Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Hawks are distributed and vary in size; the subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity, they hunt by dashing from a concealed perch. In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are called hawks. Buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds, they are larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas than accipiters. Buteos pounce on their prey rather than hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit; the terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies to both. The term "true hawk" is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks. All these groups are members of the Accipitridae family, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites and eagles; some authors use "hawk" for any small to medium Accipitrid, not an eagle.

The common names of some birds include the term "hawk", reflecting traditional usage rather than taxonomy. For example, some people may call an osprey a "fish hawk" or a peregrine falcon a "duck hawk". Falconry was once called "hawking" and any bird used for falconry could be referred to as a hawk. Aristotle listed eleven types of ἱέρακες: aisalōn, hypotriorchēs, leios, phassophonos, pternis and triorchēs. Pliny numbered sixteen kinds of hawks, but named only aigithos, kenchrēïs, triorchēs; the accipitrine hawks hunt birds as their primary prey. They are called "hen-hawks", or "wood-hawks" because of their woodland habitat; the subfamily Accipitrinae contains Accipiter. Melierax may be given a subfamily of its own. Erythrotriorchis is traditionally included in Accipitrinae, but is a convergent genus from an unrelated group; the "Buteo group" includes genera Buteo, Parabuteo and most of Leucopternis. Members of this group have been called "hawk-buzzards". Proposed new genera Morphnarchus and Pseudastur are formed from members of Buteo and Leucopternis.

The "Buteogallus group" are called hawks, with the exception of the solitary eagles. Buteo is the type genus of the subfamily Buteoninae. Traditionally this subfamily includes eagles and sea-eagles. Lerner and Mindell proposed placing those into separate subfamilies, leaving only the buteonine hawks/buzzards in Buteoninae. In February 2005, Canadian ornithologist Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian "IQ" by measuring their innovation in feeding habits. Based on this scale, hawks were named among the most intelligent birds. Hawks, like most birds, are tetrachromats having four types of colour receptors in the eye; these give hawks the ability to perceive not only the visible range but ultraviolet light. Other adaptations allow for the detection of polarised magnetic fields; this is due to the large number of photoreceptors in the retina, a high number of nerves connecting these receptors to the brain, an indented fovea, which magnifies the central portion of the visual field. Hawks are known to be able hunters.

The female is larger than the male. Like most birds, the hawk migrates in the spring. Different types of hawks choose separate times in each season to migrate; the autumn migrating season ends mid-December. It has been studied; the long-distance travelers tend to begin in early autumn while the short distance travelers start much later. Thus, the longer the distance the earlier the bird begins its journey. There have been studies on the speed and efficiency of the bird's migration that show that it is better for a hawk to arrive at its destination as early as possible; this is because the first bird that arrives has the first pick of mates, living area and survival necessities. The more fat a bird has when it starts its migration, the better chance it has of making the trip safely. Kerlinger states that studies have shown that a bird has more body fat when it begins its migration, before it leaves, than when has arrived at its destination. One of the most important parts of the hawk's migration is the flight direction because the direction or path the bird chooses to take could affect its migration.

The force of wind is a variable because it could either throw the bird off course or push it in the right direction, depending on the direction of the wind. To ensure a safer journey, a hawk tries to avoid any large bodies of water in the spring and fall by detouring around a lake or flying along a border. Hawkwatching is a citizen scientist activity that monitors hawk migration and provides data to the scientific community; the red-tailed hawk is the most common hawk in North America. Past observations have indicated that while hawks can adapt to any surrounding, hawks prefer a habitat, open. Hawks like to live in places like deserts and fields as it is easier to find prey; as they are able to live anywhere, they can be found in mountainous plains and tropical, moist areas. Hawks have been found in pl

Xu Yongchang

General Xu Yongchang was the Minister of Board of Military Operations of the Republic of China between December 22, 1948, April 22, 1949, the representative of the Republic of China on September 2, 1945, at the signing of the Instrument of Surrender of Japan that ended World War II. Xu Yongchang graduated from the Beijing Military Institute and became the General Commander of the 3rd Army under Feng Yü-hsiang and the 20th Route Jin Army under Yen Hsi-shan, he was the Chairman of Shanxi province at the time of Mukden Incident, served in the National Revolutionary Army as the Chief Operations Supreme Staff. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was the president of the Beijing Military Institute and the Minister of Defence, he represented China at the Japanese Instrument of Surrender. He went to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War, served as a senior advisor to the Office of the President and a member of Central Review Committee, died in 1959. Xu Yongchang's diary was published by the Academia Sinica's Institute of Modern History in 1989.

History of the Republic of China Sino-Japanese War Pictures of the Instrument of Surrender of Japan The Generals of WWII


Napeogenes is a genus of clearwing butterflies, named by Henry Walter Bates in 1862. They are in Nymphalidae. Arranged alphabetically: Napeogenes achaea Napeogenes apulia Napeogenes benigna Weymer, 1899 Napeogenes cranto C. & R. Felder, 1865 Napeogenes duessa Napeogenes flossina Butler, 1873 Napeogenes glycera Godman, 1899 Napeogenes gracilis Haensch, 1905 Napeogenes harbona Napeogenes inachia Napeogenes juanjuiensis Fox & Real, 1971 Napeogenes larilla Napeogenes larina Napeogenes lycora Napeogenes peridia Napeogenes pharo Napeogenes quadrilis Haensch, 1903 Napeogenes rhezia Napeogenes sodalis Haensch, 1905 Napeogenes stella Napeogenes sulphureophila Bryk, 1937 Napeogenes sylphis Napeogenes tawaman Brevignon, 2007 Napeogenes tolosa Napeogenes verticilla