The Hatter is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's 1865 book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its 1871 sequel Through the Looking-Glass. He is often referred to as the Mad Hatter, though this term was never used by Carroll; the phrase "mad as a hatter" pre-dates Carroll's works. The Hatter and the March Hare are referred to as "both mad" by the Cheshire Cat, in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in the seventh chapter titled "A Mad Tea-Party"; the Hatter character, alongside all the other fictional beings, first appears in Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In it, the Hatter explains to Alice that he and the March Hare are always having tea because when he tried to sing for the foul-tempered Queen of Hearts, she sentenced him to death for "murdering the time", but he escapes decapitation. In retaliation, Time halts himself in respect to the Hatter, keeping him and the March Hare stuck at 18:00 forever; when Alice arrives at the tea party, the Hatter is characterised by switching places on the table at any given time, making short, personal remarks, asking unanswerable riddles and reciting nonsensical poetry, all of which drives Alice away.
The Hatter appears again as a witness at the Knave of Hearts' trial, where the Queen appears to recognise him as the singer she sentenced to death, the King of Hearts cautions him not to be nervous or he will have him "executed on the spot". The character appears in Carroll's 1871 Through the Looking-Glass, the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, under the name "Hatta" – alongside the March Hare under the name "Haigha", pronounced "hare". Sir John Tenniel's illustration depicts Hatta as sipping from a teacup as he did in the original novel. Alice does not comment on. Mercury was used in the manufacturing of felt hats during the 19th century, causing a high rate of mercury poisoning among those working in the hat industry. Mercury poisoning causes neurological damage, including slurred speech, memory loss, tremors, which led to the phrase "mad as a hatter". In the Victorian age, many workers in the textile industry, including hatters suffered from starvation and overwork, were prone to develop illnesses affecting the nervous system, such as central nervous system tuberculosis, portrayed in novels like Alton Locke by Charles Kingsley and North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell, which Lewis Carroll had read.
Many such workers were sent to Pauper Lunatic Asylums, which were supervised by Lunacy Commissioners such as Samuel Gaskell and Robert Wilfred Skeffington Lutwidge, Carroll's uncle. Carroll was familiar with the conditions at asylums and visited at least one, the Surrey County Asylum, which treated patients with so-called non-restraint methods and occupied them, amongst others, in gardening and hat-making. Besides staging theatre plays and other amusements, such asylums held tea-parties. Despite being named the Hatter, the character in Carroll's original edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is never stated to wear any kind of headgear; the character's signature top hat comes from John Tenniel's illustrations for the first edition, in which the character wears a large top hat with a hatband reading "In this style 10/6". This is further elaborated on in The Nursery "Alice", a shortened version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, adapted by the author himself for young children. Here it is stated that the character is wearing a hat on his head with a price tag containing the numbers 10 and 6, giving the price in pre-decimal British money as ten shillings and six pence.
The Hatter and his tea party friend, the March Hare, are referred to as "both mad" by the distinctive Cheshire Cat. The first mention of both characters occurs in the sixth chapter of Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, titled "Pig and Pepper", in a conversation between the child protagonist Alice and the Cheshire Cat, when she asks "what sort of people live about here?" to which the cat replies "in that direction lives a Hatter, in that direction, lives a March Hare. Visit either you like: they're both mad!" Both subsequently make their actual debuts in the seventh chapter of the same book, titled "A Mad Tea-Party". Hat making was the main trade in Stockport where Carroll grew up, it was not unusual for hatters to appear disturbed or confused. However, the Hatter does not exhibit the symptoms of mercury poisoning, which include excessive timidity, increasing shyness, loss of self-confidence, a desire to remain unobserved and unobtrusive, it has been claimed that the Hatter's character may have been inspired by Theophilus Carter, an eccentric furniture dealer.
Carter was at one time a servitor at Christ Church, one of the University of Oxford's colleges. This is not substantiated by university records, he owned a furniture shop, became known as the "Mad Hatter" from his habit of standing in the door of his shop wearing a top hat. Sir John Tenniel is reported to have come to Oxford to sketch him for his illustrations. There is no evidence for this claim, however, in either Carroll's diaries. In the chapter "A Mad Tea Party", the Hatter asks a much-noted riddle "why is a raven like a writing desk?" When Alice gives up trying to figure out why, the Hatter admits "I haven't the slightest idea!". Carroll intended the riddle to be without an answer, but after many requests from readers, he and others—including puzzle expert Sam Loyd—suggested possible answers.
Adesvaldo José de Lima known as Lima, is a Brazilian retired footballer who played as forward. Born in Camapuã, Mato Grosso do Lima started in Operário de Mato Grosso. After being top-scorer of the 1982 and 1983 Campeonato Sul-Mato-Grossense, he joined Corithians in 1984, who loaned him to Santos. In 1987, he moved to Grêmio, where he would take part in Campeonato Gaúcho titles in 1987 and 1988, being Top-Scorer in the latter, alongside Valdo, Cuca and Mazarópi, he moved to Portugal, joining Benfica, where he would reunite with Valdo, playing sparsely throughout three seasons, but notably scoring three goals in the 1989–90 European Cup campaign, on the way to the final. In 1991, he signed with Internacional, winning another Campeonato Gaúcho, moving through a number of clubs, retiring at age 35. In 2012, he ran for the city council in Campo Grande for the Brazilian Labour Party. Adesvaldo Lima at ForaDeJogo Adesvaldo Lima at FootballDatabase.eu
Drug nomenclature is the systematic naming of drugs pharmaceutical drugs. In the majority of circumstances, drugs have 3 types of names: chemical names, the most important of, the IUPAC name. Generic names for drugs are nowadays constructed out of affixes and stems that classify the drugs into different categories and separate drugs within categories. A marketed drug might have a company code or compound code; the chemical names are the scientific names, based on the molecular structure of the drug. There are various systems of chemical nomenclature and thus various chemical names for any one substance; the most important is the IUPAC name. Chemical names are very long and too complex to be used in referring to a drug in speech or in prose documents. For example, "1--3- propan-2-ol" is a chemical name for propranolol. Sometimes, a company, developing a drug might give the drug a company code, used to identify the drug while it is in development. For example, CDP870 was UCB’s company code for certolizumab pegol.
Many of these codes, although not all, have prefixes. During development, the company will apply for regulatory approval of the drug by the relevant national regulatory agency such as the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, it will apply for an International Nonproprietary Name through the World Health Organization. Nowadays the national nonproprietary names are the same as the INN; the generic names indicate via their stems what drug class the drug belongs to. For example, one can tell that aciclovir is an antiviral drug because its name ends in the -vir suffix. For combination drug products—those with two or more drugs combined into a single dosage form—single nonproprietary names beginning with "co-" exist in both British Approved Name form and in a maintained USP name called the pharmacy equivalent name. Otherwise the two names are both given, joined by hyphens or slashes. For example, suspensions combining trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are called either trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-trimoxazole.
Co-codamol is codeine-paracetamol, co-triamterzide is triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide. The USP ceased maintaining PENs. For drugs that make it all the way through development and regulatory acceptance, the pharmaceutical company gives the drug a trade name, a standard term in the pharmaceutical industry for a brand name or trademark name. For example, Lipitor is Pfizer's trade name for a cholesterol-lowering medication. Many drugs have multiple trade names, reflecting marketing in different countries, manufacture by different companies, or both, thus the trade names for atorvastatin include not only Lipitor but Atocor. Drug names are subject to legal regulation, including approval for new drugs and on packaging to establish clear rules about adulterants and fraudulent or misleading labeling. A national formulary is designated to define drug names for regulatory purposes; the approved names in various countries include: Australian Approved Name British Approved Name Dénomination Commune Française Denominazione Comune Italiana Japanese Accepted Name United States Adopted NameThe World Health Organization administers the international nonproprietary name list.
In the scientific literature, there is a set of strong conventions for drug nomenclature regarding the letter case and placement of nonproprietary and proprietary names, as follows: Nonproprietary names begin in lowercase. Unbiased mentions of a drug place the nonproprietary name first and follow it with the trade name in parentheses, if relevant; this pattern is important for the scientific literature, where conflict of interest is disclosed or avoided. The authors reporting on a study are not endorsing any particular brand of drug, they will state which brand was used, for methodologic validity, but they do so in a way that makes clear the absence of endorsement. For example, the 2015 American Society of Hematology publication policies say, "Non-proprietary names should be used and should be lowercase."... "he first letter of the name of a proprietary drug should be capitalized."... "If necessary, you may include a proprietary name in parentheses directly following the generic name after its first mention."Valid exceptions to the general pattern occur when a nonproprietary name starts a sentence, when a proprietary name has intercapping, or when tall-man letters are used within nonproprietary names to prevent confusion of similar names.
The earliest roots of standardization of generic names for drugs began with city pharmacopoeias, such as the London, Dublin and Berlin Pharmacopoeias. The fundamental advances in chemistry during the 19th century made that era the first time in which what we now call chemical nomenclature, a huge profusion of names based on atoms, functional groups, molecules, was necessary or