The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version; the oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. All of the material in the Chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; these manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Chronicle is not unbiased: there are occasions when comparison with other medieval sources makes it clear that the scribes who wrote it omitted events or told one-sided versions of stories.
Taken as a whole, the Chronicle is the single most important historical source for the period in England between the departure of the Romans and the decades following the Norman conquest. Much of the information given in the Chronicle is not recorded elsewhere. In addition, the manuscripts are important sources for the history of the English language. Seven of the nine surviving manuscripts and fragments now reside in the British Library; the remaining two are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. All of the surviving manuscripts are copies, so it is not known for certain where or when the first version of the Chronicle was composed, it is agreed that the original version – sometimes known as the Early English Annals – was written in the late 9th century by a scribe in Wessex. Frank Stenton argued from internal evidence that it was first compiled for a secular, but not royal, patron. After the original Chronicle was compiled, copies were distributed to various monasteries.
Additional copies were made, for further distribution or to replace lost manuscripts, some copies were updated independently of each other. Some of these copies are those that have survived; the earliest extant manuscript, the Parker Chronicle, was written by a single scribe up to the year 891. The scribe wrote DCCCXCII, in the margin of the next line; this appears to place the composition of the chronicle at no than 892. It is known, it is difficult to fix the date of composition, but it is thought that the chronicles were composed during the reign of Alfred the Great, as Alfred deliberately tried to revive learning and culture during his reign, encouraged the use of English as a written language. The Chronicle, as well as the distribution of copies to other centres of learning, may be a consequence of the changes Alfred introduced. Of the nine surviving manuscripts, seven are written in Old English. One, known as the Bilingual Canterbury Epitome, is in Old English with a translation of each annal into Latin.
Another, the Peterborough Chronicle, is in Old English except for the last entry, in early Middle English. The oldest is known as the Winchester Chronicle or the Parker Chronicle, is written in the Mercian dialect until 1070 Latin to 1075. Six of the manuscripts were printed in an 1861 edition for the Rolls Series by Benjamin Thorpe with the text laid out in columns labelled A to F, he included the few readable remnants of a burned seventh manuscript, which he referred to as destroyed in a fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Following this convention, the two additional manuscripts are called and; the known surviving manuscripts are listed below. The manuscripts are all thought to derive from a common original, but the connections between the texts are more complex than simple inheritance via copying; the diagram at right gives an overview of the relationships between the manuscripts. The following is a summary of the relationships. Was a copy of, made in Winchester between 1001 and 1013. was used in the compilation of at Abingdon, in the mid-11th century.
However, the scribe for had access to another version, which has not survived. Includes material from Bede's Ecclesiastical History written by 731 and from a set of 8th-century Northumbrian annals and is thought to have been copied from a northern version that has not survived. Has material that appears to derive from the same sources as but does not include some additions that appear only in, such as the Mercian Register; this manuscript was composed at the monastery in Peterborough, some time after a fire th
The Camargue is a natural region located south of Arles, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta. The eastern arm is called the Grand Rhône. Administratively it lies within the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, covers parts of the territory of the communes of Arles, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. A further expanse of marshy plain, the Petite Camargue, just to the west of the Petit Rhône, lies in the department of Gard. Camargue was designated a Ramsar site as a "Wetland of International Importance" on 1 December 1986. With an area of over 930 km2, the Camargue is west of Europe's largest river delta, it is a vast plain comprising large brine lagoons or étangs, cut off from the sea by sandbars and encircled by reed-covered marshes. These are in turn surrounded by a large cultivated area. A third of the Camargue is either lakes or marshland; the central area around the shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès has been protected as a regional park since 1927, in recognition of its great importance as a haven for wild birds.
In 2008, it was incorporated into the larger Parc naturel régional de Camargue. The Camargue is home to more than 400 species of birds and has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International, its brine ponds provide one of the few European habitats for the greater flamingo. The marshes are a prime habitat for many species of insects, notably some of the most ferocious mosquitos to be found anywhere in France. Camargue horses roam the extensive marshlands, along with Camargue cattle; the native flora of the Camargue have adapted to the saline conditions. Sea lavender and glasswort flourish, along with reeds. Established as a regional park and nature reserve in 1970, the Parc Naturel Régional de Camargue covers 820 km²; this territory is some of most protected in all of Europe. A roadside museum provides background on flora and the history of the area. Humans have lived in the Camargue for millennia affecting it with drainage schemes, rice paddies and salt pans. Much of the outer Camargue has been drained for agricultural purposes.
The Camargue has the famous white Camarguais. Camargue horses are ridden by the gardians, who rear the region's cattle for fighting bulls for export to Spain, as well as sheep. Many of these animals are raised in semi-feral conditions, allowed to roam through the Camargue within a manade, or free-running herd, they are periodically rounded up for medical treatment, or other events. Few towns of any size have developed in the Camargue, its "capital" is Arles, located at the extreme north of the delta where the Rhône forks into its two principal branches. The only other towns of note are along the sea front or near it: Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, about 45 km to the southwest and the medieval fortress-town of Aigues-Mortes on the far western edge, in the Petite Camargue. Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer is the destination of the annual Romani pilgrimage for the veneration of Saint Sarah; the Camargue was exploited in the Middle Ages by Benedictine monks. In the 16th-17th centuries, big estates, known locally as mas, were founded by rich landlords from Arles.
At the end of the 18th century, they had the Rhône diked to protect the town and their properties from flooding. In 1858, the building of the digue à la mer achieved temporary protection of the delta from erosion, but it is a changing landform, always affected by waters and weather; the north of the Camargue is agricultural land. The main crops are cereals and rice. Near the seashore, prehistoric man started extracting salt, a practice. Salt was a source of wealth for the Cistercian "salt abbeys" of Ulmet and Psalmody in the Middle Ages. Industrial salt collection started in the 19th century, big chemical companies such as Péchiney and Solvay founded the'mining' city of Salin-de-Giraud; the boundaries of the Camargue are revised by the Rhône as it transports huge quantities of mud downstream – as much as 20 million m3 annually. Some of the étangs are the remnants of old legs of the river; the general trend is for the coastline to move outwards as new earth is deposited in the delta at the river's mouth.
Aigues-Mortes built as a port on the coast, is now some 5 km inland. The pace of change has been modified in recent years by man-made barriers, such as dams on the Rhône and sea dykes, but flooding remains a problem across the region. Bac du Sauvage Folco de Baroncelli-Javon Camargue cattle Camargue equitation Camargue horse Camargue red rice Gardian Manade Russell, Richard Joel. "Geomorphology of the Rhone Delta". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 32: 149–255. Doi:10.2307/2561087. Retrieved 2011-10-09. – in jstor
Björn Ironside was a historical Norse Viking chief who figures in late sources as a son of Ragnar Lodbrok and a legendary king of Sweden. He lived in the 9th century, being securely dated between 855 and 858. Björn Ironside is said to have been the first ruler of the Swedish Munsö dynasty. In the early 18th century, a barrow on the island of Munsö was claimed by antiquarians to be Björn Järnsidas hög or Björn Ironside's barrow. Medieval sources refer to Björn Ironside's potential sons and grandsons, including Erik Björnsson and Björn at Haugi, his descendants in the male line ruled over the Swedes until c. 1060. "Berno" was naval commander. He appears in contemporary sources such as the Chronicon Fontanellense, he is first mentioned in the summer of 855. The oldest text that details his origins is the Norman history of William of Jumièges. According to William, the Danish kings had the custom to expel the younger sons from the kingdom to have them out of the way. After King Lodbrok succeeded his father, he remembered this regulation and ordered his junior son Björn to leave his realm.
Björn thus started to ravage in West Francia. The contemporary annals show that he cooperated with another Viking called Sigtrygg and sailed up the Seine in 855, from which his and Sigtrygg's forces raided the inland, their combined forces were beaten in Champagne by Charles the Bald of West Francia in the same year, but not decisively. Sigtrygg withdrew in the next year, but Björn received reinforcement from another Viking army and could not be expelled from the Seine area, he and his men took up winter quarters at the so-called Givold's Grave, which served as base for an assault against Paris, plundered around the new year 856-857. Björn constructed a fortification on the island Oissel above Rouen which he kept as his stronghold for years, he swore fealty to Charles the Bald in Verberie in 858 but it is not clear if he kept his pledge. King Charles resolved to meet the unruly Seine Vikings with all his available forces and besieged Oissel in July; the siege failed badly. Moreover, Charles's brother Louis the German of East Francia invaded his lands and many vassals fell from him.
Thus the siege was broken off in September. After Björn's meeting with Charles in Verberie we don't find his name in contemporary sources. However, the Viking warriors in the Seine continued their raids during the following years and plundered Paris again in 861. In his despair Charles the Bald tried to use another Viking chief, whose men operated in the Somme region, to attack the Seine Vikings at Oissel. However, this scheme backfired since the two Viking armies united their forces; the Norsemen were encamped by the lower Seine in 861-862, but split again. Veland joined royal service, while the Seine Vikings went at sea; some of them joined the fighting between the ruler of some Frankish counts. The complicity of Björn in all this is unclear. However, a number of Frankish and Irish sources mention a large Viking raid into the Mediterranean in 859-861 where he was involved. After raiding down the Iberian coast and fighting their way through Gibraltar, the Norsemen pillaged the south of France, where the fleet stayed over winter, before landing in Italy where they captured the city of Pisa.
Flush with this victory and others around the Mediterranean during the Mediterranean expedition, the Vikings are recorded to have lost 40 ships to a storm. They returned to the Straits of Gibraltar and, at the coast of Medina-Sidonia, lost 2 ships to fire catapults in a surprise raid by Andalusian forces, leaving only 20 ships intact; the remnants of the fleet came back to French waters in 862. Björn Ironside was the leader of the expedition according to the chronicle of William of Jumièges; the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland say that two sons of Ragnall mac Albdan, a chief, expelled from Lochlann by his brothers and stayed in the Orkney Islands, headed the enterprise. William of Jumièges refers to Björn as Bier Costae ferreae, Lotbroci regis filio. William's circumstantial account of the Mediterranean expedition centers around Björn's foster-father Hastein; the two Vikings conducted many raids in France. On Hastein got the idea to make Björn the new Roman Emperor and led a large Viking raid into the Mediterranean together with his protegée.
They proceeded inland to the town of Luni, which they believed to be Rome at the time, but were unable to breach the town walls. To gain entry a tricky plan was devised: Hastein sent messengers to the bishop to say that, being deathly ill, he had a deathbed conversion and wished to receive Christian sacraments and/or to be buried on consecrated ground within their church, he was brought into the chapel with a small honor guard surprised the dismayed clerics by leaping from his stretcher. The Viking party hacked its way to the town gates, which were promptly opened letting the rest of the army in; when they realised that Luni was not Rome, Björn and Hastein wished to invest this city but changed their minds when they heard that the Romans were well prepared for defense. After returning to West Europe, the two men parted company. Björn was shipwrecked at the English coast and survived, he went to Frisia where he died. There are some historical problems with this account. Hastein appears in the contemporary sour
Narbonne is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region. It lies 849 km from Paris in the Aude department, it is located about 15 km from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and was a prosperous port, but declined from the 14th century following a change in the course of the Aude River. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the smaller commune of Carcassonne. Narbonne is linked to the nearby Canal du Midi and the Aude River by the Canal de la Robine, which runs through the centre of town, it is close to the A9 motorway, which connects Montpellier and Nimes to Perpignan and, across the border, to Barcelona in Spain. There is a recently-renovated train station which serves the TGV to Spain and Calais, which in turn connects to the Eurostar; the source of the town's original name of Narbo is lost in antiquity, it may have referred to an Iron Age hillfort close to the location of the current settlement or its occupants. The earliest known record of the area comes from the Greek Hecataeus of Miletus in the fifth century BC, who identified it as a Celtic harbor and marketplace at that time, called its inhabitants the Ναρβαῖοι.
In ancient inscriptions the name is sometimes rendered in Latin and sometimes translated into Iberian as Nedhena. Narbonne in its current location was established in Gaul by the Romans in 118 BC, as Colonia Narbo Martius, colloquially Narbo, it was located on the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, built at the time of the foundation of the colony, connecting Italy to Spain. Geographically, Narbonne was therefore located at a important crossroads because it was situated where the Via Domitia connected to the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa and Burdigala. In addition, it was crossed by the Aude River. Surviving members of Julius Caesar's Legio X Equestris were given lands in the area that today is called Narbonne. Politically, Narbonne gained importance as a competitor to Massalia. Julius Caesar settled veterans from his 10th Legion there and attempted to develop its port while Marseille was supporting Pompey. Among the amenities of Narbonne, its rosemary-flower honey was famous among Romans.
The province of Transalpine Gaul was renamed Gallia Narbonensis after the city, which became its capital. Seat of a powerful administration, the city enjoyed architectural expansion. At that point, the city is thought to have had 30,000–50,000 inhabitants, may have had as many as 100,000. According to Hydatius, in 462 the city was handed over to the Visigoths by a local military leader in exchange for support, as a result Roman rule ended in the city, it was subsequently the capital of the Visigothic province of Septimania, the only territory from Gaul to fend off the Frankish thrust after the Battle of Vouille. For 40 years, from 719 to 759, Narbonne was part of the Umayyad Empire; the Umayyad governor Al-Samh captured Narbonne from The Kingdom of Visigoths in 719. The Carolingian Pepin the Short conquered Narbonne from the Arabs in 759 after which it became part of the Carolingian Viscounty of Narbonne, he invited, according to Christian sources, prominent Jews from the Caliphate of Bagdad to settle in Narbonne and establish a major Jewish learning center for Western Europe.
In the 12th century, the court of Ermengarde of Narbonne presided over one of the cultural centers where the spirit of courtly love was developed. In the 11th and 12th centuries, Narbonne was home to an important Jewish exegetical school, which played a pivotal role in the growth and development of the Zarphatic and Shuadit languages. Jews had settled in Narbonne from about the 5th century, with a community that had risen to 2000 in the 12th century. At this time, Narbonne was mentioned in Talmudic works in connection with its scholars. One source, Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo, gives them an importance similar to the exilarchs of Babylon. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the community went through a series of ups and downs before settling into extended decline. Narbonne itself fell for a variety of reasons. One was due to a change in the course of the Aude River, which caused increased silting of the navigational access; the river, known as the Atax in ancient times, had always had two main courses which split close to Salelles.
The Romans had improved the navigability of the river by building a dam near Salelles and by canalising the river as it passed through its marshy delta to the sea A major flood in 1320 swept the dam away. The Aude river had a long history of overflowing its banks; when it was a bustling port, the distance from the coast was 5 to 10 km, but at that time the access to the sea was deep enough when the river was in full spate which made communication between port and city unreliable. However, goods could be transported by land and in shallow barges from the ports The changes to the long seashore which resulted from the silting up of the series of graus or openings which were interspersed between the islands which made up the shoreline had a more serious impact th
Danes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, historical, or cultural. Danes regard themselves as a nationality and reserve the word "ethnic" for the description of recent immigrants, sometimes referred to as "new Danes"; the contemporary Danish ethnic identity is based on the idea of "Danishness", founded on principles formed through historical cultural connections and is not based on racial heritage. Denmark has been inhabited by various Germanic peoples since ancient times, including the Angles, Jutes, Herules and others; the first mentions of "Danes" are recorded in the mid-6th century by historians Procopius and Jordanes, who both refer to a tribe related to the Suetidi inhabiting the peninsula of Jutland, the province of Scania and the isles in between. Frankish annalists of the 8th century refer to Danish kings; the Bobbio Orosius from the early 7th century distinguishes between South Danes inhabiting Jutland and North Danes inhabiting the isles and the province of Scania.
The first mention of Danes within the Denmark is on the Jelling Rune Stone, which mentions the conversion of the Danes to Christianity Harald Bluetooth in the 10th century. Between c. 960 and the early 980s, Bluetooth established a kingdom in the lands of the Danes, stretching from Jutland to Scania. Around the same time, he received a visit from a German missionary who, by surviving an ordeal by fire according to legend, convinced Harold to convert to Christianity; the following years saw the Danish Viking expansion, which incorporated Norway and Northern England into the Danish North Sea Empire. After the death of Canute the Great in 1035, England broke away from Danish control. Canute's nephew Sweyn Estridson re-established strong royal Danish authority and built a good relationship with the archbishop of Bremen, at that time the archbishop of all Scandinavia. Over the next centuries, the Danish empire expanded throughout the southern Baltic coast. Under the 14th century king Olaf II, Denmark acquired control of the Kingdom of Norway, which included the territories of Norway and the Faroese Islands.
Olaf's mother united Norway and Denmark into the Kalmar Union. In 1523, Sweden won its independence, leading to the dismantling of the Kalmar Union and the establishment of Denmark-Norway. Denmark-Norway grew wealthy during the 16th century because of the increased traffic through the Øresund; the Crown of Denmark could tax the traffic, because it controlled both sides of the Sound at the time. The Reformation, which originated in the German lands in the early 16th century from the ideas of Martin Luther, had a considerable impact on Denmark; the Danish Reformation started in the mid-1520s. Some Danes wanted access to the Bible in their own language. In 1524, Hans Mikkelsen and Christiern Pedersen translated the New Testament into Danish; those who had traveled to Wittenberg in Saxony and come under the influence of the teachings of Luther and his associates included Hans Tausen, a Danish monk in the Order of St John Hospitallers. In the 17th century Denmark-Norway colonized Greenland. After a failed war with the Swedish Empire, the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 removed the areas of the Scandinavian peninsula from Danish control, thus establishing the boundaries between Norway and Sweden that exist to this day.
In the centuries after this loss of territory, the populations of the Scanian lands, considered Danish, came to be integrated as Swedes. In the early 19th century, Denmark suffered a defeat in the Napoleonic Wars; the political and economic defeat sparked what is known as the Danish Golden Age during which a Danish national identity first came to be formed. The Danish liberal and national movements gained momentum in the 1830s, after the European revolutions of 1848 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849; the growing bourgeoisie had demanded a share in government, in an attempt to avert the sort of bloody revolution occurring elsewhere in Europe, Frederick VII gave in to the demands of the citizens. A new constitution emerged, separating the powers and granting the franchise to all adult males, as well as freedom of the press and association; the king became head of the executive branch. Danishness is the concept on which contemporary Danish ethnic identity is based, it is a set of values formed through the historic trajectory of the formation of the Danish nation.
The ideology of Danishness emphasizes the notion of historical connection between the population and the territory of Denmark and the relation between the thousand-year-old Danish monarchy and the modern Danish state, the 19th-century national romantic idea of "the people", a view of Danish society as homogeneous and egalitarian as well as strong cultural ties to other Scandinavian nations. As a concept, det danske folk played an important role in 19th-century ethnic nationalism and refers to self-identification rather than a legal status. Use of the term is most restricted to a historical context, it describes people of Danish nationality, both in elsewhere. Most ethnic Danes in both Denmark proper and the former Danish Duchy of Schleswig. Excluded from this definition are people from the Norway, Faroe Islands, Greenland.
Medina-Sidonia is a city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, southern Spain. It is considered by some to be the oldest city in Europe, used as a military defense location due to its elevated location. Locals are known as Asidonenses; the city's name comes from Medina and Sidonia, meaning "City of Sidon". Medina-Sidonia was one of Spain's most important ducal seats in the 15th century; the title of Duque de Medina Sidonia was bestowed upon the family of Guzmán El Bueno for his valiant role in taking the town. The line continues and was led until March 2008 by the controversial socialist, Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia; this city was most ancient Asido, an Iberian settlement which may have been founded by the Phoenicians, hence the name Sidonia reflecting its foundation by Sidon. Its earliest phase is known through its coinage and its 2nd and 1st centuries BC issues bear the Latin inscription Asido but Punic inscriptions such as'sdn or b'b'l, with Herakles and Dolphins being notable obverse and reverse designs.
The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World equates this site with modern Medina Sidonia-lying within the ancient Roman province of Turdetania some 30 km inland from the southern Spanish coast, this site lay upon a hill c. 35 km to the east of Gades, 15 km to the west of the Besilus river. By the 3rd century BC the Romans had gained control over much of southern Spain. In 712 the town was conquered by the Muslim commander Musa ibn Nusair, became the capital of the cora of Sidonia in the emirate of Spain, it returned in Christian hands with Alfonso X of Castile, in 1264, becoming a stronghold along the frontier with the last Muslim country in the Iberian peninsula, the Kingdom of Granada. It was the seat of several military orders. In 1440 it became part of the lordship of the Dukes of Medina-Sidonia; the town is characterized by medieval walls and tidy narrow cobbled streets flanked by rows of reja-fronted houses. Sights include: The Castle Roman archaeological complex Town Hall La Alameda Ducal Stables Church of Saint Mary the Crowned Castle of Torrestrella Duke of Medina Sidonia