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Hasidic Judaism

Hasidism, sometimes spelt Chassidism, known as Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.

Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.

The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.

But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.

Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.

Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much that was

Wiener Gruppe

The Wiener Gruppe was a small and loose avant-garde constellation of Austrian poets and writers, which arose from an older and wider postwar association of artists called Art-Club. The group was formed around 1953 under the influence of H. C. Artmann in Vienna and existed for about a decade. Besides Artmann are Friedrich Achleitner, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm and Oswald Wiener regarded as members; this group showed interest in Baroque literature, as well as in Expressionism and Surrealism. Important impulses came from upholders of linguistic scepticism, linguistic criticism and linguistic philosophy, such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Fritz Mauthner or Ludwig Wittgenstein; the linguistic awareness of the Wiener Gruppe was displayed in the members' notion of language as optic and acoustic material. In the early 1950s concrete poetry became an exciting new element of at least the works of Rühm, Achleitner and Wiener. Readings and recordings became important parts of the activity. With the charm of novelty, several members made use of the richness of sounds and vocabulary of their own Bavarian and Vienna dialect.

Furthermore, the group was trying out text montage. Gerhard Rühm: Die Wiener Gruppe: Achleitner, Bayer, Rühm, Wiener ISBN 978-3-498-07300-8. Peter Weibel: die wiener gruppe. A moment of modernity 1954-1960 / the visual works and actions. - Exhib. Cat. Biennale di Venezia F. Achleitner and P. Weibel: Wiener Gruppe F. Achleitner and W. Fetz: Wiener Gruppe. Michael Backes: Experimentelle Semiotik in Literaturavantgarden. Über die Wiener Gruppe mit Bezug auf die Konkrete Poesie ISBN 3-7705-3450-6. Thomas Eder, Juliane Vogel: „verschiedene sätze treten auf“. Die Wiener Gruppe in Aktion Profile. Magazin des Österreichischen Literaturarchivs der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Bd. 15. ISBN 978-3-552-05444-8 Klaus Kastberger: Vienna 1950/60. An Austrian Avant-Garde. Online academia.edu

Poornalu

Poornalu is the traditional Indian sweet in the Telugu festivals. It is made of rice flour stuffed with jaggery mixed dal paste and dry fruits, it is served hot with ghee. It is called Poornalu in Andhra Pradesh. Poornalu follows the traditional methods common to all South Indian cuisines. Poornalu is traditionally prepared using a rice-urad dal batter, packed with some shredded dry fruits and channa dal mixture called aspoornam and it is deep-fried in oil until golden brown; the first occurrence of Poornalu is not known. However it has been an integral part of the menu in most Telugu occasions. Like most other Telugu dishes, Poornalu uses urad dal as its main ingredient since in Southern India. Poornalu is served after the main course and as an evening snack in most Telugu households. Poornalu is served along with ghee to enhance its flavour. Preferably it is better consumed hot, it is made in abundance during the famous Makar Sankranti - the festival of harvest. During this time, poornalu is made exuberantly and most heartily and distributed among friends and neighbours.

Poornalu is served at weddings and other festivities. The preparation and serving of poornalu, undergoes minor alterations from place to place. Poornalu is called suyyam, sukhiyan, sugeelu or sugunta in various parts of Southern India, it is often termed as Poornam, Boorelu in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Poornalu seems to be the shortened form of it. List of stuffed dishes