The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–40s, designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force. It was overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire's role during Battle of Britain in 1940, but the Hurricane inflicted 60 percent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the engagement, fought in all the major theatres of the Second World War; the Hurricane originated from discussions between RAF officials and aircraft designer Sir Sydney Camm about a proposed monoplane derivative of the Hawker Fury biplane in the early 1930s. Despite an institutional preference for biplanes and lack of interest from the Air Ministry, Hawker refined their monoplane proposal, incorporating several innovations which became critical to wartime fighter aircraft, including retractable landing gear and the more powerful Rolls-Royce Merlin engine; the Air Ministry ordered Hawker's Interceptor Monoplane in late 1934, the prototype Hurricane K5083 performed its maiden flight on 6 November 1935.
In June 1936, the Hurricane went into production for the Air Ministry. Its manufacture and maintenance was eased by using conventional construction methods so that squadrons could perform many major repairs without external support; the Hurricane was procured prior to the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, when the RAF had 18 Hurricane-equipped squadrons in service. The aircraft was relied on to defend against German aircraft operated by the Luftwaffe, including dogfighting with Messerschmitt Bf 109s in multiple theatres of action; the Hurricane was developed through several versions, into bomber-interceptors, fighter-bombers, ground support aircraft as well as fighters. Versions designed for the Royal Navy known as the Sea Hurricane had modifications enabling operation from ships; some were converted as catapult-launched convoy escorts. By the end of production in July 1944, 14,487 Hurricanes had been completed in Britain, Canada and Yugoslavia. During the era in which the Hawker Aircraft company developed the Hurricane, RAF Fighter Command comprised just 13 squadrons, equipped with the Hawker Fury, Hawker Demon, or the Bristol Bulldog, all biplanes furnished with fixed-pitch wooden propellers and non-retractable undercarriages.
At the time, there was an institutional reluctance towards change within the Air Staff. In 1934, the British Air Ministry issued Specification F.7/30 in response to demands within the Royal Air Force for a new generation of fighter aircraft. Earlier, during 1933, British aircraft designer Sydney Camm had conducted discussions with Major John Buchanan of the Directorate of Technical Development on a monoplane based on the existing Fury. Mason attributes Camm's discussions with figures within the RAF, such as Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley, as having provoked the specification and some of its details, such as the preference for armaments being installed within the wings instead of within the aircraft's nose. Camm's initial submission in response to F.7/30, the Hawker P. V.3, was a scaled-up version of the Fury biplane. However, the P. V.3 was not among the proposals which the Air Ministry had selected to be constructed as a government-sponsored prototype. After the rejection of the P. V.3 proposal, Camm commenced work upon a new design involving a cantilever monoplane arrangement, complete with a fixed undercarriage, armed with four machine guns and powered by the Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine.
The original 1934 armament specifications for what would evolve into the Hurricane were for a similar armament fitment to the Gloster Gladiator: four machine-guns, two in the wings and two in the fuselage, synchronised to fire through the propeller arc. By January 1934, the proposal's detail drawings had been finished, but these failed to impress the Air Ministry enough for a prototype to be ordered. Camm's response to this rejection was to further develop the design, during which a retractable undercarriage was introduced and the unsatisfactory Goshawk engine was replaced by a new Rolls-Royce design designated as the PV-12, which went on to become famous as the Merlin engine. In August 1934, a one-tenth scale model of the design was produced and dispatched to the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington. A series of wind tunnel tests confirmed the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft were in order, in September 1934, Camm again approached the Air Ministry; this time, the Ministry's response was favourable, a prototype of the "Interceptor Monoplane" was promptly ordered.
In July 1934 at a meeting chaired by Air Commodore Tedder, Air Ministry Science Office Captain F. W. Hill presented his calculation showing that future fighters must carry no fewer than eight machine guns, each capable of firing 1,000 shots a minute. Hill's assistant in making his calculations was his teenage daughter. Of the decision to place eight machine guns in fighters, Keith says'The battle was brisk and was carried into high quarters before the implementing authority was given. My Branch had made out a sound case for 8-gun fighters and if this recommendation had not been accepted and we had been content with half-measures, it might indeed have gone ill for us during the late summer of 1940'. Present at the meeting was Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Air Ministry's Operational Requirements branch, who played an important role in the decision. In November 1934, the Air Ministry issued Specification F.5/34 which called for ne
Tom-ic Energy is a 1965 Tom and Jerry short directed and produced by Chuck Jones and the eighth in Jones' series. The name's a pun on atomic energy; the music is based on Paganini's Moto Perpetuo with other music and sounds mixed in with the theme. Tom is chasing Jerry on top of a building and through the building while during the chase two women first an older woman a younger woman screaming until the duo reach a balcony. Tom pokes his head through the other window and yells at Jerry, scaring the spirit out of Jerry's body. Jerry's spirit squeals at Tom, causing him to pale and age rapidly. Tom chases Jerry up work steps in a zigzag pattern and into the air until Jerry stops him and points to the ground, after which Tom falls through the piped balcony, splitting himself into pieces in mid-air. Jerry jumps down a water duct, as Tom, seeing him, sticks his mouth out to swallow him, but misses, Jerry bursts through Tom; the duo are forced to stop for a traffic light before the light turns yellow and both prepare to run, but that's when Tom dashes off too early and gets run over by a large red truck.
Tom is forced by Jerry to stop and fall into a manhole. Jerry flees, but as Tom pops out of another manhole under Jerry, Jerry spins on the manhole cover, twisting Tom's head before Tom stops it with his finger. Jerry, still going around in circles on the manhole, goes on the edge and hits Tom's nose before accidentally dropping it after clutching his nose, flattening Tom's toes and making him feel the pain and screaming. Jerry offers to inflate Tom's toes with a bike pump, but instead ends up poor inflating Tom into a ball before letting go sends him rocketing into the air. Tom falls into a pair of Long Johns and is thrown back up to the top of the building, catching a feather boa and a lady's hat on the way back up. A love crazed male cat pursues Tom and kisses him while reciting French poetry as Jerry taunts him by playing a romantic piece on a pretend violin. Tom becomes so irritated that he attacks the love crazed cat and flees. Jerry changes the tune to the William Tell Overture before heading down to the street with Tom giving chase.
As Jerry is able to run under a bulldog walking down the street, Tom runs into the bulldog. Tom kicks him in the face; the furious bulldog chases after the cat. Annoyed, Jerry places a manhole cover between Tom and the bulldog, causing the bulldog to run into it and be shaped into a concertina before fleeing; the chase between Tom and Jerry continues although Tom shakes Jerry's hand to thank him for taking care of the bulldog. Story: Michael Maltese & Chuck Jones Animation: Ken Harris, Don Towsley, Tom Ray, Dick Thompson & Ben Washam Backgrounds: Philip DeGuard Vocal Effects: Mel Blanc & June Foray In Charge of Production: Les Goldman Co-Director & Layouts: Maurice Noble Music: Eugene Poddany Produced & Directed by Chuck Jones Tom-ic Energy at The Big Cartoon DataBase Tom-ic Energy on IMDb
Hans Karl Peterlini is an author, university professor and educational researcher from South Tyrol, an autonomous German speaking province in Northern Italy. Like over 2/3 of the people living in the province, Hans Karl is a native speaker of German, the majority language spoken by the local population, his older brother is politician Oskar Peterlini. Born in Bozen/Bolzano, Hans Karl grew up with his family in the South Tyrolean Unterland, just few miles south of Bozen, he attended the Liceo classico in Bozen where he obtained the "Maturità", the Italian high-school diploma. Peterlini became a journalist in 1982. By that time he had produced some youthful contributions to Dolomiten, the regional daily newspaper. In 1982 he took a job with ff – Südtiroler Wochenmagazin, a weekly news magazine with broadly liberal views on politics and economics, he remained with the Wochenmagazin till 1990. After that he joined with Hubertus Czernin and the Lentsch family to set up a rival news magazine, Südtirol Profil.
When the rival magazine folded he returned to ff – Südtiroler Wochenmagazin, resuming his role as editor in chief between 1998 and 2004. His career as a journalist placed him at the heart of a resurgence in the German language print media in South Tyrol which accompanied an acceptance of some political and cultural decentralisation by the authorities in Rome. Enduring themes in his writing included the balance of risks between violent confrontation and peaceful co-existence in recent South Tyrol history, coupled with related questions involving how people might grow beyond traditional cultural patterns and ethnic hostilities, a feature of the region since its involuntary incorporation into Italy during the second decade of the twentieth century. During the early years of the twenty-first century he published his first books on themes of South Tyrol terrorism, his book "Wir Kinder der Südtirol-Autonomie". In 2004 Peterlini backed away from his journalistic career in order to become a student at the University of Innsbruck where he studied Pedagogy with a focus on psychoanalytical aspects.
His objective was to be able to revisit the themes of his previous writing from a more academic perspective. His dissertation, submitted in 2006, was entitled "The Explosion of Power and Powerlessness", attempted to provide a psychoanalytic perspective on the terrorist attacks in South Tyrol between 1956 and 1967, he undertook further related training. His doctorate, received from the Faculty of Education Sciences at the Free University of Bolzano, followed in 2010; the theme of his dissertation was "Homeland" as a catch-all for political identity in South Tyrol. Further elucidation comes from the Italian title used when it was published as a book, "Understanding the other", he received his habilitation from Innsbruck for a dissertation entitled "Learning and Power: Paradigms of Education and Training in Schools and Politics" and he received his corresponding teaching certificate. For the 2014/2015 academic year he obtained the teaching chair in "General Education Sciences and Intercultural Education" at Klagenfurt's Alpen-Adria University