Haute-Marne is a department in the northeast of France named after the Marne River. Haute-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Champagne, Burgundy and Franche-Comté. In March 1814 the departmental prefecture, was the unwitting witness to the end of the First Empire. On 1 March, Russia, the United Kingdom and Austria signed an accord forbidding any individual peace deal with Napoleon I, to fight until his final defeat. During World War II, Haute-Marne was partitioned under German occupation; the canal which runs from the Marne to the Saône served as a border, dividing the department into east and west. The east was a "reserved zone", intended for the creation of a new German state, whereas to the west would be the traditional "occupied zone". Haute-Marne was liberated by the Allies, in the form of the division of General Leclerc, between August and September 1944. Haute-Marne is part of the region of Grand Est and is surrounded by the departments of Meuse, Haute-Saône, Côte-d'Or, Marne.

The highest mountain is Haut-du-Sac, in the Langres Plateau, in the southwest of the department, which rises to a height of 516 m. The lowest points at 117m are found on the plains of Der; the department is named after the Marne River. This river covers 120 kilometres within the department; the department is to the east of the Parisian basin, is characterised by a concentric sequence of cliff faces of varying geological origin, oriented northeast/southwest. Population development since 1801: The Haute-Marne department is not a famous department but this peaceful territory has numerous interesting places to present. Indeed, the department was one of the most powerful in French history thanks to metallurgy economy and was a land of confrontations along history. Thus, among other examples, the French Wars of Religion began with the Massacre of Vassy in the north of the Haute-Marne department. Following this event, open military conflicts across France Kingdom began; the Edict of Nantes is the consequence of this period.

The fortified town of Langres, famous for Denis Diderot author of the Encyclopédie, the Renaissance castle of Joinville, the Lake Der-Chantecoq, the Cirey-sur-Blaise castle where Voltaire lived for a while in with Émilie du Châtelet and the village of Colombey-les-Deux-Églises where Charles De Gaulle lived until his death are all major attractions. Haute-Marne is well known for some famous French great men and women as: Louise Michel Camille Flammarion and his brother Ernest Flammarion Goncourt brothers most famous all around the world with the Prix Goncourt, literature prize given by the académie Goncourt for "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year" Albin Michel Charles de Gaulle was a longtime resident of the department, in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, died there on 9 November 1970, at the age of 79. Arrondissements of the Haute-Marne department Cantons of the Haute-Marne department Communes of the Haute-Marne department Prefecture website General Council website Haute-Marne at Curlie Official Tourist Board website

Buena Vista Charter Township, Michigan

Buena Vista Charter Township is a charter township of Saginaw County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The 2010 Census placed the population at 8,676; this is a 15.9% decrease compared to the 2000 Census population recording of 10,318. This area was known to the Ojibwe as Tik-wak-baw-hawning. On July 30, 2013, the Saginaw Intermediate School District Board of Trustees dissolved Buena Vista School District with its area split up between three other districts: Bridgeport-Spaulding Community School District, Saginaw City School District or Frankenmuth School District. Buena Vista is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in the township. Crow Island is an unincorporated community in the township on Crow Island Road between M-13 and Hack Road. A post office opened February 6, 1882, closed March 13, 1883; the office was reestablished May 3, 1883, until closing on March 15, 1895. Fifield was a settlement with a railroad station on the Pere Marquette Railroad, it was centered around a sawmill and had a post office from 1898 until 1900.

Robin Glen-Indiantown is a census-designated place in the township containing the unincorporated community of Indiantown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 36.2 square miles, of which 36.0 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,318 people, 3,870 households, 2,743 families residing in the township; the population density was 286.7 per square mile. There were 4,211 housing units at an average density of 117.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 37.00% White, 55.57% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.30% from other races, 2.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.11% of the population. There were 3,870 households out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 27.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.10. In the township the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median income for a household in the township was $30,339, the median income for a family was $32,851. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $22,775 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,636. About 19.7% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. The township is governed under a modified Council–manager government where the township manager only takes over most of the duties of the supervisor. Romig, Walter. Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities.

Great Lakes Books Series. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1838-X. ISBN 978-0814318386. Charter Township of Buena Vista

Under the Red Robe (novel)

Under the Red Robe is a historical novel by Stanley J. Weyman, first published in 1894. Described as his best work, it was the most commercially successful, going through 34 reprints, the last in 1962; as with other Weyman novels, it takes place during the French religious wars of the early 17th century. Since it contains a real historical event, the Day of the Dupes, the timing is the autumn of 1630 when Cardinal Richelieu was Chief Minister for Louis XIII. Under his guidance, the French state was supporting Protestants in Germany as part of the 30 Years War while suppressing domestic Protestants or Huguenots in South-West France; the plot features one of Weyman's more interesting characters, Gil de Berault, a gambler and notorious dueller living in Paris who sometimes acts as hired muscle for the Cardinal. He fights one duel too many and is given the choice between execution or helping the Cardinal capture a key Huguenot rebel, he picks the second option and achieves his objectives but in the process meets a good woman.

The novel was well received by contemporary historical novelists. Conan Doyle wrote that Under the Red Robe had "the most dramatic opening of any historical novel I know" and Siegfried Sassoon described his excitement as a schoolboy on first reading a copy, it was adapted for the stage at the Haymarket Theatre in 1896 playing on Broadway and first filmed in 1923 as a silent movie. A second version was made in 1937, the British swashbuckler Under the Red Robe directed by Victor Sjöström and featuring Conrad Veidt as Gil de Berault, Raymond Massey as the Cardinal and French actress Annabella as the romantic interest; the full text of Under the Red Robe at Wikisource Under the Red Robe at Project Gutenberg