The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
The Cramps were an American punk rock band formed in 1976 and active until 2009. The band split after the death of lead singer Lux Interior, their line-up rotated during their existence, with the husband-and-wife duo of Interior and lead guitarist and occasional bass guitarist Poison Ivy comprising the only ever-present members. The addition of guitarist Bryan Gregory and drummer Pam Balam resulted in the first complete lineup in April 1976, they were part of the early CBGB punk rock movement. The Cramps were one of the first punk bands, widely recognized as one of the prime innovators of psychobilly, their music is in rockabilly form, played at varying tempos, with a minimal drumkit. An integral part of the early Cramps sound was dual guitars, without a bassist; the focus of their songs' lyrical content and their image was camp humor, sexual double-entendre, retro horror/sci-fi b-movie iconography. Their sound was influenced by early rockabilly and blues, rock and roll like Link Wray and Hasil Adkins, 1960s surf music acts such as The Ventures and Dick Dale, 1960s garage rock artists like The Standells, The Trashmen, The Green Fuz and The Sonics, as well as the post-glam/early punk scene from which they emerged, as well as citing Ricky Nelson as being an influence during numerous interviews.
They were influenced to a degree by the Ramones and Screamin' Jay Hawkins, who were an influence for their style of theatrical horror-blues. In turn, The Cramps have influenced countless subsequent bands in the garage and revival rockabilly styles, helped create the psychobilly genre. "Psychobilly" was a term coined1 by The Cramps, although Lux Interior maintained that the term did not describe their own style. Lux Interior and Poison Ivy met in Sacramento, California in 1972. In light of their common artistic interests and shared devotion to record collecting, they decided to form The Cramps. Lux took his stage name from a car ad, Ivy claimed to have received hers in a dream. In 1973, they moved to Akron, to New York in 1975, soon entering into CBGB's early punk scene with other emerging acts like Suicide, the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, Talking Heads, Mink DeVille; the lineup in 1976 was Poison Ivy Rorschach, Lux Interior, Bryan Gregory, his sister Pam "Balam" Gregory. In a short period of time, the Cramps changed drummers twice.
In the late 1970s, the Cramps shared a rehearsal space with The Fleshtones, performed in New York at clubs such as CBGB and Max's Kansas City, releasing two independent singles produced by Alex Chilton at Ardent Studios in Memphis in 1977 before being signed by Miles Copeland III to the young I. R. S. Records label, their first tour of Great Britain was as supporting act to The Police on that band's first UK tour promoting Outlandos d'Amour. In June 1978, they gave a landmark free concert for patients at the California State Mental Hospital in Napa, recorded on a Sony Portapak video camera by the San Francisco collective Target Video and released as Live at Napa State Mental Hospital. Once back to the east coast, they played the revamped 1940s swing club "The Meadowbrook" in New Jersey, which had a huge stage and dance floor; the Cramps were the featured act, with opening set by Nozon and The Smiths. Next they recorded two singles in New York City, which were re-released on their 1979 Gravest Hits EP, before Chilton brought them back that year to Memphis to record their first full-length album, Songs The Lord Taught Us, at Phillips Recording, operated by former Sun Records label owner Sam Phillips.
The Cramps hired guitarist Kid Congo Powers of The Gun Club. While recording their second LP, Psychedelic Jungle, the band and Miles Copeland began to dispute royalties and creative rights; the ensuing court case prevented them from releasing anything until 1983, when they recorded Smell of Female live at New York's Peppermint Lounge. Mike Metoff of The Pagans was the final second guitarist – albeit only live – of the Cramps' pre-bass era, he accompanied them on an extensive European tour in 1984 which included four sold out nights at the Hammersmith Palais. They recorded performances of "Thee Most Exalted Potentate of Love" and "You Got Good Taste" which were broadcast on'The Midsummer Night's Tube 1984.' Smell of Female peaked at No. 74 in the UK Albums Chart. The band appears in the 1982 film Urgh! A Music War. In 1985 the Cramps recorded a one-off track for the horror movie The Return of the Living Dead called "Surfin' Dead", on which Ivy played bass as well as guitar. With the release of 1986's A Date With Elvis, the Cramps permanently added a bass guitar to the mix, but had trouble finding a suitable player, so Ivy temporarily filled in as the band's bassist.
Fur joined them on the world tour to promote the album. Their popularity in the UK was at its peak as evidenced by the six nights at Hammersmith in London, three at the Odeon and three at the Palais when they returned from the continent; each night of the tour opened with the band coming on one at a time each: Knox, Fur and Lux before launching into their take on Elvis' "Heartbreak Hotel". The album featured w
The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things
The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things is a 2004 drama film co-written and directed by Asia Argento and starring Argento, Jimmy Bennett, Dylan Sprouse, Cole Sprouse. The screenplay by Argento and Alessandro Magania is based on JT LeRoy's novel of the same name; the film received a limited theatrical release in North America on March 10, 2006. The film concerns a tattered relationship between Sarah, a drug addict, her young son, Jeremiah, their life together is marked by Sarah's heavy drinking. The title is taken from Jeremiah 17:9. Sarah becomes involved with a series of men who treat her, her seven-year-old son, Jeremiah and she uses them as an excuse to abandon her son, she disappears to Atlantic City with her boyfriend and abandons him. After a trip to the hospital, Jeremiah's grandmother takes him to a West Virginian radical Christian cult led by his grandfather. After he has been three years with the cult, Sarah returns to reclaim the 11-year-old Jeremiah. Sarah's current lover, Kenny, a truck driver abandons them at a truck stop while Sarah is soliciting.
Sarah realizes. She persuades Jeremiah to cross dress so he can act as her "little sister", Jeremiah's cross-dressing evolves to include his mother's seduction techniques. After dressing up as a "baby doll" version of Sarah which consisted of her makeup, her white nightgown and her red high heel pumps, Jeremiah seduces Jackson, his mother's latest man, who tries to rebuff the boy's advances, but gives in. Sarah is furious with Jackson for giving in to the boy's advances and with Jeremiah for ruining her panties with drops of blood on them, she takes Jeremiah and leaves, they are in a house where the basement houses a methamphetamine laboratory, which blows up with Sarah's latest boyfriend inside. After fleeing, while detoxing from methamphetamine, Sarah is convinced that everyone is after them and that only certain foods are edible, she convinces Jeremiah that if they eat anything but those foods, they will be poisoned which leads them to a failed attempt to shoplift at a grocery store. His mother, in a state of "meth psychosis", is convinced the food he ate was poison, makes him drink ipecac in order to make him better and rid him of any "poisons".
Jeremiah wakes up in the hospital with his grandmother beside him. She tells him; that night, Sarah collects Jeremiah from his hospital room, rather than have him go back to the cult, she clutches his hand and they walk away in hospital gowns. The final scene is of Jeremiah driving away. Although the soundtrack to the film was never commercially released, here is a list of different songs featured in the film, along with the scenes they are played in. "Born to be Dizzy" - The Starlite Desperation "Karen Koltrane" - Sonic Youth "Beautiful Plateau" - Sonic Youth "Linda Lovelace" - David Allen Coe "She Said" - Hasil Adkins "Muskrat" - Pagoda "Mickey Mouse is Dead" - The Subhumans "Two Time Girl" - Knoxville Girls "There He Goes" - Loretta Lynn The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things received mixed to negative reviews from critics. Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports a 40% rating based on 50 reviews; the site's consensus states: "The film aims to shock, but there is no higher reason for the parade of sordid images except to be'cool'."
On Metacritic, the film has a 27 out of 100 rating based on 22 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Bennett being 17 years old and portraying the son of her character was referenced in the 2018 allegations that Argento sexually assaulted him; the Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things on IMDb The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things at Box Office Mojo The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things at Rotten Tomatoes The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things at Metacritic
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating back to the early 1950s in the United States the South. As a genre it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered "classic" rock and roll; some have described it as a blend of bluegrass with rock and roll. The term "rockabilly" itself is a portmanteau of "rock" and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music that contributed to the style. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie-woogie, jump blues, electric blues. Defining features of the rockabilly sound included strong rhythms, vocal twangs, common use of the tape echo. Popularized by artists such as Wanda Jackson, Johnny Cash, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Bob Luman, Jerry Lee Lewis, the influence and success of the style waned in the late 1950s. An interest in the genre endures in the 21st century within a subculture. Rockabilly has left a legacy, spawning a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock.
There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old 97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which became quite popular. Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yodeler", most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith. During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big band jazz influences and horn sections. Recordings of Wills's from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings. Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Why, that's the same kind of music we've been playin' since 1928!...
But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments; the rhythm's what's important."After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, the Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as "Hillbilly Boogie", which consisted of "hillbilly" vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line. The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can tap their foot, or dance to, or to make'em feel it." After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. "They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot.
They played real loud for that time, too..." The Maddoxes were known for their lively "antics and stuff." "We always put on a show... I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin' and singing. There was something going on all the time." "... the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes." Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first Rockabilly groups, if not the first. Along with country and boogie influences, jump blues artists such as Wynonie Harris and Roy Brown, electric blues acts such as Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Arthur Crudup, influenced the development of rockabilly; the Memphis blues musician Junior Parker and his electric blues band, Little Junior's Blue Flames, featuring Pat Hare on the guitar, were a major influence on the rockabilly style with their songs "Love My Baby" and "Mystery Train" in 1953. Zeb Turner's February 1953 recording of "Jersey Rock" with its mix of musical styles, lyrics about music and dancing, guitar solo, is another example of the mixing of musical genres in the first half of the 1950s.
Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Many of his songs were in blues form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs, or waltzes. Bluegrass was a staple of country music in the early 1950s, is mentioned as an influence in the development of rockabilly; the Honky Tonk sound, which "tended to focus on working-class life, with tragic themes of lost love, loneliness and self-pity" included songs of energetic, uptempo Hillbilly Boogie. Some of the better known musicians who recorded and performed these songs are: the Delmore Brothers, the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Merle Travis, Hank Williams, Hank Snow, Tennessee Ernie Ford. Curtis Gordon's 1953 "Rompin' and Stompin'", an uptempo hillbilly-boogie included the lyrics, "Way down south where I was born / They rocked all night'til early morn' / They start rockin' / They start rockin' an rollin'." Sharecroppers' sons Carl Perkins and his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins, along with drummer W. S. Holland, had been playing their music ninety miles from Memphis.
The Perkins Brothers Band, featuri
A cult following comprises a group of fans who are dedicated to a work of culture referred to as a cult classic. A film, musical artist, television series or video game, among other things, is said to have a cult following when it has a small but passionate fanbase. A common component of cult followings is the emotional attachment the fans have to the object of the cult following identifying themselves and other fans as members of a community. Cult followings are commonly associated with niche markets. Cult media are associated with underground culture, are considered too eccentric or subversive to be appreciated by the general public or to be commercially successful. Many cult fans express a certain irony about their devotion. Sometimes, these cult followings cross the border to camp followings. Fans may become involved in a subculture of fandom, either via conventions, online communities or through activities such as writing series-related fiction, costume creation, replica prop and model building, or creating their own audio or video productions from the formats and characters.
There is not always a clear difference between mainstream media. Series such as Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who, Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones, Rocky Horror, Ethel & Ernest, The Dark Knight, Mean Girls attract mass audiences but have core groups of fanatical followers. Professors Xavier Mendik and Ernest Mathijs, authors of 100 Cult Films, argue that the devoted following among these films make them cult classics. In many cases, films that have cult followings may have been financial flops during their theatrical box office run, received mixed or negative reviews by mainstream media, but still be considered a major success by small core groups or communities of fans devoted to such films; some cults are only popular within a certain subculture. The film Woodstock is loved within the hippie subculture, while Hocus Pocus holds cult status among American women born in the 1980s. Certain mainstream icons can become cult icons in a different context for certain people. Reefer Madness was intended to warn youth against the use of marijuana, but because of its ridiculous plot, overwhelming amount of factual errors and cheap look, it is now watched by audiences of marijuana-smokers and has gained a cult following.
Quentin Tarantino's films borrow stylistically from classic cult films, but are appreciated by a large audience, therefore lie somewhere between cult and mainstream. Certain cult phenomena can grow to such proportions. Many cancelled television series see new life in a fan following. One notable example is Arrested Development, cancelled after three seasons and, because of the large fanbase, returned for a 15-episode season, released on Netflix on May 26, 2013. Futurama is another notable series, put on permanent hiatus after its initial 72-episode run. Strong DVD sales and consistent ratings on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block led to four direct-to-DVD films which, in turn, led to the revival of the series in 2010 on Comedy Central following Adult Swim's expiration of the broadcast rights. Space Ghost Coast to Coast had a cult following throughout its eleven season run on television, help pave the wave of other shows of similar style, which had cult followings Aqua Teen Hunger Force. Star Trek: The Original Series is notable in that it was cancelled after three seasons but gained a cult following through broadcast syndication and spawned a successful media franchise.
Another cancelled series that has attained cult status is the NBC teen dramedy Freaks and Geeks which had an 18-episode run. Another series, cancelled but gained a second life with cult status is the FOX teen medical dramedy Red Band Society which had a 13-episode run. Other examples include Firefly, Community, Joan of Arcadia, Twin Peaks, Veronica Mars, Pushing Daisies, Young Justice and The Adventures of Pete & Pete, which had short lives, yet achieved large fanbases. In a BBC review of Farscape episode "Throne for a Loss", Richard Manning said "Farscape is now a cult series because it's being shown out of sequence"; the episode in question was shown as the second episode, after the premiere. Series considered cult classics include the long-running BBC series Doctor Who, The Prisoner and the Australian soap opera Prisoner: Cell Block H; some video games attract cult followings, which can influence the design of video games. An example of a cult video game is Ico, an initial commercial flop which gained a large following for its unique gameplay and minimalist aesthetics, was noted as influencing the design of Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons and Rime, among other games.
Other games which have cult followings include EarthBound, a commercial flop that resulted in the creation of a "cottage industry" selling memorabilia to the EarthBound fandom, Yume Nikki, a surreal free-to-play Japanese horror game. Another game with a large cult following is Crash Twinsanity, considered by fans to be the best Crash Bandicoot game post-Naughty Dog era despite only average critic reviews. In particular, it is well known as the turning point in theming for the series. Sleeper hit Underground music Jancik, Wayn
A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
A one-man band is a musician who plays a number of instruments using their hands, feet and various mechanical or electronic contraptions. One-man bands often sing while they perform; the simplest type of "one-man band" is a singer accompanying themselves on acoustic guitar and playing a harmonica mounted in a metal "harp rack" below the mouth. This approach is taken by buskers and folk music singer-guitarists. More complicated setups may include wind instruments strapped around the neck, a large bass drum mounted on the musician's back with a beater, connected to a foot pedal, cymbals strapped between the knees or triggered by a pedal mechanism and maracas tied to the limbs, a stringed instrument strapped over the shoulders. Since the development of Musical Instrument Digital Interface in the 1980s, musicians have incorporated chest-mounted MIDI drum pads, foot-mounted electronic drum triggers, electronic pedal keyboards into their set-ups. In the 2000s and 2010s, the availability of affordable digital looping pedals has enabled singer-musicians to record a riff or chord progression and solo or sing over it.
The earliest known records of multiple musical instruments being played at the same time date from the 13th century, were the pipe and tabor. The pipe was a simple three-holed flute; this type of playing can still be heard in England and Spain. An Elizabethan-era woodcut shows a clown playing the tabor. An 1820s watercolour painting shows a one-man band with a rhythm-making stick, panpipes around his neck and a bass drum and tambourine beside him. Henry Mayhew's history of London street life in the 1840s and 1850s described a blind street performer who played bells, the violin and accordions. Guitarist Jim Garner played guitar with his hands and triangle with his feet, Will Blankenship of the Blankenship Family of North Carolina played harmonica and triangle in shows during the 1930s. In the 1940s, entertainer and clown Benny Dougal used a crude "stump fiddle" with a footpedal-operated pair of cymbals. Blues singers such as "Daddy Stovepipe" would sing, play guitar, stomp their feet for rhythm, or used a foot pedal to play bass drum or cymbal.
One of the earliest modern exponents of multiple instruments was Jesse Fuller. Fuller developed a foot-operated bass instrument which he called the "footdella", which had six bass strings which were struck by hammers. In "one-man-band" shows, Fuller would use his "footdella", a footpedal-operated "sock", a homemade neck harness, a 12-string guitar. Fate Norris, of the Skillet Lickers, a hillbilly string band of the 1920s and early 1930s developed a geared mechanical contraption with footpedals that enabled him to play guitar, bass fiddle, fiddle and mouth harp. Joe Barrick, born in Oklahoma in 1922, wanted a way of accompanying himself on fiddle, so he built a contraption with a guitar neck on a board with footpedals to operate the notes. Subsequent versions of this "piatar" had bass guitar and banjo necks and a snare drum which are played by foot-operated hammers. To change notes on the guitar-family instruments, a foot treadle operates a mechanical fretting device. Two notable one-man blues bands active in Memphis in the 1950s were Doctor Ross and Joe Hill Louis, playing guitar and bass drum/high-hat.
The simple guitar and harmonica combination is so common now that it is considered to be a one-man band. British-born Don Partridge made the classic one-man band outfit famous in the streets of Europe, was an early busker to enter the Top Ten of the UK Singles Chart, with his hit singles "Rosie" and "Blue Eyes" in 1968. Modern one-man bands include such performers as Ben de la Garza, Hasil Adkins and Sterling Magee, better known as "Mister Satan," from Satan and Adam. "The one-man band exists, in all its uniqueness and independence, as a most elusive yet persistent musical tradition. As a category of musicianship it transcends cultural and geographic boundaries, spans stylistic limits, defies conventional notions of technique and instrumentation. Defined as a single musician playing more than one instrument at the same time, it is an ensemble limited only by the mechanical capabilities and imaginative inventiveness of its creator, despite its accepted status as an isolated novelty, it is a phenomenon with some identifiable historical continuity."
The term "one-man band" is colloquially used to describe a performer who plays every instrument on a recorded song one at a time, mixes them together in a multitrack studio. While this approach to recording is more common in electronica genres such as techno and acid house than traditional rock music, some rock performers such as Joe Hill Louis, Stevie Wonder, Lenny Kravitz, Paul McCartney, Kabir Suman, Dave Edmunds, John Fogerty, Emitt Rhodes, Todd Rundgren, Steve Winwood, Roy Wood, Nik Kershaw, Les Fradkin have made records in which they play every instrument. Mike Oldfield was noted for using this recording technique during the recording of his 1973 album Tubular Bells. Other examples of a one-man band in the recording studio are Dave Grohl for the first studio album by the Foo Fighters, Trent Reznor for Nine Inch Nails, jazz piano player Keith Jarrett for his album No End, Peter Tagtgren for Pain, Chris Carrabba for the