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Havdalah is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and ushers in the new week. The ritual involves lighting a special havdalah candle with several wicks, blessing a cup of wine and smelling sweet spices. Shabbat ends on Saturday night after the appearance of three stars in the sky; some communities delay the Havdalah. Like kiddush, havdalah is recited over a cup of kosher wine or grape juice, although other beverages may be used if wine or grape juice are not available. Spices, called besamim in Hebrew stored in an artistically decorative spice container in order to beautify and honor the mitzvah, are handed around so that everyone can smell the fragrance. In many Sephardi and Mizrahi communities, branches of aromatic plants are used for this purpose, while Ashkenazim have traditionally used cloves. A special braided Havdalah candle with more than one wick is lit, a blessing is recited. If a special havdalah candle is not available, two candles can be used, the two flames joined when reciting the blessing.

When reciting the words "Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha'olam, bo're m'orei ha'esh," it is customary for the participants to hold their hands up to the candle and gaze at the reflection of the light in their fingernails. At the conclusion of Havdalah, the leftover wine is poured into a small dish and the candle is extinguished in it, as a sign that the candle was lit for the mitzvah of Havdalah. Based on Psalms 19:9, "the commandment of the Lord is clear, enlightening the eyes," some Jews dip a finger into the leftover wine and touch their eyes or pockets with it; because it was used for a mitzvah, the wine is considered good omen. After the Havdalah ceremony, it is customary to sing "Eliyahu Hanavi" and/or "HaMavdil Bein Kodesh LeChol", to bless one another with the words Shavua' tov or Gute vokh. Havdalah is recited at the conclusion of the following biblical holidays: Rosh Hashanah; the blessing over the wine is said, as well as the prayer separating the holy from the everyday, but not the prayers over the havdalah candle or the spices.

When a major holiday follows Shabbat, the Havdalah service is recited as part of the holiday kiddush and the blessing over spices is not said. The special braided Havdalah candle is not used since it may not be extinguished after the service, but rather the blessing is recited over the festival candles; the prayer "distinguishes holiness from the everyday" is changed to "distinguishes holiness from holiness" signifying that the holiness of the holiday is of a lesser degree than the holiness of the concluded Shabbat. Havdalah is intended to require a person to use all five senses: feel the cup, smell the spices, see the flame of the candle, hear the blessings and taste the wine. Following a normal Shabbat, the order of the prayers corresponds to the acrostic יבנ"ה Yavneh; this acrostic consists of the initials Yayin, Besamim and Havdalah. The order of elements when Havdalah is combined with kiddush (e.g. on a Saturday night that is'Yom Tov' is known by the acrostic יקנה"ז Yaknhaz. This acrostic consists of the initials Yayin, Kiddush HaYom, Ner and Zman.

Near the Qaddesh section in some Ashkenazic versions of the Haggadah, there is a picture of a hunter chasing a hare. This picture is a useful mnemonic for the acrostic יקנה"ז Yaknhaz as it can be described by a Yiddish or German sentence that sounds like Yaknhaz; the Yiddish sentence יאָג'ן האָז yog ‘n hoz means "hunt a/the hare!". The colloquial German sentence Jag ’en Has' means "hunt a/the hare!". The Ashkenazi liturgy for havdala after a festival or Shabbat is as follows: The text of the Havdalah service exists in two main forms and Sephardic; the introductory verses in the Ashkenazic version are taken from the biblical books of Isaiah and Esther. In the Sephardic liturgy, the introduction begins with the words ראשון לציון, Rishon L'tsion and consists of biblical verses describing God giving light and success interspersed with liturgical prose; the four blessings over the wine, spices candle and praising God for separation between holy and profane are identical between the traditions. The phrase בין ישראל לעמים, bein Yisrael l'amim'between Israel and the nations' is based on Leviticus 20:26.

In Reconstructionist Judaism, the phrase is omitted, as part of founder Mordechai Kaplan's rejection of the Biblical idea of chosenness. Modern tunes for Havdalah are based on melodies by Shlomo Carlebach, Neshama Carlebach and Debbie Friedman. Shabbat Special Shabbat The Havdalah Ceremony Video of The Havdalah Ceremony


Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.

Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel causes global ocean acidification. According to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, without fossil fuel phase-out, including petroleum, there will be "severe and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems"; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal and refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology; the rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides.

More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to record the use of petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi; the streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region.

In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan. These fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes. Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century.

Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful

Sconce (light fixture)

A sconce is a type of light fixture affixed to a wall in such a way that it uses only the wall for support where the light is but not always, directed upwards. It does not have a base on the ground, they can provide general room lighting, but they are decorative. For this reason, lighting fixtures will need an electrical box to be installed. A sconce may be a traditional torch, candle or gas light, or a modern electric light source affixed in the same way. Modern fittings are more called wall lights or similar terms if the light source is wholly covered by glass. Sconces can be placed on both the interior and exterior walls of buildings. In pre-modern usage, these held candles and torches respectively. Candle sconces were made of silver or brass from the 17th century, with porcelain and ormolu coming into use during the 18th century; the light of the candle flame was intensified by a reflecting backplate. Using brackets, the candle would be kept at safe distance from the wall. Modern electric light fixture sconces are used in hallways or corridors to provide both lighting and a point of interest in a long passage.

Sconce height in a passageway is 3/4 of the distance up the wall as measured from the floor to the ceiling, the distance between sconces on the wall is equal to the distance of the sconces from the floor alternating sides of the passageway. Sconces are installed in pairs or other multiple units to provide balance, they can be used to line a hallway. Swing arm sconces are placed next to a bed to provide task lighting for reading

Bobby (1973 film)

Bobby is a 1973 Indian Bollywood musical romance film and directed by Raj Kapoor, written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas. The film stars Raj Kapoor's son, Rishi Kapoor, in his first leading role, opposite Dimple Kapadia in her debut role; the film became a blockbuster, the top-grossing Indian hit of 1973, the second-top-grossing hit of the 1970s at the Indian box office, one of the top 20 highest-grossing Indian films of all time. It became an overseas blockbuster in the Soviet Union, where it drew an audience of 62.6 million viewers, making it one of the top 20 biggest box office hits of all time in the Soviet Union. The film became a trend-setter, it was wildly popular and imitated. It introduced to Bollywood the genre of teenage romance with a rich-versus-poor clash as a backdrop. Numerous films in the following years and decades were inspired by this plot. Indiatimes Movies ranks Bobby amongst the'Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films'; the story is about the love between two Mumbai teenagers of different classes—Raj Nath, the son of a rich businessman Mr. Nath, Bobby Braganza, the daughter of a poor Goan Christian fisherman Jack Braganza.

Raj returns from his boarding school. Upon his return, his parents throw a party to celebrate his birthday, his governess as a child Mrs. Braganza comes to wish him with her granddaughter Bobby, whom Raj notices among the crowds attending his party. Mrs. Nath ignores Mrs. Braganza, which leads her to leave the party with her granddaughter in a rush. Raj opens his gifts the next day and finds Mrs. Braganza's gift, so he decides to go and meet her. Reaching there, her granddaughter Bobby opens the door for him, it is love at first sight for him. During that visit, he mixes his book with Bobby's, so he goes to meet her at the library to exchange the books, from that, both start their friendship. Raj and Bobby decide to go to see a movie but find out it is a full house. Raj gets an idea to go to a party. At the party, Bobby sees Raj talking to Nima and thinks he is in love with her; as the story progresses, Raj realises that his relationship with the daughter of a poor fisherman is not taken kindly by his eccentric father.

Upon Raj's insistence, Mr. Nath invites Jack Braganza to initiate Bobby's wedding, but instead, Mr. Nath insults him and accuses Jack of using his daughter's beauty and charm to trap Raj for his money, he offers Jack cash to stop Bobby from seeing Raj. Jack feels humiliated by this accusation and reciprocates by insulting Mr. Nath, their talk enters Bobby's tender love. Mr. Nath engages Raj to a mentally challenged wealthy girl, Alka, to establish business ties with her rich father, but Raj runs away from home. They run away together. Mr. Nath advertises a reward for anyone. Prem Chopra decides that he wants the money, he and his goons kidnap Raj and Bobby; when they try to escape, Prem starts beating Raj. Mr. Nath and the police come to help, they find Jack there attempting to help Raj. Raj and Bobby jump over a waterfall. Mr. Nath and Jack jump into the water after them. Mr. Nath rescues Bobby, they realise that they love their children much and don't want to stand in the way of their happiness. They give their blessings to the union.

Rishi Kapoor as Raj Nath Dimple Kapadia as Bobby Braganza Prem Nath as Jack Braganza Durga Khote as Mrs. Braganza Pran as Mr. Nath Sonia Sahni as Mrs. Sushma Nath Aruna Irani as Nima Prem Chopra as Prem Chopra Farida Jalal as Alka'Nikki' Sharma Pinchoo Kapoor as Mr. Sharma Raj Rani as Mrs. Sharma Jagdish Raj as Police Inspector Shashi Kiran as Shyam Piloo J. Wadia as Mrs. PestonjiRaj Kapoor launched his second son Rishi Kapoor in this film. Dimple Kapadia and Neetu Singh were auditioned for the role of Bobby Braganza, but Dimple was selected. In an interview in 2012, Rishi Kapoor stated, "There was a misconception that the film was made to launch me as an actor; the film was made to pay the debts of Mera Naam Joker. Dad wanted to make a teenage love story and he did not have money to cast Rajesh Khanna in the film"; some scenes were shot in Gulmarg. One scene was shot in a hut in Gulmarg, which became famous as the'Bobby Hut'. A few scenes towards the end of the movie were shot on Pune-Solapur highway near Loni Kalbhor where Raj Kapoor owned a farm.

Music by was composed by the Laxmikant-Pyarelal Duo. The Lyrics were Penned by Anand Bakshi, Inderjeet Singh Tulsi, Vithalbhai Patel. Lyrics penned by Anand Bakshi except where noted... Music became. In India, Bobby was the highest-grossing film of 1973, earning ₹11 crore, it was the second-highest-grossing film at the Indian box office in the 1970s, second only to Sholay. Adjusted for inflation, it grossed ₹398 crore in 2011 value, equivalent to ₹613 crore in 2016 value; as of 2011, it is one of the top 20 highest-grossing films of all time in India. Overseas, Bobby was successful in the Soviet Union when it released there in 1975, due to Raj Kapoor's popularity in the country. Bobby drew 62.6 million admissions at the Soviet box office, making it the second-best-selling film on the Soviet box office charts in 1975, the most popular Indian film of the 1970s, the second-biggest foreign

Siege of Compi├Ęgne

The Siege of Compiègne was Joan of Arc's final military action. Her career as a leader ended with her capture by the Burgundians during a skirmish outside the town on 23 May 1430. Although this was otherwise a minor siege, both politically and militarily, the loss of France's most charismatic and successful commander was an important event of the Hundred Years' War. During this era, late in the Hundred Years' War, the politically independent Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, was allied with England under the regency of John, Duke of Bedford; these two allies had conquered most of northern France during the preceding ten years. They suffered stunning losses in 1429 to a reinvigorated French army under joint command of Joan of Arc and Duke John II of Alençon; the French had defeated the English at Patay on 18 June 1429 and had proceeded northeastward to crown King Charles VII of France at Rheims without further resistance, accepting the peaceful surrender of every town along their path. Compiègne was not along that road — its location is north of Paris — but along with several other cities it declared allegiance to Charles VII shortly after his coronation.

It had been under Burgundian control. In March 1430 the French court learned that Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, planned to lay siege to the city; the count of Clermont delivered a message to the city that Compiègne was his according to legal treaty and demanded a surrender. Residents of the city expressed strong opposition to the demand and the French garrison commander Guillaume de Flavy readied the city for action. Count John of Luxembourg departed for the expedition in command of the vanguard on 4 April. Philip the Good departed from Péronne on 22 April. Meanwhile, the Duke of Bedford was waiting at Calais for the arrival of King Henry VI of England, a nine-year-old boy, crowned king of England. According to Régine Pernoud and Marie-Veronique Clin, Philip the Good planned to retake command of the cities that controlled the Oise river. Bedford supported the strategy in order to protect Île-de-France and Paris, under Anglo-Burgundian control. King Charles VII of France realized on 6 May that military defense was necessary to protect the town.

Joan of Arc had sensed the danger and began making private preparations for war in March, but she had not been granted command of a substantial force since the failed attack on Paris the previous September. By April she had assembled a company of a 300–400 volunteers, she departed for Compiègne without the king's knowledge, arrived at the city on 14 May. Several minor actions took place in the days. Two days Captain Louis de Flavy fled artillery bombardment at Choisy-au-Bac and took refuge at Compiègne. On May 18 Joan of Arc attempted to surprise the Burgundians at Soissons, bringing Regnault of Chartres and the Count of Vendôme on the expedition. Residents of Soissons refused them declared allegiance to Burgundy the following day. Joan of Arc planned a surprise assault against the Burgundians at Margny with the assistance of Guillaume de Flavy, attacking an outpost while it was separated from the main force. Count John of Luxembourg noticed the action by chance while taking a survey of the territory and called in reinforcements.

These reinforcements outnumbered the attackers and Joan of Arc ordered a retreat, taking the position of honor at the extreme rear of her forces. The next moments remain a source of scholarly debate; the city gate closed. This was either a reasonable action to prevent the Burgundians from entering the city after they had seized the end of the bridge. In the words of Kelly DeVries, "both the accusers and defenders must in turn either indict or vindicate the character of Compiègne's governor, Guillaume de Flavy, the role he played in shutting off any escape possibility for Joan of Arc on that day." The French rear guard that remained outside had no alternative to capture. In the description of Burgundian Georges Chastellain: "Then the Maid, surpassing the nature of a woman, took on a great force, took much pain to save her company from defeat, remaining behind as the leader and as the bravest of the troop, but there fortune permitted for the end of her glory and for the last time that she would carry arms.

An archer, a rough and sour man, full of much spite because a woman, who so much had been spoken about, should have defeated so many brave men, as she had done, grabbed the edge of her cloth-of-gold doublet, threw her from her horse flat to the ground."She surrendered to Lionel, Bastard of Vendôme, in the service of the Count of Ligny. Although the defense of Compiègne was successful, accusations of misconduct regarding Joan of Arc's capture caused the decline of de Flavy's career. Barker, J.. Conquest: The English Kingdom of France 1417–1450. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06560-4. DeVries, K.. Joan of Arc: A Military Leader. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-1805-3. Pernoud, R.. Joan of Arc: Her Story. Translated and revised by Jeremy duQuesnay Adams, edited by Bonnie Wheeler. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-21442-5. Joan of Arc bibliography

SS Ausonia (1956)

SS Ausonia known as the SS Ivory and Aegean Two while in service with her last owners, Golden Star Cruises, was a cruise liner belonging to Louis Cruise Lines operating in the Mediterranean. She operated cruise service during her 52 years of life, she was the last vintage Italian ocean liner in service when she was retired from service in September 2008 and beached for dismantling in March 2010. She was commissioned by Adriatica Lines for its Trieste–Egypt–Lebanon service, she was launched by Cantieri Riuniti dell' Adriatico at Monfalcone on 5 August 1956, delivered on 23 September 1957. She was fitted out and commenced service in October 1957. Ports of call were Trieste, Brindisi, Beirut and Bari, she remained in service with her original owners until 1978, when she underwent a major refit that increased her passenger capacity from 529 to 690. She remained in service with her new owners, Italia Crociere Internazionali, until 1998, when she was sold to the Cyprus-based Louis Cruise Lines. A baby girl was born, named after the ship "Ausonia' on January 5, 1959 at 07:30.

Her parents Elias Sleiman Saikali and Harba her name was registered as'Azonia'. Ausonia was delivered by Doctor Viviani Leonardo. Ausonia was baptized the same day, the godfather was Captain Gino Fabbro. Witness was Vianello Francesco; the couple were immigrating from Lebanon to Canada. Her birth was registered at the Lebanese Consulat in Napoli on January 8, 1959, she never entered service with her original owners right away, as she was chartered to First Choice Holidays for about four years, before entering service for Louis. She was in 2005 renamed Ivory by Louis and continued to operate under Louis Cruise Lines until the end of summer 2008; the Ivory was withdrawn from service in 2009 due to her not fulfilling the SOLAS 2010 regulations. She was beached for scrapping operations at Alang, India on March 3, 2010, she was renamed Winner 5 in preparation for scrapping. The stripping of her interiors has begun, cutting is imminent. By May 20 scrapping had begun, the tip of her bow was cut.. Fellow ocean liner Maestro replaced her and was beached in her plot, 141.

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