembroke. Father de Bellefeuille, S. S. and Father Dupuy of Montreal, first preached the Gospel here in 1836. Annual visits were made, missions being held at the Hudson's Bay Company's trading posts; the Oblates of Mary Immaculate were given charge in 1843. Father Laverlochere was the first of these missionaries, they established a residence at Fort Temiskaming in 1863, but removed to Ville Marie in 1886. Haileybury, Ontario was the residence of the first vicar Elie-Anicet Latulipe, he was born at St. Anicet, Province of Quebec, 3 August 1859. Ordained on 30 May 1885, he was successively curate at St. Henri, chaplain at the convents of the Good Shepherd, St. Anne's, rector of Pembroke Cathedral, pastor of Haileybury.

He was named Titular Bishop of Catenna and first Vicar-Apostolic of Temiskaming on 1 October 1908, consecrated on 30 November 1908. Élie Anicet Latulipe Louis Rhéaume, O. M. I. Maxime Tessier Jacques Landriault Gilles Cazabon, O. M. I. Appointed Bishop of Saint-Jérôme, Québec Paul Marchand, S. M. M. Serge Poitras-Patrick Maxime Tessier Paul-André Durocher, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario in 1997 "Diocese of Timmins". Catholic-Hierarchy. Retrieved 2007-03-15; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Temiskaming". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Diocese of Timmins - official site GCatholic - diocese of Timmins Catholic Encyclopaedia - The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming

Injo of Joseon

Injo of Joseon was the sixteenth king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea. He was son of Grand Prince Jeongwon. King Injo was king during both the first and second Manchu invasions, which ended with the surrender of Joseon to the Qing dynasty in 1636. King Injo was born in 1595 as a son of Grandprince Jeongwon, whose father was the ruling monarch King Seonjo. In 1607, Grandprince Jeongwon's son was given the title, Prince Neungyang and Grand Prince Neungyang. In 1608, King Seonjo fell sick and died, his son, succeeded him to the throne. At the time, the government was divided by various political factions; the Eastern faction split during the last days of King Seonjo in the Northern and Southern political factions. The Northern faction wanted radical reform. At the time of Seonjo's death, the Northern faction, who gained control of the government at the time, was divided into left-wing Greater Northerners and less radical Lesser Northerners; as Gwanghaegun inherited the throne, the Greater Northern political faction, which supported him as heir to the crown, became the major political faction in the royal court.

Meanwhile, conservative Western political faction remained a minor faction, far from gaining power. Although King Gwanghaegun was an outstanding administrator and great diplomat, he was unsupported by many politicians and aristocrats because he was not the first-born and he was born of a concubine. Greater Northerners tried to stomp out those opinions, suppressing Lesser Northerners and killing Prince Imhae, the oldest son of Seonjo, Grand Prince Yeongchang, the queen's son, it was not Gwanghaegun's plan to keep his throne. The actions made Gwanghaegun more unpopular among wealthy aristocrats, they began plotting against him. In 1623, members of the ultra-conservative Westerners faction, Kim Ja-jeom, Kim Ryu, Yi Gwi and Yi Gwal, launched a coup that resulted in the dethroning of Gwanghaegun, sent into exile on Jeju Island. Jeong In-hong and Yi Yicheom were killed, followed by the Westerners replacing the Greater Northerners as the ruling political faction; the Westerners crowned him as the new King of Joseon.

Although Injo was king, he did not have any authority since all of the power was held by the Western faction that dethroned Gwanghaegun. Yi Gwal received too small reward for his role in the coup. In 1624, he rebelled against Injo after being sent to the Northern front as military commander of Pyongyang to fight against the expanding Manchus, while other major leaders of the coup were rewarded with positions in the King's court. Yi Gwal led 12,000 troops, including 100 Japanese, to the capital, where Yi Gwal defeated a regular army under the command of General Jang Man and surrounded Hanseong in what is known as the Battle of Jeotan. Injo fled to Gongju, Hanseong fell into the hands of the rebels. On February 11, 1624, Yi Gwal enthroned Prince Heungan as the new king; the Korean army recaptured the capital soon after, Yi Gwal was murdered by his bodyguard, which resulted in the end of the rebellion. Though Injo was able to keep his throne, the rebellion displayed the weaknesses of royal authority, while asserting the superiority of the aristocrats, who had gained more power by the fighting against the rebellion.

The economy, experiencing a slight recovery from Gwanghaegun's reconstruction, was once again ruined and Korea would remain in a poor economic state for a few centuries. King Gwanghaegun, considered a wise diplomat, kept his neutral policy between the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Joseon's traditional ally, the growing Manchus. However, following the fall of Gwanghaegun, conservative Westerners took hard-line policy toward the Manchus, keeping their alliance with Ming Dynasty; the Manchus, who had up until that time remained friendly to Joseon, began to regard Joseon as an enemy. Han Yun, who participated in the rebellion of Yi Gwal, fled to Manchuria and urged the Manchu leader Nurhaci to attack Joseon. In 1627, 30,000 Manchu cavalry under General Amin and former Korean General Gang Hong-rip invaded Joseon, calling for restoration of Gwanghaegun and execution of Westerners leaders, including Kim Ja-jeom. General Jang Man again was unable to repel the invasion. Once again, Injo fled to Ganghwa Island.

Meanwhile, the Manchus had no reason to attack Korea and decided to go back to prepare for war against China, peace soon settled. Qing and Joseon were declared brother nations and the Manchus withdrew from Korea; the war is called first Manchu invasion of Korea. However, most Westerners kept their hard-line policy despite the war. Nurhaci, who had good opinion toward Korea, did not invade Korea again.