click links in text for more info


Harwich is a town in Essex and one of the Haven ports, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. It is in the Tendring district. Nearby places include Felixstowe to the northeast, Ipswich to the northwest, Colchester to the southwest and Clacton-on-Sea to the south, it is the northernmost coastal town within Essex. Its position on the estuaries of the Stour and Orwell rivers and its usefulness to mariners as the only safe anchorage between the Thames and the Humber led to a long period of maritime significance, both civil and military; the town became a naval base in 1657 and was fortified, with Harwich Redoubt, Beacon Hill Battery, Bath Side Battery. Harwich is the launch point of the Mayflower which carried English Puritans to North America, is the presumed birthplace of Mayflower captain Christopher Jones. Harwich today is contiguous with Dovercourt and the two, along with Parkeston, are referred to collectively as Harwich; the town's name means "military settlement", from Old English here-wic.

The town received its charter in 1238, although there is evidence of earlier settlement – for example, a record of a chapel in 1177, some indications of a possible Roman presence. The town was the target of an abortive raid by French forces under Ayton Doria on 24 March 1339 during the Hundred Years War; because of its strategic position, Harwich was the target for the invasion of Britain by William of Orange on 11 November 1688. However, unfavourable winds forced his fleet to sail into the English Channel instead and land at Torbay. Due to the involvement of the Schomberg family in the invasion, Charles Louis Schomberg was made Marquess of Harwich. Writer Daniel Defoe devotes a few pages to the town in A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. Visiting in 1722, he noted its formidable fort and harbour "of a vast extent"; the town, he recounts, was known for an unusual chalybeate spring rising on Beacon Hill, which "petrified" clay, allowing it to be used to pave Harwich's streets and build its walls.

The locals claimed that "the same spring is said to turn wood into iron", but Defoe put this down to the presence of "copperas" in the water. Regarding the atmosphere of the town, he states: "Harwich is a town of hurry and business, not much of gaiety and pleasure. Harwich played an important part in the Napoleonic and more the two world wars. Of particular note: 1793-1815—Post Office Station for communication with Europe, one of embarkation and evacuation bases for expeditions to Holland in 1799, 1809 and 1813/14; the dockyard built many ships for the Navy, including HMS Conqueror which captured the French Admiral Villeneuve at the Battle of Trafalgar. The Redoubt and the now-demolished Ordnance Building date from that era. 1914-18—base for the Royal Navy's Harwich Force light cruisers and destroyers under Commodore Tyrwhitt, for British submarines. In November 1918 the German U-Boat fleet surrendered to the Royal Navy in the harbour. 1939-1945—one of main East Coast minesweeping and destroyer bases, at one period base for British and French submarines.

Harwich Dockyard was established as a Royal Navy Dockyard in 1652. It ceased to operate as a Royal Dockyard in 1713. During the various wars with France and Holland, through to 1815, the dockyard was responsible for both building and repairing numerous warships. HMS Conqueror, a 74-gun ship completed in 1801, captured the French admiral Villeneuve at Trafalgar; the yard was a semi-private concern, with the actual shipbuilding contracted to Joseph Graham, sometimes mayor of the town. During World War II parts of Harwich were again requisitioned for naval use and ships were based at HMS Badger; the Royal Navy no longer has a presence in Harwich but Harwich International Port at nearby Parkeston continues to offer regular ferry services to the Hook of Holland in the Netherlands. Many operations of the Port of Felixstowe and of Trinity House, the lighthouse authority, are managed from Harwich; the Mayflower railway line serves Harwich and there are three operational passenger stations: Harwich International and Harwich Town.

The line allows freight trains to access the Port. The port is famous for the phrase "Harwich for the Continent", seen on road signs and in London & North Eastern Railway advertisements. At least three pairs of lighthouses have been built over recent centuries as leading lights, to help guide vessels into Harwich; the earliest pair were wooden structures: the High Light stood on top of the old Town Gate, whilst the Low Light stood on the foreshore. Both were coal-fired. In 1818 these were replaced by stone structures, designed by John Rennie Senior, which can still be seen today, they were owned by General Rebow of Wivenhoe Park, able to charge 1d per ton on all cargo entering the port, for upkeep of the lights. In 1836 Rebow's lease on the lights was purchased by Trinity House, but in 1863 they were declared redundant due to a change the position of the channel used by ships entering and leaving the port, caused by shifting sands, they were in turn replaced by the pair of cast iron lights at nearby Dovercourt.

List of Lerwick Up Helly Aa Guizer Jarls

The following is a list of people who acted as Guizer Jarl for each Lerwick Up Helly Aa festival since the introduction of the position of Guizer Jarl in 1906. The Guizer Jarl is the chief guizer who leads a squad dressed as Vikings, are the primary focus of the festival's proceedings. Only the Jarl's Squad dresses as Vikings, it took until after the First World War until a squad of Vikings appeared in the festival every year. As the festival developed, the Guizer Jarl began to portray specific individuals from the sagas, or the history of Shetland. Again, each Guizer Jarl would select both a name for the galley, constructed from October the previous year and burned at the culmination of the torchlight procession, along with a tune played by the Lerwick Brass Band as the Jarl leads his squad up the ranks of guizers just prior to the torchlight procession; those wishing to become Guizer Jarl must be elected to the Up Helly Aa Committee, serve the committee for 15 years. Women and girls are not permitted in any Lerwick squad, as such are not able to become Guizer Jarl.

While female guizers are permitted to varying degrees in the other Up Helly Aa festivals in Shetland, only two Up Helly Aas have had female Guizer Jarls.

Augusto Teixeira de Freitas

Augusto Teixeira de Freitas was a prominent Brazilian jurist whose prolific writings inspired all South American private law codifications. After studies at Olinda and São Paulo, Teixeira de Freitas practiced law as an advocate and jurisconsult; as president of the Order of Advocates and legal counsel to the State Council of the Empire of Brazil, he composed the first systematic compilation of Brazilian civil law, which served in lieu of a civil code until 1916. His magnum opus, the Esboço de Código Civil, a draft civil code, remained incomplete after 4,908 articles had been written, at which point the government released the exhausted jurist from his commission; the Esboço was nonetheless a pioneering work and constituted the basis of codifications in Brazil and the rest of South America. Paul, Wolf. "Teixeira de Freitas, Augusto". In Michael Stolleis. Juristen: ein biographisches Lexikon. Jahrhundert. München: Beck. P. 225. ISBN 3-406-45957-9. "Brazil". The Oxford international encyclopedia of legal history.

Katz, Stanley Nider. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2009. ISBN 9780195134056. OCLC 244246695. CS1 maint: others

Travis Sanheim

Travis Sanheim is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman playing for the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League. Sanheim was selected by the Flyers in the first round, 17th overall, of the 2014 NHL Entry Draft. Sanheim, raised in the small town of Elkhorn, was selected by the Western Hockey League's Calgary Hitmen in the ninth round, 177th overall, of the 2011 WHL Bantam Draft, he played midget hockey with his twin brother Taylor in the Manitoba Midget'AAA' Hockey League before joining the Hitmen for the 2013–14 season. In his first season of major junior hockey, Sanheim recorded a +25 plus-minus rating with 5 goals, 24 assists and 14 penalty minutes, helping the Hitmen earn 103 points to tie with the top placed Edmonton Oil Kings in the WHL's Central Division. Sanheim attended the Philadelphia Flyers' training camp and played in one pre-season game before being reassigned to the Hitmen for the 2014–15 season. On September 25, 2014, the Flyers announced they had signed Sanheim to a three-year, entry-level contract.

Sanheim made Philadelphia's final roster out of training camp and started the 2017–18 season in the NHL. He scored his first NHL goal on December 14, 2017, in his 28th NHL game, to help the Flyers defeat the Buffalo Sabres 2–1, he was reassigned to Philadelphia's American Hockey League affiliate, the Lehigh Valley Phantoms, on January 22, 2018, but was recalled on March 9 due to an injury to Robert Hägg. Sanheim made his Stanley Cup playoff debut during the first round of the 2018 playoffs against the Pittsburgh Penguins, he recorded his first career playoff goal on April 15 in a 5–1 loss to the Penguins. The Flyers ended up losing to the Penguins in six games, after which Sanheim was loaned to the Phantoms to help them with their run in the 2018 Calder Cup playoffs. On June 24, 2019, Sanheim signed $6.5 million contract. Sanheim was chosen to compete with the Canada Western squad at the 2013 World U-17 Hockey Challenge, he led Canada to capture the bronze medal at the 2014 IIHF World U18 Championships.

At the WJC-18, Sanheim led all defencemen with six points, was named one of Canada's top three players in the tournament earning recognition as the tournament's best defenceman. Sanheim has a twin brother named Taylor who plays for the Elrose Aces in the Saskatchewan Valley Hockey League. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Tenuta San Leonardo

Tenuta San Leonardo is an estate of historical significance and an Italian wine producer in the Lagarina Valley in Trentino. It produces San Leonardo, a Bordeaux-style red wine, described by journalist Jancis Robinson as "surely the most successful Bordeaux blend of northern Italy"; the first historical reference to this fief-like estate dates from 589AD when the historian Paul the Deacon in the History of the Lombards records the location for the wedding between Theodelinda and the King of the Lombards Authari as “Campi Sarni/Sardis”, the ancient place name for the stretch of land where the estate is situated. The estate is mentioned in 927AD by the Bishop of Verona Nokterio who conceded the use of the vineyards and meadows “in Sarnes” to the Bishop of Trento, Federico Wanga. In 1982, a fresco was discovered in the apse of the Church of San Leonardo, found within the main courtyard of the estate, dating from 1100-1200 making it one of the oldest Romanesque frescoes in Trentino; the fresco features a Christ in Majesty in Mandorla with some elements resembling the frescoes of San Zeno in Verona.

The first significant development however took place in 1215 when the Bishop of Trento Federico Wanga called upon the Crutched Friars to set up a monastery at San Leonardo, at the time serving as a hospice, including for those returning from the Crusades. Due to its strategically important position along the Roman road Via Claudia Augusta, still found intact on the estate, halfway between Verona and Trento, the monastery hosted several important figures including Pope Julius III and Pope Marcellus II at the time of the Council of Trent. In 1656 Pope Alexander VII suppressed the order of the Crutched Friars and the estate was converted into a priory and sold by emphyteusis to the de Gresti family in 1770. Tenuta San Leonardo was inherited by the Guerrieri Gonzaga family following the marriage of Gemma de Gresti and Tullo Guerrieri Gonzaga. During World War I, the residence on the estate known as “Villa Gresti” was used as a base for the 29th Regiment of the Italian army. Following the defeat of Austria Hungary at the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, the Villa was chosen as the site for the negotiation of the terms of the Armistice of Villa Giusti which marked the end of warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary.

The negotiations began at Villa Gresti on 20 October 1918 and the Armistice was signed on 3 November at Villa Giusti. Tenuta San Leonardo official site

Zorlu Center

Zorlu Center is a multiple-use complex in the Beşiktaş district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey. Built in 2013 to a design by Emre Arolat Architects and Tabanlıoğlu Architects, the center is situated at the junction of the European connection of the Bosphorus Bridge and Büyükdere Avenue, which runs through the central business districts of Levent and Maslak, it is home to Zorlu Center PSM, the largest performing arts center in the country, as well as the country's first Apple Store. The complex contains an upscale shopping center, a five-star hotel and a Cinemaximum megaplex, as well as residences and offices. At a public auction in 2007, Zorlu Real Estate, a subsidiary of Zorlu Holding, submitted the highest bid to purchase the land at the junction of O-1 - the European connection of the Bosphorus Bridge, Büyükdere Avenue, it subsequently announced the "Zorlu Center Architecture and Urban Design Competition" for concept and design proposals. Over 100 firms applied and 13 were selected to take part in the competition with Tabanlıoğlu Mimarlık and Emre Arolat Mimarlık submitting the winning proposal.

A Vision in Architecture: Projects for the Istanbul Zorlu Center by Süha Özkan documents the design competition. Construction was completed in 2013; the center is a four-tower, five-function structure group, including a public square, residential development and office space. The design is stated to be "shaped by a modern understanding of architecture", based on the concept of a historical town square, incorporating "bold geometric lines that frame the sky, as well as large expanses of greenery"; the shopping center contains over 40 cafés and restaurants. It contains stores of luxury brands such as Beymen, Atelier Rebul, Cos, Bulgari, Louis Vuitton, Lanvin, Miu Miu, Tory Burch, Michael Kors and Valentino, as well as Turkey's first Apple Store. Beymen's largest store in the center covers some 10,000 square metres filled with "every fashionable item imaginable, from ready-to-wear to couture, cosmetics to home accessories, menswear to womenswear, accessories to books, designers that are not available anywhere else in the city".

Atelier Rebul is operated by Rebul, Istanbul's oldest drug store, is a boutique selling specially made beauty products, including lavender, green tea, or jasmine. Zorlu Center contains numerous international restaurants and cafés, including Eataly, Jamie’s Italian, Tom’s Kitchen, it houses the restaurant Morini, owned by the AltaMarea Group, serving Italian and Mediterranean food under chef Michael White. The Raffles Istanbul Hotel and Spa opened in September 2014, it is home to 49 suites and 136 guest rooms. Zorlu Center PSM, the largest performing arts center in the city, was developed by Nederlander Worldwide Entertainment, it features a 770-seat theater as well as a 2,300-seat concert hall