Hatton Garden

Hatton Garden is a street and commercial area in the Holborn district of the London Borough of Camden, close to the boundary with the City of London. It takes its name from Sir Christopher Hatton, a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, who established a mansion here and gained possession of the garden and orchard of Ely Place, the London seat of the Bishops of Ely, it remained in the Hatton family and was built up as a stylish residential development in the reign of King Charles II. St Etheldreda's Church in Ely Place, all that survives of the old Bishop's Palace, is one of only two remaining buildings in London dating from the reign of Edward I, it is one of the oldest churches in England now in use for Roman Catholic worship, re-established there in 1879. The red-brick building now known as Wren House, at the south-east corner of Hatton Garden and St Cross Street, was the Anglican church for the Hatton Garden development, it was taken over by the authorities of a charity school, the statues of a boy and girl in uniform were added.

Hatton Garden is famous as London's jewellery quarter and the centre of diamond trade in the United Kingdom. This specialisation grew up in the early 19th century, spreading out from its more ancient centre in nearby Clerkenwell. Today there are nearly 300 businesses here in the jewellery industry and over 55 shops, representing the largest cluster of jewellery retailers in the UK; the largest of these businesses was De Beers, the international family of companies which dominated the international diamond trade. Their headquarters were in an office and warehouse complex just behind the main Hatton Garden shopping street. In 1962 Lawrence Graff of Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond fame opened his first retail jewellery store here. Sir Hiram Maxim had a small factory at 57 Hatton Garden and in 1881 invented and started to produce the Maxim Gun, a prototype machine gun, capable of firing 666 rounds a minute. Hatton Garden has an extensive underground infrastructure of vaults, tunnels and workshops; the area is now home to many media and creative businesses, including Blinkbox and Grey Advertising.

Surrounding streets including Hatton Place and Saffron Hill were improved during the 20th century and in modern times have been developed with blocks of'luxury' apartments, including Da Vinci House and the architecturally distinctive Ziggurat Building. The Hatton Garden area between Leather Lane in the west and Saffron Hill in the east, from Holborn in the south to Hatton Wall in the north, was developed as a new residential district in the Restoration period, between 1659 and 1694, it arose soon after the residential developments in Covent Garden and was contemporary with those of Bloomsbury Square. It was the site of the medieval palace and orchard of the Bishops of Ely, forming their City residence; the palace stood on the site of Ely Place. During the 1570s Queen Elizabeth's Chancellor and favourite, Sir Christopher Hatton, held a lease of part of the site and developed Hatton House to the north-west of the palace. In 1581 he obtained a more permanent grant from Queen Elizabeth during a vacancy in the see, after his death it passed into the possession of Lady Elizabeth Hatton, the widow of Sir Christopher's nephew Sir William Newport.

At her death in 1646, during the English Civil War, it reverted to Christopher Hatton, 1st Baron Hatton, a close associate of Charles II in his exile in Paris during the Commonwealth period, 1649–1660. The bishops disputed the Hattons' title, under the Protectorate, Bishop Matthew Wren was a prisoner in the Tower of London, the palace itself was sequestrated to Parliamentarian uses and was badly damaged. To raise money Lord Hatton granted a long lease of the site in 1654, which became permanent in 1658, though he retained the freehold. In 1659 John Evelyn observed Hatton Street being laid out from south to north, hard against the west side of the palace, as the beginning of a new planned town district. Speculative builders took leases to construct tall and spacious adjoining houses to attract wealthy men at court, city officials and country gentlefolk wanting London homes, convenient for Clerkenwell and the Inns of Court. In this way a varied but harmonious townscape, with attractive detail of porches and interior panelling, grew up on a rectangular grid of new streets.

Charles Street was laid west to east as a continuation of Greville Street, the Bishops' orchard, which the Hattons had laid out as a walled knot garden with a central fountain, lay north of that up to Hatton Wall. Hatton Street followed the line of its central path. By 1666, the year of the Great Fire, the development had advanced north to form two principal blocks up to the line of St Cross Street; the remaining open land was used as a refuge by Londoners escaping the Fire, which did not consume Hatton Garden. After Lord Hatton's death in 1670 the northern sector up to Hatton Wall was completed by 1694 in the time of his son Sir Christopher Hatton, 1st Viscount Hatton, whose agent was the noted accountant Stephen Monteage. Work on the Hatton Street church commenced in 1685–86. Great Kirby Street, parallel to Hatton Street on the east side, enclosed a central block with rear gardens backing, but in the northern sectors Hatt and Tunn Yard on the east and other small yards on the west provided access to smaller dwellings and coach houses.

In the southern sectors King's Head Yard was enclose


Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales and in the family Herpesviridae. Viruses in Gammaherpesvirinae are distinguished by reproducing at a more variable rate than other subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Mammals serve as natural hosts. There are 32 species in this subfamily, divided among 4 genera. Diseases associated with this subfamily include: HHV-4: infectious mononucleosis. HHV-8: kaposi's sarcoma. Herpesviruses represent a group of double-stranded DNA viruses distributed within the animal kingdom; the family Herpesviridae, which contains eight viruses that infect humans, is the most extensively studied group within this order and comprises three subfamilies, namely Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. Within the Gammaherpesvirinae there are a number of unclassified viruses including Cynomys herpesvirus 1 Elephantid herpesvirus 3, Elephantid herpesvirus 4, Elephantid herpesvirus 5, Procavid herpesvirus 1, Trichechid herpesvirus 1 and Common bottlenose dolphin gammaherpesvirus 1.

Gammaherpesvirinae consists of the following genera: Macavirus Rhadinovirus Lymphocryptovirus PercavirusLymphocryptovirus and Rhadinovirus are well-established, whereas Macavirus and Percavirus are more defined. Viruses in Gammaherpesvirinae are enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical to pleomorphic, round geometries, T=16 symmetry; the diameter is around 150-200 nm. Genomes are non-segmented, around 180kb in length; the main stages in the lifecycle of Gamma herpes virus are namely • Virus attachment and entry • Viral DNA injection through nuclear pore complex into nucleus • Assembly of nucleocapsids and encapsidation of viral genome • Primary envelopment, invaginations of nuclear membrane and nuclear egress • Tegumentation and secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm • Egress and extracellular virions release The lytic cycle of the gammaherpesviruses is initiated only on rare occasions. Therefore, the least contribution to pathogenicity has to be expected from this stage; the ORFs expressed during that stage are further divided into immediate-early and late.

Promoter activation mediated by these proteins has a strong effect on DNA synthesis from the origins of lytic DNA replication. As a result, virions are released from the productively infected cells. Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes; the gamma-herpesviruses are characteristically latent in lymphocytes and drive the proliferation that requires the expression of latent viral antigens. The majority of gammaherpesviruses encode a specific protein, critical for maintenance of the viral genome within latently infected cells termed the genome maintenance protein. GMPs are DNA-binding proteins that ensures that, as the host cell progresses through mitosis, the viral episomes are partitioned to daughter cells; this provides continuous existence of the viral genome within the host cells.

Gammaherpesviruses are of primary interest due to the two human viruses, EBV and KSHV and the diseases they cause. The gammaherpesviruses replicate and persist in lymphoid cells but some are capable of undergoing lytic replication in epithelial or fibroblast cells. Gammaherpesviruses may be a cause of chronic fibrotic lung diseases in animals. Murid herpesvirus 68 is an important model system for the study of gammaherpesviruses with tractable genetics; the gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes. Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Latency-deficient and, apathogenic MHV-68 mutants are found to be effective vaccines against these viruses. Research in this area is exclusively performed using MHV68 as KSHV and EBV do not productively infect model organisms used for this type of experimentation. Herpesviruses have large genomes containing a wide array of genes. Although the first ORF in these gammaherpesviruses have oncogenic potential, other viral genes may play a role in viral transformation.

A striking feature of the four gammaherpesviruses is that they contain distinct ORFs involved in lymphocyte signaling events. At the left end of each viral genome are located ORFs encoding distinct transforming proteins. Gammaherpesvirus genes are capable of modulating cellular signals such that cell proliferation and viral replication occur at the appropriate times in the viral life cycle. Gammaherpesvirinae at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ICTVdb Overview ICTVdb Details Taxonomic Proposals from the Herpesviridae Study Group Viralzone: Gammaherpesvirinae ICTV

Northwest Stanwood, Washington

Northwest Stanwood is a census-designated place in Snohomish County, United States. The population was 149 at the 2010 census; the CDP was known as North Stanwood prior to the 2010 census, it included area, now part of the city of Stanwood. Northwest Stanwood is located at 48°15′22″N 122°21′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 468 people, 172 households, 125 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 207.8 people per square mile. There were 179 housing units at an average density of 79.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.73% White, 0.64% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.56% of the population. There were 172 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.0% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families.

23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 28.8% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $58,194, the median income for a family was $65,139. Males had a median income of $40,179 versus $35,469 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $24,128. None of the families and 1.6% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64