Tarn-et-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France. It is traversed from which it takes its name; this area was part of the former provinces of Quercy and Languedoc. The department was created in 1808 by Napoléon Bonaparte, with territory being taken from the departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the department is rural with fertile agricultural land in the broad river valley, but there are hilly areas to the south and north. The departmental prefecture is Montauban, some of the other large communes include Castelsarrasin, Molières, Valence-d'Agen and the medieval town of Lauzerte. Quercy was part of Aquitania prima under the Romans, Christianity was introduced during the 4th century. Early in the 6th century the area fell under the authority of the Franks, in the 7th century became part of the autonomous Duchy of Aquitaine. At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse. During the hostilities between England and France in the reign of Henry II of England, the English placed garrisons in the county, by the 1259 Treaty of Paris lower Quercy came under the control of England.
The kings of both England and France around this time tried to curry favour by adding to the privileges of the towns and the district. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed and the whole of Quercy passed to England. However, in the 1440s the English were expelled by the newly created army of Charles VII of France. In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, the scene of fierce religious conflicts; the civil wars of the reign of Louis XIII took place around Montauban. After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the monarchy was re-established in France, but the discredited Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. During this time the divide between the rich and poor increased. Before the department's formation in the nineteenth century, the northern half formed part of the old province of Quercy and the southern half, part of Languedoc; the department was created on 4 November 1808 during the First French Empire by a decision of Napoleon.
The emperor had been invited to visit the town of Montauban, an important industrial and commercial centre at the time, whose populace thought the town was central enough and sufficiently important to be the capital of a new department. He was granted their request; the department was formed out of territories, part of neighbouring areas. More than half of the territory was taken from the Department of Lot, over one-third was taken from Haute-Garonne, the rest from the departments of Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the first Prefect was Félix Le Peletier d'Aunay, installed in his post on 31 December 1808. Tarn-et-Garonne constitutes part of the Occitanie region in southern France, it borders on the departments of Lot to the north, Aveyron to the northeast, Tarn to the east, Haute-Garonne to the south, Gers and Lot-et-Garonne to the west. The capital of the department is Montauban. Montauban is situated on the right bank of the river Tarn at its confluence with the river Tescou, the Tarn is joined by the Aveyron about 10 km further downstream.
The second largest commune in the department is Castelsarrasin which stands near the confluence of the Tarn and River Garonne. Montauban is connected to the Garonne via the 11 km Canal de Montech; the central part of the department is a broad river valley that does not exceed 150 m in altitude, but near the commune of Valence-d'Agen, in the extreme west of the department, the valley narrows as the hilly regions of Bas-Quercy to the north and Lomagne to the south draw closer together. In the northeast of the department is higher land in the form of limestone plateaus known as the Causses, part of the Massif Central; the highest point in the department, at 510 m, is the Pech Maurel, situated in the commune of Castanet. The economy of the department depends on agriculture but there is some industry, it benefits from its proximity to Toulouse; the commercial importance of Montauban is due to its trade in agricultural products, horses and poultry, but it does have some manufacturing industries, which include cloth-weaving, cloth-dressing, flour-milling, wood-sawing, the manufacture of furniture, silk-gauze and straw hats.
The surrounding countryside supports nursery-gardening, wine-making and the growing of maize and mulberries. This area is at the northern limit for the commercial production of the latter two crops because of the vagaries of the climate. Cantons of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Prefecture of Tarn-et-Garonne website General council of Tarn-et-Garonne website Arkheia History Review of Tarn-et-Garonne website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Province of Lleida
The Province of Lleida is one of the four provinces of Catalonia. It lies in north-eastern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Catalonia, is bordered by the provinces of Girona, Tarragona and Huesca and the countries of France and Andorra, it is popularly referred to as Ponent. Of the population of 414,015, about 30 % live in Lleida; some other towns in Lleida province are La Seu d'Urgell, Cervera, Tàrrega, Balaguer. There are 231 municipalities in Lleida.. Located in the Pyrenees, the Aran Valley is a special comarca with greater autonomy and with Aranese, a variety of Occitan, as its official language; the Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park is located in this province. The province enjoys a thriving fruit-growing industry, including peaches. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the provinces of Catalonia are due to be superseded by territorial units or vegueries based on a more historical political division, the Province of Lleida would become two territorial units: Ponent or Terres de Lleida Vegueria and Alt Pirineu i Aran Vegueria, the county of Solsona going to the Comarques Centrals Vegueria.
The plan is on hold for the time being. The Province of Lleida has a characteristic Catalan dialect popularly known as lleidatà, with lo, los used as the masculine definite article instead of el, els and its pronunciation in a large number of words. One example of the pronunciation is the a at the end of the word, pronounced like an e; the local dialect, properly known as North-Western Catalan is part of the Western Catalan block, as such, shares some features with Valencian. The Province of Lleida is the only one in Catalonia where a language other than Catalan is native, Occitan, in the Aran Valley. Lleida is located in the western part of Catalonia and in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, between Barcelona and Madrid, not far from Zaragoza, borders on France and Andorra to the north; this is a popular destination for many of those who love mountain activities and who are fans of skiing and adventure sports, but it is a destination that offers a wide variety of other tourism options which are ideal for holidays with friends and family.
In terms of its natural environment, Lleida offers a wide variety of landscapes. In the high mountain area of the Pyrenees, visitors will find nature in its purest form. Special mention should be made of: the Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park, the only National Park in Catalonia. In the Pre-Pyrenees, amongst other places of interest, visitors will find the Collegats-Terradets Territorial Park, the Boumort Natural Hunting Reserve and the Congost de Mont-rebei gorge. In contrast, the Lleida Plain offers more peaceful landscapes. In some cases, these are rather sober, while in others, visitors will find fertile land with century-old olive trees, fruit trees and crop fields. In this area, it is relevant to highlight such spectacular settings as the Estany d'Ivars i Vila-sana pool and the Aiguabarreig of the rivers Segre and Ebro; the comarques of Lleida are market leaders within Spain in the provision of adventure sports, with more than 170 companies organising around fifty different activities on land and water and in the air.
This area is Spain's leading ski destination. Lleida has 11 different ski resorts which are marketed under the brand "Neu de Lleida" and offer over 450 km of ski slopes, their 81 ski lifts have the capacity to carry 115,000 skiers per hour, while the area surrounding these winter sports complexes can accommodate more than 30,000 visitors. Lleida's rich monumental heritage –, crowned by elements of its Romanesque heritage, which has its maximum expression in the churches of the Vall de Boi, which have been declared part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site – is further complemented by a wide range of festivities and sporting and cultural events, it is important to pick out some of the many new initiatives that have helped to extend the seasonal offer of Lleida's tourism sector. These include: the Centre d'Observació de l'Univers, or PAM, of Montsec, an ambitious project that combines research and diffusion within the field of cultural and scientific tourism. Lleida, the capital of the province, is remarkable for its historical-architectural legacy, which includes sights as splendid as the Seu Vella, a veritable jewel of Romanesque and Gothic architecture, the Knights Templar Castle of Gardeny, for instance.
These buildings co
Lionel Jospin is a French politician. He served as prime minister of France from 1997 to 2002. Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for president of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. In 1995 he was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac. In 2002 he was eliminated in the first round after finishing behind both Chirac and the far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen, he announced his retirement from politics. Lionel Jospin was born to a Protestant family in a suburb of Paris, he is the son of Robert Jospin. He attended the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly before studying at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he was active in the UNEF students' union, protesting against the war in Algeria. He completed his military service as an officer in charge of armoured training in Trier. After his graduation from the ENA in 1965, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as secretary of Foreign Affairs, he became in charge of economic cooperation there, worked with Ernest-Antoine Seillière, future leader of the MEDEF employers' union.
Representative of a generation of left-wingers who criticized the old SFIO Socialist Party, he joined a Trotskyist group, the Internationalist Communist Organization in the 1960s, before entering the renewed Socialist Party in 1971. Joining François Mitterrand's circle, he became the second highest-ranking member of the party in 1979 its First Secretary when Mitterrand was elected president of France in 1981; when President Mitterrand decided, in 1982–83, to change his economic policy to give priority to the struggle against inflation and for a hard currency, Jospin justified his choice. After Laurent Fabius was chosen as prime minister in 1984, a rivalry between these two political heirs of Mitterrand broke out when they competed for the leadership of the 1986 legislative campaign. In 1988, after Mitterrand's reelection, Jospin left the PS leadership, though Mitterrand considered naming him prime minister, he was nominated for minister of education. Under Jospin's tenure as education minister, teacher training was consolidated, the lycees and universities were reformed, teachers’ salaries improved, technical and vocational education were reformed, which the socialists saw as a means of improving economic performance, tackling youth unemployment, attaining social justice.
Jospin's rivalry with Fabius intensified and caused an internal crisis, notably during the Rennes Congress. The party's mitterrandist faction split because Jospin's followers allied with the other factions to prevent Fabius's election as First Secretary; this damaged Jospin's relationship with Mitterrand and, after the Socialist Party's failure in the March 1992 local elections, Jospin was not included in the new government formed by Pierre Bérégovoy. As a member of the National Assembly, Jospin served first as a representative of Paris, of Haute-Garonne département, he lost his seat in the National Assembly in the Socialists' landslide defeat in the 1993 legislative election and announced his political retirement. In 1993, Jospin was appointed ministre plénipotentiaire, 2nd class, a position he held until his appointment as prime minister in 1997, but he was not appointed to any embassy. In 1995 Jospin claimed a necessity to "take stock" of the mitterrandist inheritance so as to restore the credibility of the Socialist Party.
He was selected as the Socialist candidate for president against the PS leader Henri Emmanuelli. In the run-up to the election, Jospin made various policy proposals, such as a programme for the environment, an extension of social services, a housebuilding programme, the rebuilding of run-down parts of cities, a 37-hour workweek. Following the Socialists' landslide defeats of 1992–94, Jospin was considered to have little chance of victory, but he did well, leading in the first round and losing only narrowly to Jacques Chirac in the final runoff election. His performance was seen to mark a revival of the Socialists as a strong force in French politics and he returned to being the party's First Secretary. Jospin built a new coalition with the other left-wing parties: the French Communist Party, the Greens, the Left Radical Party and the dissident Citizen and Republican Movement. Two years Chirac decided to call an early election for the National Assembly, hoping for a personal endorsement; the move backfired: the "Plural Left" won a parliamentary majority and Jospin became prime minister.
Jospin is a Member of the Club of Madrid. Jospin served as prime minister during France's third "cohabitation" government under President Chirac from 1997 to 2002. Despite his previous image as a rigid socialist, Jospin sold state-owned enterprises and lowered the VAT, income tax and company tax rates, his government introduced the 35-hour workweek, provided additional health insurance for those on the lowest incomes through the creation of Couverture maladie universelle, promoted the representation of women in politics, expanded the social security system, created the PACS – a civil partnership or union between two people of any genders. During his term, with the help of a favorable economic situation, unemployment fell by 900,000. There were several women but no ethnic minorities in Jospin's government; the "law against social exclusion" extended social security and introduced various measures to combat poverty. These included: The optimization of extra earnings for Revenu minimum d'insertion recipients.
The introduction of CMU. Guaranteeing
The Gers is a department in the Occitanie region in the southwest of France named after the Gers River. Inhabitants are called les Gersois. In the Middle Ages, the Lordship of L'Isle-Jourdain was nearby; the Gers is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Gascony. In 1808 it lost Lavit on its north-eastern side to the newly created department of Tarn-et-Garonne; the culture is agricultural, with great emphasis on the local gastronomical specialties such as: Armagnac brandy, Côtes de Gascogne, Floc de Gascogne, Foie gras, wild mushrooms. Some prominent cultivated crops are corn, colza and grain; the Gascon language is a dialect of Occitan, but it is not spoken. The department is characterised by sleepy bastide villages and rolling hills with the Pyrenees visible to the south. Alexandre Dumas, père created the famous Gersois d'Artagnan, the fourth musketeer of The Three Musketeers. A museum to d'Artagnan is found in the Gersois village of Lupiac.
A horse race at the Auteuil Hippodrome has been named after André Boingnères, a notable local race-horse owner and the successful mayor of Termes-d'Armagnac between 1951 and 1976. The President of the General Council is Philippe Martin of the Socialist Party. Located in southwestern France, the Gers is part of the Occitanie region, it is surrounded by the departments of Hautes-Pyrénées, Haute-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The Gers is referred to as amongst the least densely populated, or most rural, areas in all of Western Europe. List of the 10 most important cities of the département: The annual rain varies from more than 900 mm in the south-west of the department, to less than 700 mm in the North-East; the winters vary, with only occasional freezing temperatures. The amount of sunshine is about 1950 hours/years; the summers are dry. Auch is, together with Toulouse, Nîmes, Ajaccio, Marseille and Perpignan, one of the hottest cities in France. According to recent data tourism represents annually: 610 000 tourists, 5.900.000 nights, 22.100 commercial beds, 2 400 paid employment related to tourism, the tourist represent an equivalent of 17.100 permanent inhabitants, their estimated expenditure is 141.000.000 €.
Cantons of the Gers department Communes of the Gers department Arrondissements of the Gers department General Council website Prefecture website Welcome to the Gers in Gascony http://www.tourisme-gers.com
Languedoc is a former province of France. Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie in the south of France, its capital city was Toulouse. It had an area of 42,700 square kilometers; the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis fell to the Visigothic Kingdom from the 5th to the 8th centuries. Occupied by the Emirate of Córdoba in the 750s, it was conquered into the Kingdom of the Franks by Pippin the Short in 759 following the Siege of Narbonne. Under the Carolingians, the Counts of Toulouse were appointed by the royal court; this office became hereditary. Part of the territory where Occitan was spoken came to be called langue d'oc, Languedoc. In the 13thC, the spiritual beliefs of the area were challenged by the See of Rome and the region became attached to the Kingdom of France following the Albigensian Crusade; this crusade aimed to put an end to what the Church considered the Cathar heresy, enabled the Capetian dynasty to extend its influence south of the Loire. As part of this process, the former principalities of Trencavel were integrated into the Royal French Domain in 1224.
The Counts of Toulouse followed them in 1271. The remaining feudal enclaves were absorbed progressively up to the beginning of the 16th century; the territory falling within the jurisdiction of the Estates of Languedoc, which convened for the first time in 1346, shrank progressively, becoming known during the Ancien Régime as the province of Languedoc. The year 1359 marked a turning point in the history of the province; the three bailiwicks of Bèucaire and Tolosa had the status of bonnes villes. In that year, the three entered into a perpetual union, after which their contribution of royal officers was summoned jointly rather than separately for each of the three sénéchaussées. Towards the end of 14th century, the term "country of the three seneschalties" to become known as Languedoc, designated the two bailiwicks of Bèucaire-Nimes and Carcassona, the eastern part of Tolosa, retained under the Treaty of Brétigny. At that time, the County of Foix, which belonged to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 before passing to Toulouse, ceased to belong to Languedoc.
In 1542, the province was divided into two généralités: Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc. This lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. From the 17th century onward, there was only one intendance for the whole of Languedoc, with its seat in Montpellier; the traditional provinces of the kingdom of France were not formally defined. A province was a territory of common traditions and customs, but it had no political organization. Today, when people refer to the old provinces of France, they are referring to the gouvernements as they existed in 1789, before the French Revolution. Gouvernements were military regions established by the Crown in the middle of the 16th century. However, in some cases, small provinces were merged with a large one into a single gouvernement, so gouvernements are not the same as the traditional provinces; the region was called the County of Toulouse, a county independent from the kings of France. The County of Toulouse was made up of what would be called Languedoc, but it included the province of Quercy and the province of Rouergue, both to the northwest of Languedoc.
At some times it included the province of Agenais to the west of Languedoc, the province of Gévaudan, the province of Velay, the southern part of the province of Vivarais, all the northern half of Provence. After the French conquest the entire county was dismantled, the central part of it being now called Languedoc; the gouvernement of Languedoc was created in the mid-16th century. In addition to Languedoc proper, it included the three small provinces of Gévaudan and Vivarais, these three provinces being to the northeast of Languedoc; some people consider that the region around Albi was a traditional province, called Albigeois, although it is most considered as being part of Languedoc proper. The provinces of Quercy and Rouergue, despite their old ties with Toulouse, were not incorporated into the gouvernement of Languedoc, they were attached to the gouvernement of its far-away capital Bordeaux. This decision was intentional, to avoid reviving the independently spirited County of Toulouse. In the rest of this article, Languedoc refers to the territory of this gouvernement of Languedoc.
The province of Languedoc covered an area of 42,700 km² in the central part of southern France the region between the river Rhône and the Garonne, extending northwards to the Cévennes and the Massif Central. As the center of the County of Toulouse and the regional parlement, Toulouse is considered the "capital" of Languedoc. On maps (both ancient and mo