Frédéric Alfred Marzolff was a French sculptor, known for his monuments and medals. Many of his works may still be seen around his native city. Among his surviving works are the bust of Viktor Nessler in the Parc de l'Orangerie in Strasbourg and the statues of Daniel Specklin and Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck on the façade of the Petites-Boucheries, behind the Aubette. "Alfred Marzolff, sculpteur et médailleur"
Léon Hornecker, was an Alsatian painter of landscapes and portraits. He showed an aptitude for artistic crafts at an early age and was apprenticed to the Ott Brothers glass-making workshop. At the same time, he attended evening classes in drawing at an arts and crafts school where he impressed his teachers and received a scholarship, beginning his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich in 1883, he made several study trips to Holland, where he was influenced by the Old Masters, graduated in 1888, after which he returned to Strasbourg. In 1890, the City of Strasbourg hired Anton Seder to be Director of the École des Arts Décoratifs; as a former alumnus from Munich, Hornecker soon found employment there. He taught drawing and anatomy, but derived little pleasure from teaching and was dismissed. From that point on, he turned his attention to France, rather than Germany and became a member of the "Cercle de Saint-Léonard", a group devoted to the promotion of Alsatian culture, founded by Charles Spindler and Anselme Laugel.
By 1894, his commissions had increased to the point where he required a larger workshop and, in 1899, was able to marry. One of his sons, became a sculptor of some note; the increasing political tensions in Alsace led him to leave his home in 1906. At first he stayed with friends in 1908, moved to Paris, his work was considered to be a bit old-fashioned there and he attracted few customers. His longing for Alsace was strong, he decorated his studio to resemble an Alsatian inn and frequented taverns where Alsatians congregated. During the First World War, he maintained contact with many notable Alsatian refugees. After the war, he returned to Strasbourg, but a new generation of artists had appeared and he was unable to fit back in, he died at home in 1924. A street in the Elsau district of Strasbourg was named after him in 1969. André Humm, Léon Hornecker, in Nouveau dictionnaire de biographie alsacienne, vol. 17, p. 1669 Portraits by Léon Hornecker in public collections
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study and research of music. Such an institution can be known as a school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department, conservatory or conservatoire. Instruction consists of training in the performance of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, as well as academic and research fields such as musicology, music history and music theory. Music instruction can be provided within the compulsory general education system, or within specialized children's music schools such as the Purcell School. Elementary-school children can access music instruction in after-school institutions such as music academies or music schools. In Venezuela El Sistema of youth orchestras provides free after-school instrumental instruction through music schools called núcleos; the term “music school” can be applied to institutions of higher education under names such as school of music, such as the Jacobs School of Music of Indiana University.
In other parts of Europe, the equivalents of higher school of music or university of music may be used, such as the Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Although music and music education may have been in existence for thousands of years, the earliest history is speculative; when history starts to be recorded, music is mentioned more than music education. Within the biblical tradition, Hebrew litany was accompanied with rich music, but the Torah or Pentateuch was silent on the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. However, by I Samuel 10, Alfred Sendrey suggests that we find “a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of organized and trained musical groups, which would be inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation.” This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a school which taught not only prophets and holy men, but sacred-rite musicians. The schola cantorum in Rome may be the first recorded music school in history, when Gregory the Great made permanent an existing guild dating from the 4th century.
The school consisted of monks, secular clergy, boys. Wells Cathedral School, England founded as a Cathedral School in 909 a.d. to educate choristers, continues today to educate choristers and teaches instrumentalists. However the school appears to have been refounded at least once. Saint Martial school, 10th to 12th century, was an important school of composition at the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges, it is known for the composition of tropes and early organum. In this respect, it was an important precursor to the Notre Dame School, it was the Notre Dame school, the earliest repertory of polyphonic music to gain international prestige and circulation. The school was a group of composers and singers working under the patronage of the great Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. First records on Escolania de Montserrat, boys' choir linked to a music school, back to 1307 and still continues the musical education; the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, based in Italy.
It is based at the Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome, was founded by the papal bull, Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music. It was founded as a "congregation" or "confraternity" – a religious guild, so to speak – and over the centuries, has grown from a forum for local musicians and composers to an internationally acclaimed academy active in music scholarship to music education to performance; the term conservatory has its origin in 16th-century Renaissance Italy, where orphanages were attached to hospitals. The orphans were given a musical education there, the term applied to music schools; these hospitals-conservatories were among the first secular institutions equipped for practical training in music. By the 18th century, Italian conservatories were playing a major role in the training of artists and composers. In the city of Naples, a conservatorio was a secular place for teaching and learning specializing in music education.
There were four conservatories in Naples active in the 17th and 18th century: I poveri di Gesù Cristo, founded in 1599 by Marcello Fossataro included in their official record a magister musicæ and magister lyræ in 1633.
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Joseph Kaspar Sattler was a German painter, bookplate artist and Art Nouveau illustrator. He is best remembered for his work. After an apprenticeship as a painter and gilder in Landshut, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts and became a free-lance artist, he produced a wide variety of illustrative material and worked for the "Reichsdruckerei". An old friendship with Léon Hornecker led him to the École des Arts Décoratifs in Strasbourg in 1891, where he was retained as a drawing instructor. After that, he was able to publish his works under the aegis of Charles Spindler and, with the support of Gustave Stoskopf, participated in the Paris Salon. In 1894, the magazine La Plume arranged an invitation for him to exhibit at the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin. Three years he designed the "Nibelungenschrift". Which was used for his monumental work "Die Nibelungen", displayed at the Exposition Universelle. Only 200 copies were printed, he devised a familiar Art Nouveau font, named after him. He returned to Strasbourg in 1904 and was appointed a Professor at the École in 1917.
After the war, he moved to Munich where he studied lithography. In addition to Pan, many of his illustrations appeared in Simplicissimus. Ludwig Hollweck, Hanns Schultes, Joseph Kaspar Sattler. Ein Wegbereiter des Jugendstils, W. Ludwig Verlag, Pfaffenhofen 1988. ISBN 3-7787-2090-2 François Joseph Fuchs, Nouveau Dictionnaire de Biographie Alsacienne, p. 3373 and 3374 Ein moderner Totentanz: in 16 Bildern, one of only 100 numbered copies. Stargardt, Berlin 1912 "The Book-Plate Art of Joseph Sattler", by W. G. Bowdoin From "The Collector", Vol.12 #4, @ Google Books. Literature by and about Joseph Sattler in the German National Library catalogue
John Howe (illustrator)
John Howe is a Canadian book illustrator, living in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. One year after graduating from high school, he studied in a college in Strasbourg, France at the École des arts décoratifs in the same town, he is best known for his work based on J. R. R. Tolkien's worlds. Howe and Tolkien artist Alan Lee served as chief conceptual designers for Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy, Howe did the illustration for the Lord of the Rings board game created by Reiner Knizia. Howe re-illustrated the maps of The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Silmarillion in 1996–2003, his work is however not limited to this, includes images of myths such as the Anglo Saxon legend of Beowulf. Howe illustrated many other books, amongst which many belong to the fantasy genre He contributed to the film adaptation of The Lion, the Witch, the Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis. In 2005 a limited edition of George R. R. Martin's novel A Clash of Kings was released by Meisha Merlin, complete with numerous illustrations by Howe.
Howe has illustrated cards for the Magic: The Gathering collectible card game. For The Hobbit films, original director Guillermo del Toro and replacement director Peter Jackson both consulted with Howe and fellow conceptual artist Alan Lee to ensure continuity of design. Howe is a member of the living history group the Company of Saynt George, has considerable expertise in ancient and medieval armour and armaments. John Howe was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, he was drawing with his mother's help. Around primary school age he found his mother's ability no longer living up to his expectations, got frustrated once at both his mother and himself at not being able to draw a cow to his expectations. Howe's school years were complicated by moves which took place with a timing that left the art classes full, left him in classes like power mechanics, he did find his ability as a draughtsman to be profitable in biology class though, where he and a friend would produce renderings of microscopic organisms for classmates at fifty cents each.
As a child, he collected the covers of paperbacks. His collection included items from Frank Frazetta, Barry Smith, Bernie Wrightson. In his adolescence, Howe read The Lord of the Rings trilogy by J. R. R. Tolkien, he said he got "a real spark" from the Hildebrandt calendars, which showed him that the books could be illustrated. Howe made drawings of his own versions of the scenes depicted in the calendar; these drawings, according to Howe, may not have survived. A year after his high school graduation, Howe found himself in France attending college; the following year, he enrolled into the École des arts décoratifs. He cites his experience of this period as follows: The first year was spent not understanding much, the second at odds with what I did manage to understand, the third eager to get out, although in retrospect I owe whatever clarity of thought I possess to the patience of the professor of Illustration. Throughout his first years in Europe, Howe was taking in as much as he could in the way of art and everything, "simultaneously ancient and novel."
He says the only piece of his art work that survived from this period is his "The Lieutenant of the Black Tower of Barad-dûr", a piece inspired by Tolkien's, The Lord of the Rings. He says if this is not his first published piece, it must be the earliest. Howe's earliest commissions included political cartoons, magazine illustrations, animated films, advertising, of which he says were nightmares, he said that he would end up redoing sketches so many times that there was nothing left of "his" in them. This frustrated him, he wondered how he would make it in the profession. Projects in which Howe worked include The Lord of the Rings, J. R. R. Tolkien's Books and Merchandise, Robin Hobb's books, The Lion, The Witch, The Wardrobe, Cards for Magic: The Gathering, The Hobbit, Pan's Labyrinth. Howe has written and illustrated children's books; the Fisherman & His Wife, transl. From Brothers Grimm. ISBN 0871919370 — picture book The Enchanted World: Night Creatures The Enchanted World: Water Spirits The Enchanted World: Dwarfs The Enchanted World: Giants and Ogres Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, retold by John Howe ISBN 0316375780 Jack and the Beanstalk, retold by John Howe ISBN 0316375799 Knights: A 3-Dimensional Exploration ISBN 978-1-85707-071-2 The Knight With the Lion: The Story of Yvain ISBN 978-0-316-37583-2 A Diversity of Dragon by Anne McCaffrey with Richard Woods ISBN 978-0-689-31868-9 Images of Middle-Earth ISBN 978-0-261-10310-8 The Maps of Tolkien's Middle-earth by Brian Sibley ISBN 978-0-618-39110-3 The King of Winter's Daughter ISBN 978-0-316-88837-0 Fantasy Encyclopedia Wizardology: The Book of the Secrets of Merlin Myth and Magic: The Art of John Howe ISBN 978-0-7607-8686-4 Fantasy Art Workshop ISBN 978-1-60061-009-7 Forging Dragons: Inspirations and Techniques for Drawing and Painting Dragons ISBN 978-1-60061-323-4 Fantasy Drawing Workshop ISBN 978-1-60061-773-7 Lost Worlds ISBN 978-0-7534-6107-5 Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien Official website An interview with John Howe John Howe at the
Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine after France had ceded it to in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans". In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.
That year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor, at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde. In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich, he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg, Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87". Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they believed him." In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, others. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group.
However, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures, he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986; the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his sculptures. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.
She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959, he died in Basel, Switzerland. - "I hereby declare that on February 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children...and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." - "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother... Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things....through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." - "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, man himself.
Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." -"Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unpre