A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure. The term was used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated. However, early societies may have formed their own versions of the same structure. Ghettos in many cities have been nicknamed "the hood", colloquial slang for neighborhood. Versions of ghettos appear across the world, each with their own names and groupings of people; the word "ghetto" comes from the Jewish area of Venice, the Venetian Ghetto in Cannaregio, traced to a special use of Venetian ghèto, or "foundry". By 1899 the term had been extended to crowded urban quarters of other minority groups; the etymology of the word is uncertain, as there is no agreement among etymologists about the origins of the Venetian language term. According to various theories it comes: from the above-mentioned Venetian ghèto. Another possibility is from the Italian Egitto in memory of the exile of the Israelites in Egypt.
A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews in the diaspora. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is Di yiddishe gas, or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter. Jewish ghettos in Europe existed; as a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities. The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a affluent population. In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. During World War II, ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and Romani people into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe; the Nazis most referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as "Jewish quarter".
These Nazi ghettos sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. On June 21, 1943, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into Nazi concentration camps. A mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway; the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited by the Jews; the Shanghai Ghetto was an area of one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai to which about 20,000 Jewish refugees were relocated by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from German-occupied Europe before and during World War II.
The development of ghettos in the United States is associated with different waves of immigration and internal urban migration. The Irish and German immigrants of the mid-19th century were the first ethnic groups to form ethnic enclaves in United States cities; this was followed by large numbers of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including many Italians and Poles between 1880 and 1920. These European immigrants were more segregated than blacks in the early twentieth century. Most of these remained in their established immigrant communities, but by the second or third generation, many families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II; these ethnic ghetto areas included the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which became notable as predominantly Jewish, East Harlem, which became home to a large Puerto Rican community in the 1950s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Many Polish immigrants moved to sections like Polish Hill of Pittsburgh.
Brighton Beach in Brooklyn is the home of Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. During the Great Depression, many people would congregate in large open parking lots, they built shelters out of whatever materials they could find at the time. These congregations of shelters were called "ghettos". A used definition of a ghetto is a community distinguished by a homogeneous race or ethnicity. Additionally, a key feature that developed throughout the postindustrial era and continues to symbolize the demographics of American ghettos is the prevalence of poverty. Poverty constitutes the separation of ghettos from suburbanized or private neighborhoods; the high percentage of poverty justifies the difficulty of out-migration, which tends to reproduce constraining social opportunit
A shoulder mark called a shoulder board, rank slide, or slip-on, is a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform. It may bear rank or other insignia, should not be confused with an epaulette, although the two terms are used interchangeably; the newer Auscam uniform design lacks shoulder marks, instead opting for a vertical strap in the middle of the chest region of the uniform. Rank insignia tags are slipped onto this strap. Unlike the older uniform designs, there are slip-ons for every rank in the Australian Defence Force; the older Auscam uniform designs featured shoulder straps, upon which slip-on rank insignia of Commissioned Officers could be affixed, non-commissioned officers in the Air Force and Navy only. No shoulder-strap slip-ons are available for enlisted members of the army, whereas the other two services had appropriate slip ons, who have rank patches sewed onto the uniform arms; this older design is no longer issued, but may still be seen on personnel whose most recent uniform issue pre-dates the use of the new design.
In the Canadian Forces, slip-ons displaying rank insignia and shoulder titles are worn on the shoulder straps of the No. 3 Service Dress shirt, overcoat and sweater. The slip-ons are worn on a similar-style strap located in the centre of the chest of the CADPAT shirt, jacket and raincoat. Slip-ons are not worn with Mess Dress. Based on the shoulder boards used by the United States Navy, the United States Army and Air Force developed the shoulder mark, a cloth tube with embroidered or pinned rank insignia. Army officer shoulder marks are colored depending on the branch with which the officer is affiliated, they have an 1/8-inch gold stripe below the embroidered grade insignia. In the Air Force, a similar stripe is limited to senior officers. Air Force general officers have an additional stripe at the near end. Enlisted and Air Force junior officer shoulder marks lack these distinctions; these are worn on all class B uniform shirts. US Navy officers wear shoulder boards on Summer White and Service Dress White uniforms, wool overcoats and reefers.
"Soft shoulder boards" are worn on long sleeve white shirts and on black sweaters worn with Service Khaki or Service Dress Blue uniforms. Coast Guard officers wear Naval style shoulderboards on all class B uniform shirts. Service dress uniforms in the U. S. air and land forces have a different style of shoulder board, a firm material with an underlying longitudinal strap. The corresponding jacket shoulder has two small loops traversing from rear to front, the open end of the shoulder board's strap is drawn through the two loops and affixed to the underside of the board; this hides all the means of attachments, leaving a firm, finished surface. This particular style is what U. S. Air Force personnel call a shoulder board; the shoulder sleeve is called an epaulette, the two are never confused. On the United States Army Blue Service Uniform, officers wear embroidered rank insignia "shoulder straps" mounted lengthwise on the outside shoulder seams; these are 1⅝ inches wide by 4 inches/3½ inches long, are sewn, snapped, or clipped onto each shoulder.
The Boy Scouts of America uses colored shoulder loops worn on the shoulder straps to indicate the program level. Webelos Scouts wearing tan uniforms and all Cub Scout leaders wear blue loops, Boy Scouts and leaders wear forest green loops, Varsity Scouts and leaders wear blaze loops, Venturers and leaders wear emerald green loops. Adults who hold a district or council position wear silver loops; the only youth permitted to wear gold loops are the National Chief, National Vice chief, Region Chiefs of the Order of the Arrow. Rank slides are used by all of the UK Armed Forces on working dress uniforms. Shoulder boards are worn by officers on tropical dress uniform, bearing the same insignia carried on the cuffs of the dress uniform. A slide worn on the chest is used to indicate rank for all RN personnel in Action Working Dress. In the British Army, shoulder straps are worn with service uniforms. In combat dress, rank insignia is displayed on'rank slides' worn on the chest. In the Royal Air Force, rank slides are worn by all ranks on the shoulders of working dress uniforms, on flying clothing and coveralls.
Similar rank slides are worn on a single tab on the chest of operational clothing. As a ranked organisation, members of St. John Ambulance wear rank slides on all uniforms. Colours are used to differentiate between different health care professionals; the uniforms of most police forces in the United Kingdom feature rank slides. At ranks below Inspector, the collar number is displayed on the shoulder, although some Inspectors and above are starting to display their collar number alongside their rank insignia; the most notable exception to this is Kent Police, whose officers display their collar number on the stab vest instead of the rank slides. Public order officers' shoulder slides are colour-coded according to their role: Silver commander – Grey Bronze commander – Yellow PSU commander – Red PSU sergeant – White Medic – Green Tactical adviser – Royal blue Evidence gatherer – Orange
Gorget patches are an insignia, paired patches of cloth or metal on the collar of the uniform, used in the military and civil service in some countries. Collar tabs sign the military rank, the rank of civil service, the military unit, the office or the branch of the armed forces and the arm of service. Gorget patches were gorgets, pieces of armour worn to protect the throat. With the disuse of armour they were lost; the cloth patch on the collar however evolved from contrasting cloth used to reinforce the buttonholes at the collar of a uniform coat. In the British Empire the patches were introduced as insignia during the South African War, they have been used since in many counties of the Commonwealth of Nations. The collar patches of the most of the armed forces of the Middle East and Arab derive from the uniform tradition of the European empires that dominated the region until World War II, Britain and France. Afghan army has collar patches similar to Commonwealth ones. In Austria collar patches of the Federal Army report the arm of service.
They are used in the police. Traditional, corps colours dominate the basic colours of the rank insignia. In the Austro-Hungarian Army, collar patches with rank insignia, appliquéd on the gorget of uniform coat, or jacket and the battle-dress blouse, were designated Paroli. See also:Waffenfarbe Rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian armed forcesThe galleries below show examples of Parolis In Australia traditional gorget patches are worn by army colonels and general officers as well as by navy midshipmen. In the St John Ambulance Australia First Aid Services Branch, gorget patches designate State Staff Officers and National Staff Officers from those who are officers of a division or region. In Bangladesh Armed Forces officers of the rank of Colonel equivalent and above wear ‘Gorget Patches’, they are Red, Sky Blue & Black in color. For Colonel and equivalent it exhibits a "Shapla"; each flag rank adds a star to it onwards. In the Belgian army, the gorget patches have a branch rank insignia. In the Brazilian Army the gorget patches, embroined oak leafs in silver, are worn on the both lapels of rifle green and grey formal dresses by Generals.
The same insignia, in gold, are worn on the both collars of great gala dresses. In the State of São Paulo Military Police, the Colonels in charge of General Commanding Officers wears on both lapels of dark grey formal dresses embroined silvered insignias. Gorget patches in the Bulgarian Army show. With the restoration of historical nomenclature and features to the Canadian Army in 2013reinstated insignia included traditional gorget patches for colonels and general officers. For combat branches these are in scarlet with gold embroidery for generals; however the gorget patches worn by senior officers of the Medical Branch are dull cherry, the Dental Branch emerald green and the Chaplain Branch purple. In People's Liberation Army of People's Republic of China gorget patches are used to denote a military rank. In the French Army collar patches were used on tunics and greatcoats from the early nineteenth century onwards. In contrasting collars to the collar itself, they came to carry a regimental number or specialist insignia.
With the adoption of a new light-beige dress uniform for all ranks in the 1980s, the practice of wearing coloured collar patches was discontinued. Collar patches/gorget patches, are to be worn on the gorget of military uniform in German speaking armed forces. However, collar patch insignia for General officers of the Heer are traditional called Arabesque collar patch Larish embroidery, Old Prussian embroidery, or Arabesquen embroidery. In the German Empire, some officers and seamen wore Kragenspiegel, but these were not part of the service-wide uniform. In the Weimar Republic such patches were introduced throughout the army in 1921, where they indicated the rank and the arm of service, but were not used in the navy; the Wehrmacht continued this. Some Nazi-era civil services wore uniforms with collar tabs, similar to the armed forces' tabs. New tabs were introduced for the political leaders of the NSDAP, for the new Nazi organisations as Sturmabteilung and Schutzstaffel. East Germany used similar collar tabs to those of the Wehrmacht for its air force.
Collar tabs were worn by some personnel of the navy. The armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany maintained the use of collar tabs in the army and the air force, where they indicate to which branch an individual soldier belongs. Members of the German Navy do not wear collar tabs. In the Hellenic Army, the use of gorget/collar patches was introduced for the undress and field uniforms, via Austrian and French influences, at the turn of the 20th century, they consist of a distinctive background colour or combination of colours, that denote a specific arm of service or corps. General officers use a British-style general officer' patch. Collar patches are used by the Hellenic Police (and
The Sturmabteilung Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s, its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties the Red Front Fighters League of the Communist Party of Germany, intimidating Romanis, trade unionists, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses. The SA were called the "Brownshirts" from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts; the SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members, with ranks that were adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the Schutzstaffel, which originated as a branch of the SA before being separated. Brown-colored shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large number of them were cheaply available after World War I, having been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.
The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives; the SA continued to exist, but was superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after Nazi Germany's final capitulation to the Allies in 1945. The term Sturmabteilung predates the founding of the Nazi Party in 1919, it was applied to the specialized assault troops of Imperial Germany in World War I who used Hutier infiltration tactics. Instead of large mass assaults, the Sturmabteilung were organised into small squads of a few soldiers each; the first official German Stormtrooper unit was authorized on 2 March 1915. The German high command ordered the VIII Corps to form a detachment to test experimental weapons and develop tactics that could break the deadlock on the Western Front. On 2 October 1916, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff ordered all German armies in the west to form a battalion of stormtroops, they were first used during the 8th Army's siege of Riga, again at the Battle of Caporetto.
Wider use followed on the Western Front in the Spring Offensive in March 1918, where Allied lines were pushed back tens of kilometers. The DAP was formed in Munich in January 1919 and Adolf Hitler joined it in September of that year, his talents for speaking and propaganda were recognized, by early 1920 he had gained authority in the party, which changed its name to the NSDAP in February 1920, although "Socialist" was added by the party's executive committee, over Hitler's objections, to help the party appeal to left-wing workers. The precursor to the Sturmabteilung had acted informally and on an ad hoc basis for some time before this. Hitler, with an eye always to helping the party to grow through propaganda, convinced the leadership committee to invest in an advertisement in the Münchener Beobachter for a mass meeting in the Hofbräuhaus, to be held on 16 October 1919; some 70 people attended, a second such meeting was advertised for 13 November in the Eberl-Bräu beer hall. About 130 people attended.
The next year, on 24 February, he announced the party's Twenty-Five Point program at a mass meeting of some 2,000 people at the Hofbräuhaus. Protesters tried to shout Hitler down, but his former army companions, armed with rubber truncheons, ejected the dissenters; the basis for the SA had been formed. A permanent group of party members who would serve as the Saalschutzabteilung for the DAP gathered around Emil Maurice after the February 1920 incident at the Hofbräuhaus. There was little structure to this group; the group was called the Ordnertruppen around this time. More than a year on 3 August 1921, Hitler redefined the group as the "Gymnastic and Sports Division" of the party to avoid trouble with the government, it was by now well recognized as an appropriate necessary, function or organ of the party. The future SA developed by organizing and formalizing the groups of ex-soldiers and beer hall brawlers who were to protect gatherings of the Nazi Party from disruptions from Social Democrats and Communists and to disrupt meetings of the other political parties.
By September 1921 the name Sturmabteilung was being used informally for the group. Hitler was the official head of the Nazi Party by this time; the Nazi Party held a large public meeting in the Munich Hofbräuhaus on 4 November 1921, which attracted many Communists and other enemies of the Nazis. After Hitler had spoken for some time, the meeting erupted into a mêlée in which a small company of SA thrashed the opposition; the Nazis called this event the Saalschlacht, it assumed legendary proportions in SA lore with the passage of time. Thereafter, the group was known as the Sturmabteilung; the leadership of the SA passed from Maurice to the young Hans Ulrich Klintzsch in this period. He had been a naval officer and a member of the Erhardy Brigade of Kapp Putsch fame, was, at the time of his assumption of SA command, a member of the notorious Organisation Consul; the Nazis under Hitler were taking advantage of the more professional management techniques
Uniforms and insignia of the Sturmabteilung
The uniforms and insignia of the Sturmabteilung were Nazi Party paramilitary ranks and uniforms used by SA stormtroopers from 1921 until the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945. The titles and phrases used by the SA were the basis for paramilitary titles used by several other Nazi paramilitary groups, among them the Schutzstaffel. Early SS ranks were identical to the SA, since the SS was considered a sub-organization of the Sturmabteilung; the brown shirted stormtroopers of the Sturmabteilung come into being within the Nazi Party beginning in 1920. By this time, Adolf Hitler had assumed the title of Führer of the Nazi Party, replacing Anton Drexler, known as the more democratically elected Party Chairman. Hitler began to fashion the Nazi Party on fascist paramilitary lines and, to that end, the early Nazis of the 1920s would wear some sort of paramilitary uniform at party meetings and rallies; the most common of these were World War I uniforms with full medals. Common were uniforms of the Freikorps as well as uniforms of veteran groups such as the Stahlhelm.
Nazi Party members would mix components from all three types of uniforms with little to no standardization except a swastika armband worn on the left arm. By 1921, the Nazi Party had taken its "Sports Detachment", consisting of burly bodyguards Hitler used for his own protection, had formed the Nazi stormtroopers, or the "Storm Detachment", shortened to be known as the SA, it was at this point that the first SA titles came into being, although there were no established uniforms or insignia except a swastika armband worn on a paramilitary uniform. At the start of the group's existence, the SA had four primary titles: Oberster SA-Führer SA-Oberführer SA-Führer SA-Mann In 1923, the SA was disbanded after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch; the group was refounded two years in 1925. From 1923 to 1925, the SA did not exist since Adolf Hitler had been imprisoned for his actions in the Munich Putsch and the Nazi Party banned in Germany. Underground cells of SA men did continue to meet in secret, including one run by an SA leader named Gerhard Roßbach.
It was Roßbach who invented the "Nazi brownshirt" uniform since, in 1924, Roßbach located a large store of military surplus brown denim shirts in Austria intended for tropical uniforms. In 1925, the SA was re-founded as part of the new Nazi Party which Hitler had put together following his release from prison; the reborn SA received its first formal uniform regulations and began using the first recognizable system of rank insignia. Along with a brown shirt uniform, SA members would wear swastika armbands with a kepi cap; the SA used its pre-1923 rank titles, but this changed in 1926 when local SA units began to be grouped into larger regiment sized formations known as Standarten. Each SA regiment was commanded by a senior SA officer called a Standartenführer. At the same time, to differentiate from the SA rank and file, senior SA officers began to wear oak leaves on their collars to signify their authority. Under this system, a Standartenführer wore one oak leaf, an Oberführer two, the Supreme SA Commander wore three.
The lower ranks of SA-Führer and SA-Mann still wore no insignia. In 1927, the officer rank of SA-Führer became known by the title of "Sturmführer" and a higher officer rank known as "Sturmbannführer" was created to be held by battalion formation commanders directly subordinate to the Standartenführer. In 1928, an expansion of SA enlisted ranks was required in response to the growing rank and file membership of the SA troopers; these new titles and ranks were denoted by an insignia system which consisted of silver pips pinned to a wearer's collar. The pip system was adopted from the Stahlhelm veteran's group, connected to the SA both in dual membership and ideological design. A further change in 1928 was the creation of the rank of Gruppenführer; this rank used the three leaf collar insignia reserved for the Supreme SA Commander and the rank was held by the senior most SA commanders in Germany who led division sized formations of several SA-Standarten. By this time, the SA had begun to use unit insignia for its junior members which consisted of a numbered collar patch, showing both battalion and regiment affiliation, worn opposite the badge of rank.
This unit insignia patch was worn by those holding the rank of Sturmbannführer and below. By the close of the 1920s, the SA rank system had solidified into the following titles: The next major change in SA uniforms and insignia occurred in 1930 when Ernst Röhm was appointed as Chief of Staff of the SA. Röhm's appointment was as the result of Adolf Hitler assuming command of the SA as the Oberster SA-Führer. Hitler would hold this title until the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945 and, after 1930, it was the SA Chief of Staff, the effective leader of the organization. Röhm undertook several changes to the SA uniform and insignia design, the first being to invent several new ranks in order for the SA rank system to mirror that of the professional military; the rank expansion took place between 1930 and 1932, with the final addition being the creation of a rank of SA-Obergruppenführer which Röhm appointed to himself as well as senior SA-generals of the SA command staff. The new ranks used the same collar pip and oak leaf system as before, but with the addition of corded shoulder boards worn on the right shoulder for the officers.
Further, the officers wore right shoulder cord of either silver. In contrast, the enlisted men wore piping cords shaped as shoulder straps on the right shoulder. In 1933, when Adol
Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp
Płaszów or Kraków-Płaszów was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków, soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland. Intended as a forced labour camp, the Płaszów concentration camp was constructed on the grounds of two former Jewish cemeteries, it was populated with prisoners during the liquidation of the Kraków Ghetto, which took place on 13–14 March 1943 with the first deportations of the Barrackenbau Jews from the Ghetto beginning 28 October 1942. In 1943 the camp was turned into one of many KL concentration camps; the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp was divided into multiple sections. There was a separate area for camp personnel, work facilities, male prisoners, female prisoners, a further subdivision between Jews and non-Jews. Although separated and women still managed to have contact with one another. There was a private barracks for the camp's Jewish police and their families.
While the primary function of the camp was forced labor, the camp was the site of mass murder of inmates as well as prisoners brought in from the outside. The main targets were the sick. There were no gas chambers or crematoria, so mass murder was carried out by shootings. Under Arnold Büscher the camp's second commandant, prisoners did not experience any shootings or hangings. However, by 1943, the camp was notorious for its terrors. Amon Göth, an SS commandant from Vienna, was the camp commandant at this point, he was sadistic in his killing of prisoners. "Witnesses say he would never start his breakfast without shooting at least one person." On Göth's first day as camp commandant, he killed two Jewish policemen and made every camp inmate watch. On 13 March 1943, he oversaw the liquidation of the nearby Kraków Ghetto, forcing those Jewish inhabitants deemed capable of work into the KL Plaszow camp; those who were declared unfit for work were either shot on the spot. People were told that they would be cared for.
In reality, they killed. Others snuck their children into the camp. If a prisoner tried to escape the camp, Göth shot 10 prisoners as a punishment. Göth would release his Great Danes on prisoners if he did not like their expressions, he oversaw a staff, non-German. It consisted of 206 Ukrainian SS personnel from the Trawniki, 600 Germans of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, a few SS women, including Gertrud Heise, Luise Danz and Alice Orlowski; the female guards treated the prisoners as brutally as the men: "When we were loaded on the train in Płaszów, an SS woman hit me on the head. They were so more than men. I think because some of them were women and you expect kindness, it was shocking, but of course, some were fat and big and ugly."Jewish police were recruited by the camp personnel. They were provided with double rations of thick soup, as opposed to the standard watery soup, a full loaf of uncontaminated bread. However, the benefits came with cost of having to whip inmates with the whips that the Nazis provided.
On 13 September 1944, Göth was relieved of his position and charged by the SS with theft of Jewish property, failure to provide adequate food to the prisoners under his charge, violation of concentration camp regulations regarding the treatment and punishment of prisoners, allowing unauthorised access to camp personnel records by prisoners and non-commissioned officers. Camp administration was assumed by SS-Obersturmführer Arnold Büscher, he improved the inmates' diets by allowing eggs and powdered milk. The camp was an Arbeitslager, supplying forced labour to several armament factories and to a stone quarry. Most of the prisoners were Polish Jews. There were high numbers of women and children compared with other camps. A large degree of the Hungarian prisoners were women; the death rate in the camp was high. Many prisoners died of typhus and from executions; because the work facilities were designed for men, the women had a lower chance of survival. Płaszów camp became infamous for both the individual and the mass shootings carried out at Hujowa Górka: a large hill close to the camp used for executions.
Some 8,000 deaths took place outside the camp’s fences, with prisoners trucked in three to four times weekly. The covered lorries from Kraków would arrive in the morning; the condemned were walked into a trench of the Hujowa Górka hillside, ordered to strip down and stand naked, were shot. Their bodies were covered with dirt, layer upon layer. During these mass shootings, all other inmates were forced to watch. In early 1944, all corpses were exhumed and burned on a pyre to obliterate the evidence of the mass murder. Witnesses testified that 17 truckloads of human ashes were removed from the burning site and scattered over the area. Although food was scarce, inmates that possessed any number of zlotys could buy extra food. A food for food trading system developed. For example, two portions of soup was equal to a half loaf of bread; when Göth received notice of a new shipment of inmates, he would set up deportations for Auschwitz. On May 14, 1944, Göth ordered all children to be sent to the "kindergarten".
This turned out only to be a precursor to deportation to Auschwitz on May 15th where the children were all gassed. Göth entrusted documents pertaining to the mass killings and executions to a