Stumpwork or raised work is a style of embroidery in which the stitched figures are raised from the surface of the work to form a 3-dimensional effect. Technique Stitches can be worked around pieces of wire to create individual forms such as leaves, insect wings or flower petals; this form is applied to the main body of work by piercing the background fabric with the wires and securing tightly. Other shapes can be created using padding under the stitches in the form of felt layers sewn one upon the other in smaller sizes; the felt is covered with a layer of embroidery stitches. History The term Stumpwork is used to describe a style of raised embroidery, popular in England between 1650 and 1700. Before this period the use of such raised embroidery techniques was confined to ecclesiastical garments. In the seventeenth century this embroidery technique was called raised or embossed work, it has been called stumpwork only since around the end of the nineteenth century. Sewing skills were essential for women in past times and the seventeenth century was no exception.
Girls were taught to sew from an early age. Most women used these skills to make household linen items for their families. In wealthy households, where time and money was available and more luxurious materials could be accessed, the skills were used for embroidery. During this period the final most difficult task for the student of embroidery was the making of an elaborate casket or box depicting scenes using raised embroidery. Traditionally stumpwork depicted a scene which might contain a castle, lion, butterflies, fruit and several figures sometimes positioned beneath a canopy; the kings and queens of the Stuart period were depicted as were biblical or mythical stories. A wide variety of materials was used in these works including silver and gold thread, fine gimp cord, silk thread, chenille thread, ribbon, seed pearls, semi-precious stones, glass beads, sea shells, mother-of-pearl, feathers, boxwood and wax. Upon completion of the embroidery for a seventeenth century casket project the work was sent to a carpenter to be mounted and assembled.
A fine example of a casket from the period is held by the Albert Museum in London. Modern Times Raised embroidery or Stumpwork has continued to be popular with embroiderers into modern times. In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century it was used to embellish women's clothing. Today skilled embroiderers carry on the craft in places across the globe using it to adorn objects in more creative ways. Machine Techniques A modern-day subcategory of this art form used in production embroidery on automated embroidery machines is referred to as puff embroidery; the process involves putting down a layer of foam rubber larger than the intended shape on top of the target material to be decorated. The shape is embroidered on top of the foam rubber in such a way that the needle penetrations cut the foam rubber around the periphery of the shape; when the embroidery is finished the excess foam rubber is weeded from the design area, leaving the underlying foam rubber shape trapped under the embroidery stitches resulting in a stumpwork effect.
Puff embroidery lacks the intricate design characteristics obtainable with true stumpwork techniques and is seen on leisure wear such as baseball caps and jackets. Many times the designs are used to portray company logos or team mascots. Media related to Stumpwork at Wikimedia Commons
Chain stitch is a sewing and embroidery technique in which a series of looped stitches form a chain-like pattern. Chain stitch is an ancient craft – examples of surviving Chinese chain stitch embroidery worked in silk thread have been dated to the Warring States period. Handmade chain stitch embroidery does not require that the needle pass through more than one layer of fabric. For this reason the stitch is an effective surface embellishment near seams on finished fabric; because chain stitches can form flowing, curved lines, they are used in many surface embroidery styles that mimic "drawing" in thread. Chain stitches are used in making tambour lace, macramé and crochet; the earliest archaeological evidence of chain stitch embroidery dates from 1100 BC in China. Excavated from royal tombs, the embroidery was made using threads of silk. Chain stitch embroidery has been found dating to the Warring States period. Chain stitch designs spread to Iran through the Silk Road. Chain stitch and its variations are fundamental to embroidery traditions of many cultures, including Kashmiri numdahs, Iranian Resht work, Central Asian suzani, Hungarian Kalotaszeg "written embroidery", Jacobean embroidery, crewelwork.
Chain stitch was the stitch used by early sewing machines. This ease of unraveling of the single-thread chain stitch, more known as ISO 4915:1991 stitch 101, continues to be exploited for industrial purposes in the closure of bags for bulk products. Machine embroidery in chain stitch in traditional hand-worked crewel designs, is found on curtains, bed linens, upholstery fabrics. Variations of the basic chain stitch include: Back-stitched chain stitch Braided stitching Cable chain stitch Knotted chain stitch Open chain stitch Petal chain stitch Rosette chain stitch Singalese chain stitch Twisted chain stitch Wheat-ear stitch Zig-zag chain stitch The Basic Chain stitch is made by first sending the needle down through the material; as the needle rises upward, the friction of the thread against the fabric is sufficient to form a small loop on the underside of the material. That loop is caught by a circular needle, beneath the work; the machine moves the material forward projecting the loop on the underside from the previous stitch.
The next drop of the needle goes through the previous loop. The circular needle releases the first loop and picks up the new loop and the process repeats; the Double chain stitch uses two threads. It is used in today's machines except for ornamental purposes because it uses a lot of thread, it is found in bulk material packaging. In this case it is useful to allow an easy opening of the bag. Union Special Portable Chain Stitch machine internal mechanism 2200 Portable bag closing machines List of knots Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7 S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Mrs. Archibald Christie. Samplers and Stitches, a handbook of the embroiderer's art, London 1920, 1989 facsimile: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4796-6, or online at Project Gutenberg John Gillow and Bryan Sentance: World Textiles, Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown, 1999, ISBN 0-8212-2621-5 Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Needlework; the Reader's Inc.. March 1992, ISBN 0-89577-059-8 Kalotaszeg embroidery at MagyarMuseum.org
Machine embroidery is an embroidery process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. It is used commercially in product branding, corporate advertising, uniform adornment, it is used in the fashion industry to decorate garments and apparel. Machine embroidery is used by hobbyists and crafters to decorate gifts and home decor. Examples include designs on quilts and wall hangings. There are multiple types of machine embroidery. Free-motion sewing machine embroidery uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. Designs are done manually. Most commercial embroidery is done with link stitch embroidery. In link stitch embroidery, patterns may automatically controlled. Link Stitch embroidery is known as chenille embroidery, was patented by Pulse Microsystems in 1994. More modern computerized machine embroidery uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine, controlled with a computer that embroiders stored patterns; these machines may have multiple threads. In free-motion machine embroidery, embroidered designs are created by using a basic zigzag sewing machine.
As this type of machine is used for tailoring, it lacks the automated features of a specialized machine. To create free-motion machine embroidery, the embroiderer runs the machine and skillfully moves hooped fabric under the needle to create a design; the "feed dogs" or machine teeth are lowered or covered, the embroiderer moves the fabric manually. The embroiderer develops the embroidery manually, using the machine's settings for running stitch and fancier built-in stitches. In this way, the stitches form an image on a piece of fabric. An embroiderer can produce a filled-in effect by sewing many parallel rows of straight stitching. A machine's zigzag stitch can be used to create a border. Many quilters and fabric artists use a process called thread drawing to create embellishments on their projects or to create textile art. Free-motion machine embroidery can be time-consuming. Since a standard sewing machine has only one needle, the operator must pause to re-thread the machine manually for each subsequent color in a multi-color design.
He or she must manually trim and clean up loose or connecting threads after the design is completed. As this is a manual process rather than a digital reproduction, any pattern created using free-motion machine embroidery is unique and cannot be reproduced, unlike with computerized embroidery. With the advent of computerized machine embroidery, the main use of manual machine embroidery is in fiber art and quilting projects. Though some manufacturers still use manual embroidery to embellish garments, many prefer computerized embroidery's ease and reduced costs. Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and engineered for embroidery. Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern. Depending on its capabilities, the machine will require varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs.
Sewing-embroidery machines have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. Multi-needle industrial machines are threaded prior to running the design and do not require re-threading; these machines require the user to input the correct color change sequence before beginning to embroider. Some can change colors automatically. A multi-needle machine may consist of multiple sewing heads, each of which can sew the same design onto a separate garment concurrently; such a machine might have 20 or more heads, each consisting of 15 or more needles. A head is capable of producing many special fabric effects, including satin stitch embroidery, chain stitch embroidery, appliqué, cutwork. Before computers were affordable, most machine embroidery was completed by punching designs on paper tape that ran through an embroidery machine. One error could ruin an entire design. Machine embroidery dates back to 1964, when Tajima started to manufacture and sell TAJIMA Multi-head Automatic Embroidery machines.
In 1973 Tajima introduced the TMB Series 6-needle full-automatic color-change embroidery machine. A few years in 1978, Tajima started manufacturing the TMBE Series Bridge Type Automatic Embroidery machines; these machines introduced electronic 6-needle automatic color change technology. In 1980 the first computerized embroidery machines were introduced to the home market. Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system to run on a minicomputer. Melco, an international distribution network formed by Randal Melton and Bill Childs, created the first embroidery sample head for use with large Schiffli looms; these produced lace patches and large embroidery patterns. The sample head allowed embroiderers to avoid manually sewing the design sample and saved production time. Subsequently, it became the first computerized embroidery machine marketed to home sewers; the economic conditions of the Reagan years, coupled with tax incentives for home businesses, helped propel Melco to the top of the market.
At the Show of the Americas in 1980, Melco unveiled the Digitrac, a digitizing system for embroidery machines. The digitized design was composed at six times the size of the embroidered final product; the Digitrac consisted of a small computer, similar in size to a BlackBerry, mounted on an X and Y axis on a large white board. It sold for $30,000. Th
Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England. It took place 7 miles northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex, was a decisive Norman victory; the background to the battle was the death of the childless King Edward the Confessor in January 1066, which set up a succession struggle between several claimants to his throne. Harold was crowned king shortly after Edward's death, but faced invasions by William, his own brother Tostig, the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada. Hardrada and Tostig defeated a hastily gathered army of Englishmen at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September 1066, were in turn defeated by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge five days later; the deaths of Tostig and Hardrada at Stamford Bridge left William as Harold's only serious opponent. While Harold and his forces were recovering, William landed his invasion forces in the south of England at Pevensey on 28 September 1066 and established a beachhead for his conquest of the kingdom.
Harold was forced gathering forces as he went. The exact numbers present at the battle are unknown; the composition of the forces is clearer. Harold appears to have tried to surprise William, but scouts found his army and reported its arrival to William, who marched from Hastings to the battlefield to confront Harold; the battle lasted from about 9 am to dusk. Early efforts of the invaders to break the English battle lines had little effect. Harold's death near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his army. After further marching and some skirmishes, William was crowned as king on Christmas Day 1066. There continued to be rebellions and resistance to William's rule, but Hastings marked the culmination of William's conquest of England. Casualty figures are hard to come by, but some historians estimate that 2,000 invaders died along with about twice that number of Englishmen. William founded a monastery at the site of the battle, the high altar of the abbey church placed at the spot where Harold died.
In 911, the Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings to settle in Normandy under their leader Rollo. Their settlement proved successful, they adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism, converting to Christianity, intermarrying with the local population. Over time, the frontiers of the duchy expanded to the west. In 1002, King Æthelred II married the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy, their son Edward the Confessor spent many years in exile in Normandy, succeeded to the English throne in 1042. This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers and clerics and appointing them to positions of power in the Church. Edward was childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex, his sons, he may have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. King Edward's death on 5 January 1066 left no clear heir, several contenders laid claim to the throne of England.
Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English aristocrats and son of Godwin, Edward's earlier opponent. Harold was elected king by the Witenagemot of England and crowned by Ealdred, the Archbishop of York, although Norman propaganda claimed that the ceremony was performed by Stigand, the uncanonically elected Archbishop of Canterbury. Harold was at once challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had sworn agreement to this. Harald Hardrada of Norway contested the succession, his claim to the throne was based on an agreement between his predecessor Magnus the Good and the earlier King of England Harthacnut, whereby, if either died without heir, the other would inherit both England and Norway. William and Harald Hardrada set about assembling troops and ships for separate invasions. In early 1066, Harold's exiled brother Tostig Godwinson raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders joined by other ships from Orkney.
Threatened by Harold's fleet, Tostig raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire. He was driven back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, where he spent the middle of the year recruiting fresh forces. Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying 15,000 men. Hardrada's army was further augmented by the forces of Tostig, who supported the Norwegian king's bid for the throne. Advancing on York, the Norwegians occupied the city after defeating a northern English army under Edwin and Morcar on 20 September at the Battle of Fulford; the English army was organised along regional lines, with the fyrd, or local levy, serving under a local magnate – whether an earl, bishop, or sheriff. The fyrd was composed of men who owned their own land, were equipped by their community to fulfil the king's demands for military for
Berlin wool work
Berlin wool work is a style of embroidery similar to today's needlepoint. It was executed with wool yarn on canvas, it is worked in a single stitch, such as cross stitch or tent stitch although Beeton's book of Needlework describes 15 different stitches for use in Berlin work. It was traditionally stitched in many colours and hues, producing intricate three-dimensional looks by careful shading; the design of such embroidery was made possible by the great progresses made in dyeing in the 1830s by the discovery of aniline dyes which produced bright colors. This kind of work created durable and long-lived pieces of embroidery that could be used as furniture covers, bags, or on clothing. Berlin wool work patterns were first published in Berlin, early in the 19th century; the first Berlin wool patterns were printed in black and white on grid paper and hand-coloured. The stitcher was expected to draw the outlines on the canvas and stitch following the colours on the pattern. Counted stitch patterns on charted paper, similar to modern cross-stitch patterns, made it easier to execute the designs, because there was no need for translating the patterns into actual wool colours by the stitchers themselves.
They were published as single sheets which made them affordable to middle-class women. Soon they were exported to the United States, where "Berlin work" became all the rage. Indeed, Berlin work became synonymous with canvas work. In Britain, Berlin work received a further boost through the Great Exhibition of 1851, by the advent of ladies' magazines such as The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine; the popularity of Berlin work was due to the fact that, for the first time in history, a large number of women had leisure time to devote to needlework. Subjects to be embroidered were influenced by Victorian Romanticism and included floral designs, Victorian paintings, biblical or allegorical motifs. Berlin work patterns could be applied to various kinds of clothing and home furnishings or could be made as stand-alone artworks, in the style of needlepaintings, which are works that copy well-known master paintings in thread. In the late 1880s, the demand for Berlin wool work decreased largely because the tastes had changed, but Berlin work publishers failed to accommodate new tastes.
Other, less opulent styles of embroidery became more popular, such as the art needlework advocated by William Morris and his Arts and Crafts movement. Original charted. Berlin wool work designs are still popular in trammed needlepoint canvases, printed canvas needlepoint kits and can be found as digitized charts on needlework enthusiasts' websites. Desnoyers, Rosika. Pictorial Embroidery in England: A Critical History of Needlepainting and Berlin Work. London: Bloomsbury, 2019. Edwards, Joan. Berlin Work. Dorking, England: Bayford Books, 1980. Levey, Santina M. Discovering Embroidery of the 19th Century. England: Shire Publications, Ltd. 1977. Markrich and Heinz Edgar Kiewe. Victorian Fancywork: Nineteenth-Century Needlepoint Patterns and Designs. Chicago: Regnery, 1974. Procter, Molly G. Victorian Canvas Work: Berlin Wool Work, B T Batsford Ltd, 1986. Serena, Raffaella. Animal Embroideries & Patterns: From 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Serena, Raffaella. Berlin Work, Samplers & Embroidery of the Nineteenth Century, Lacis, 1996.
Serena, Raffaella. Embroideries & Patterns from 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Work: An Exuberance of Color, PieceWork magazine, March–April, 2011, pp. 41–46. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Wool: Fine Fiber from an Innovative Age, PieceWork magazine, November–December, 2011, pp. 12–17. Berlin Work by Pat Berman, a technical history at the American Needlepoint Guild site
The running stitch or straight stitch is the basic stitch in hand-sewing and embroidery, on which all other forms of sewing are based. The stitch is worked by passing the needle out of the fabric. Running stitches may be of varying length, but more thread is visible on the top of the sewing than on the underside. So, a running stitch runs through the fabric. Running stitches are used in hand-sewing and tailoring to sew basic seams, in hand patchwork to assemble pieces, in quilting to hold the fabric layers and batting or wadding in place. Loosely spaced rows of short running stitches are used to support padded satin stitch. Running stitches are a component of many traditional embroidery styles, including kantha of India and Bangladesh, Japanese sashiko quilting. Basting stitches called "tailor's tack", are long running stitches used to keep two pieces of fabric or trim aligned during final sewing, or to otherwise temporarily sew two pieces together. Darning stitches are spaced parallel rows of running stitches used to fill or reinforce worn areas of a textile, or as decoration.
Holbein or double-running stitches have a second row of running stitches worked in a reverse direction in between the stitches of the first pass, to make a solid line of stitching. Double darning stitches are spaced rows of Holbein stitches. Embroidery stitch Caulfield, S. F. A. and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Nedlework, 1885. Enthoven, jacqueline: The Creative Stitches of Embroidery, Van Norstrand Rheinhold, 1964, ISBN 0-442-22318-8 Gillow and Bryan Sentance: World Textiles, Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown, 1999, ISBN 0-8212-2621-5 Reader's Digest, Complete Guide to Needlework; the Reader's Digest Association, Inc.. ISBN 0-89577-059-8
Featherstitch or feather stitch and Cretan stitch or faggoting stitch are embroidery techniques made of open, looped stitches worked alternately to the right and left of a central rib. Fly stitch is categorized with the featherstitches. Cretan stitch is characteristic of embroidery of the surrounding regions. Open Cretan stitch or faggoting is used in making open decorative seams. Featherstitch embroidery arose in England in the 19th century for decorating smock-frocks, it is used to decorate the joins in crazy quilting. It is related to the older buttonhole chain stitch. Common variants of featherstitch include: Basic featherstitch Long-armed featherstitch Double featherstitch Closed featherstitch Chained feather stitch Cloud stitch Other looped stitches include: Cretan stitch or Open Cretan stitch or faggoting stitch Closed Cretan stitch Fishbone stitch Fly stitch, a filling stitch made of single, detached tacked loops. Loop stitch Scroll stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Caulfield, S. F.
A. and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Christie, Mrs. Archibald and Tpestry Weaving, John Hogg, 1912, online at Project Gutenberg Enthoven, Jacqueline: The Creative Stitches of Embroidery, Van Norstrand Rheinhold, 1964, ISBN 0-442-22318-8 Reader's Digest, Complete Guide to Needlework; the Reader's Digest Association, Inc.. ISBN 0-89577-059-8