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Judith Drake

Judith Drake was an English intellectual and author, active in the last decade of the 17th century. She was part of a circle of intellectuals and philosophers which included Mary Astell, Lady Mary Chudleigh, Elizabeth Thomas, Elizabeth Elstob, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, John Norris, she was married to James Drake F. R. S. Physician and Tory pamphleteer, she is remembered in the field of feminist literature for her 1696 essay, An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex. When Judith Drake and the other intellectuals of her circle began writing, they were still a minority and subject to much nay saying. There had been a loosening of censorship of printed books. A few women took this opportunity to publish on gender relationships; because of their efforts as well as the rise in female literacy, the literary world entered into the debate about women. The full name under which the Essay was first published is An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex, In Which are Inserted the Characters of a Pendant, a Squire, a Beau, a Vertuoso, a Poetaster, a City-Critick, &C. in a letter to a lady.

Published in London by Roper and E Wilkinson in 1696, the author was listed only as "a Lady." For many years, the work was attributed to Mary Astell, a contemporary of Drake and author of A Serious Proposal to the Ladies and other works. However, authorship is now decidedly attributed to Drake, her name is listed in a Curll catalogue issued after 1741 as the author, the second edition of the Essay included a poem dedicated to the author by James Drake. The Essay is written in the form of a letter to a female friend, it purports to be inspired by a conversation between several ladies. Drake first constructed the rationalist framework used at that time to explain women's intellectual inferiority using John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, she proceeded to show that this rationale was outdated, in this modern time, women would benefit from a greater knowledge. Only two works using this kind of rationalist argument had been used for a feminist argument before, only one of those was written in English.

Besides her rational arguments, Drake wrote sketches of various stereotypes among men: the Pedant, the Country Squire, the News-monger, the Bully, the City-Critick, the Beau. She uses these pictures to remind her readers that men had follies. Drake's final argument involves the "new science" of the day, she spoke with physicians, who told her from their studies of anatomy and the workings of the human body that there was no physical difference between men and women in any part of the body that related to or influenced the mind. Drake gave the example from nature of male and female animals that showed equal wisdom in their actions. From studying the differences of behaviour between classes, she added that socioeconomic level was more to make a difference in intelligence between two people than was gender. A man and a woman from the same background are more similar in ability than two men, one a wealthy gentleman and the other a poor farmer. From her conclusions about the capacity of the female intellect, Drake suggests that maybe women were created the weaker vessel because they are meant to think, while stronger men are meant for action.

Why could women not do such jobs as accounting, that involved mental capacity and not physical labour? With her combination of Tory ideas and Lockean philosophy, Drake formed an early Enlightenment vision of social roles in which women could be of help in settling the uncertain society of the day. Many of Drake’s thoughts are similar to other feminist writers of her time. For example, Drake says in the Essay, "Women, like our Negroes in our western plantations, are born slaves, live prisoners all their lives," a sentiment, echoed by Astell and Chudleigh. Within a marriage, a woman’s role was little more than a servant to her husband and his interests. Overall, her work joins women’s primary concern of the time: education. Drake was attacked by Swift and Cibber. No other works by Drake are known to survive.


GDSII stream format, common acronym GDSII, is a database file format, the de facto industry standard for data exchange of integrated circuit or IC layout artwork. It is a binary file format representing planar geometric shapes, text labels, other information about the layout in hierarchical form; the data can be used to reconstruct all or part of the artwork to be used in sharing layouts, transferring artwork between different tools, or creating photomasks. GDS = Graphic Database System Initially, GDSII was designed as a format used to control integrated circuit photomask plotting. Despite its limited set of features and low data density, it became the industry conventional format for transfer of IC layout data between design tools of different vendors, all of which operated with proprietary data formats, it was developed by Calma for its layout design software, "Graphic Data System" and "GDSII". GDSII files are the final output product of the IC design cycle and are given to IC foundries for IC fabrication.

GDSII files were placed on magnetic tapes. This moment was fittingly called tape out. Objects contained in a GDSII file are grouped by assigning numeric attributes to them including a "layer number", "datatype" or "texttype". While these attributes were designed to correspond to the "layers of material" used in manufacturing an integrated circuit, their meaning became more abstract to reflect the way that the physical layout is designed; as of October 2004, many EDA software vendors have begun to support a new format, OASIS, which may replace GDSII. As the GDSII stream format is a de facto standard, it is supported by nearly all EDA software. Besides the commercial vendors there are plenty of free GDSII utilities; these free tools include editors, utilities to convert the 2D layout data into common 3D formats, utilities to convert the binary format to a human readable ASCII format and program libraries. Caltech Intermediate Form OASIS * Clein, Dan.. CMOS IC Layout. Newnes. ISBN 0-7506-7194-7 Computer Aids for VLSI Design - Appendix C: GDS II Format by Steven M. Rubin // Addison-Wesley, 1987 The GDSII Stream Format by Jim R. Buchanan, 6/11/96 GDSII™ Stream Format Manual, Release 6.0 // Calma, February 1987 SPIE Handbook of Microlithography and Microfabrication, Vol. 1: Microlithography // Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE Optical Engineering Pr.

1997, 2.9 Appendix: GDSII Stream Format Details of GDSII format including illustrations

Bon bon chicken

Bon bon chicken is a popular dish in Chinese cuisine. The name bang bang chicken is derived from the manner in which the meat is tenderized using a stick or hammer. According to a legend concerning the Ming and Qing dynasties, there was a dedicated chef in the remote areas of Ya'an who enjoyed experimenting with foods. After studying and practicing the art of soup-mixing for a long time, he invented a formula to produce aromatic chicken meat and broth. However, because of the labor required, chicken was only served on holidays. Someone sell it by slice; this strategy proved to be effective, "chicken slices" gained a good reputation. However, another problem occurred: a kitchen knife could not cut a whole chicken into slices evenly, customers are picky when making purchases. However, it was found that beating the chicken into pieces with a giant stick would solve this problem. At the same time, juice broth adds flavor; when preparing the dish, one holds another holds a knife. List of Chinese dishes 1001 Foods To Die For - Madison Books, Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC. p. 396.

Allergy-Free: Quick and Tasty Recipes for Every Night of the Week - Elizabeth Gordon Art of Chinese Cooking - Rebekah Lin Jewell. P. 54. Some Like it Hot: Spicy Favorites from the World's Hot Zones - Clifford A. Wright Mrs. Chiang's Szechwan Cookbook - Ellen Schrecker. Pp. 228–233. Spicy Sichuan Cooking - Daniel Reid Soups & salads - Sandi Cooper Roast Chicken and Other Stories - Simon Hopkinson "Dinner Tonight: Bon Bon Chicken". Serious Eats. Bon-bon-chicken

Straight Right

Straight Right is an Australian independent video game developer located in Melbourne, Australia. They are specializing in porting games made by other developers to various platforms. Straight Right's first title, Shift 2: Unleashed, was developed for iOS, publisher by Electronic Arts and released on 4 August 2011, it received mixed, but positive reviews. Their next title was the Wii U version of Mass Effect 3: Special Edition published by Electronic Arts, which received critical acclaim, scoring 85 out of 100 on review site aggregator Metacritic, was released on 13 November 2012 in North America. On 20 March 2013, it was announced by Square Enix that the developer will be responsible for Deus Ex: Human Revolution Director's Cut, it received critical acclaim for its improvements to the original game and usage of the GamePad, scoring 88 out of 100 on Metacritic. Their most recent project is porting and programming the PlayStation 4, Xbox One and Microsoft Windows versions of ZombiU, retitled Zombi, developed by Ubisoft Montpellier and publisher by Ubisoft.

It received mixed reviews. Official website

Modern Folk Üçlüsü

Modern Folk Üçlüsü is a Turkish music trio. The group was founded in July 1969 by Ahmet Kurtaran and Selami Karaibrahimgil. In the same year they accompanied Esin Afşar in her song Bebek. In 1970, they began to produce their own records. In 1971 September two members of the group got married and they temporarily put a halt to their activities. Beginning by the end of 1972 however they resumed their activities, their new LP of 1973 included arranged form of Turkish art music and an example of Western music as well as their conventional genre. In 1973 they participated in singing a multi singer melody Arkadaş Dur Bekle and Kim Ayırdı Sevenleri, Turkish version of Une Belle Histoire, Michel Fugain's famous song together with Tanju Okan and Nilüfer; these songs were recorded as 45 rpm. The group participated in Seul Music competition in 1978 with Ali Kocatepe, they attempted to represent Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contests 1978 and 1981. They took third place in 1978 and first place in 1981. In the Eurovision Song Contest 1981 in Dublin, they gained only 9 points and shared 18th place with Portugal.

During the 1990s they concentrated on the concerts. One of the important CDs in the 1990s was İstanbul Şarkıları with Emel Sayın, but that CD was not released to public. After 2000 they released their own albums. Original members of the band hasn't changed except period between 1995 and 1999, when Doğan Canku was replaced with Hasan Cihat Örter. Deriko & Ali Paşa Ağıdı Sarhoş Oğlan & Leblebi Tello & Su Gelir Ark Uyanır Diley Diley Yar & Gelin Ayşe Klasikler I & Ağlamak Geliyor İçimden Arkadaş Dur Bekle & Kim Ayırdı Sevenleri? Hiç Belli Olmaz & Unutalım Her Derdi Dözerem & Dudilli Gecelerim & Elif Dostluğa Davet & Takalar Dönme Dolap & Miras Doğan Canku Köçekçeler Sonsuza Dek & Ayrılık Doğa-n'ın Uyanışı