Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Ang Mo Kio
Ang Mo Kio abbreviated as AMK, is a planning area and residential town situated in the North-East Region of Singapore. Ang Mo Kio is the 3rd most populated planning area in the North-East Region and ranks 8th in terms of population in the country overall; the planning area is located at the south-western corner of the North-East Region, bordered by the planning areas of Yishun to the north, Sengkang to the north-east, Serangoon to the east, Bishan to the south and the Central Water Catchment to the west. Prior to urbanization, the area, much like other rural districts in Singapore at the time, was undeveloped, being used for agricultural purposes, with uninhabited plots of land covered in dense secondary forest or swamps. Ang Mo Kio was subsequently redeveloped by the Housing and Development Board in 1973 as their seventh satellite town and the first to be built in metric dimensions, being completed by 1980; the first three town councils in the country were established in Ang Mo Kio in 1986, as part of a pilot project to better serve residents of HDB new towns.
The concept became adopted under the Town Council Act of 1988 which today, remains as the second-level of administration in Singapore. The large commercialization of the Ang Mo Kio throughout mid-1970s and 1980s saw the rise of neighbourhood startup businesses that remain prominent throughout Ang Mo Kio Town Centre today. One in particular became one of Singapore's largest supermarket chains, Sheng Siong. Ang Mo Kio today, much like its neighbouring towns, is urbanized, with little to no trace of its original ecology. However, parks are still prevalent in the town as part of the country's green initiative. Said parks include Ang Mo Kio Town Garden Ang Mo Kio Town Garden West. Although not technically located within Ang Mo Kio itself, Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park in the adjacent town of Bishan, was reopened in 2012 to serve residents of both towns; the park itself straddles along the Ang Mo Kio–Bishan boundary, making it accessible from Ang Mo Kio. The name of the locality is synonymous with phrases in the Hokkien dialect which either relates it as the "Red Tomato", or the "Bridge of the Caucasian".
The Caucasian suggested. Lady Windsor was the wife of Lord Windsor, a wealthy merchant who had a huge estate in the Upper Thomson Area in the 1920s until after World War II. Ang Mo Kio could have been named in reference to Mr John Turnbull Thomson, a British civil engineer and artist who played an instrumental role in the development of the early infrastructure of late 19th century Singapore and New Zealand. Old survey maps relate the area as the "Mukim of Ang Mo Kio"; the area has been referred to as Kou Teu Kio. Lady Windsor was linked to an unnamed crossing that bridged a stream running off the Peirce Reservoir, it suggested. An incident happened in 1923; the 3 children were supposed to have visited a family friend staying in the Upper Thomson area, were lost in the woods. It was found that the 2 boys were playing by the wooden crossing when a sudden gush swept them away, their bodies were found about 2 miles from the bridge. However, the body of Angela was never found, it was said that locals started hearing cries of a little girl and that prompted Lady Windsor to stay by the bridge for the rest of her life.
She thought. She told her close friends that she had heard her daughter's voice by the bridge and she wanted to accompany her soul. Lady Windsor would spend the whole day by the bridge, knitting. People soon got used to her perpetual presence by the bridge that they soon referred to the bridge as the "Red Hair Bridge". Lady Windsor died in 1963 and it was only thereafter that locals no longer heard the voice of the little girl. John Turnbull Thomson was responsible for building a bridge during the colonial days of Singapore, to facilitate logistic transportation to the nearby British military bases at Seletar until the British military withdrawal in the 1970s. After the bridge was completed, the locals referred to it as Ang Mo Kio or "Caucasian Bridge" or "Red Hair Bridge", since it was built by a Caucasian. Nowadays, "Ang Mo" is a popular term to refer to Caucasians in Singapore; the name "Thomson" was used extensively in the naming of several roads in and around Ang Mo Kio. This explanation is being listed at the Heritage Corridor in Deyi Secondary School located in Ang Mo Kio.
The explanation is more accepted by the local historians and listed in the National Library Board. The bridge, however, no longer exists, it was, according to local historians, located at the junction of Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 and Upper Thomson Road. Little of the bridge built by Thomson remains. Ang Mo Kio Planning Area, as defined by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, sits within the North-East Region of Singapore. Yishun bounds Ang Mo Kio to the north, Sengkang to the northeast, Serangoon to the east, Bishan to the south and Central Water Catchment to the west; the main component of the planning area, Ang Mo Kio New Town, is located within it. The town itself has seven neighbourhoods, with Neighbourhood 1 to the west, cycling in an anti-clockwise direction to Neighbourhood 6 to the north, ending with Neighbourhood 7 for the town centre; the town centre is located in the heart of Ang Mo Kio and is sandwiched by two town gardens set on natural hillocks. Ang Mo Kio Planning Area
Newton Food Centre
Newton Food Centre is a major food centre in Newton, Singapore. The food centre was promoted by the Singapore Tourism Board as a tourist attraction for sampling Singaporean cuisine, it was first opened in 1971 and it closed down in 2005 as the government wanted to revamp the food centre. The food centre went through a major renovation before reopening on 1 July 2006. During the renovations, Newton Food Centre was temporarily moved to an open space nearby along Bukit Timah Road. However, the stall owners suffered some losses. Due to lack of parking facilities, some motorists parked illegally along the side of the roads near the temporary food centre; the police, knowing about this situation, put up barriers to prevent illegal road-side parking and encourage motorists to park at the food centre's parking lot. After the renovations, stall owners at the temporary food centre moved back to the new food centre; the newly built food centre follows the design elements from the nearby old colonial houses.
The colour scheme of the food centre is white and brown and the ceilings are seven metres high, ensuring cross-ventilation and a cooler environment. The newly built food centre will protect some of the patrons sitting in the open space from being wet during the rain as they are shaded by large umbrellas which does not protect customers from the rain as the rain drips on their seat, unlike the previous food centre where patrons had more seating capacity when it was raining. Blinds are available for extra shade from the scorching sun in the afternoons. There are 83 stalls and they are arranged in a horseshoe configuration, featuring the same hawkers who cooked their own-style local favourites like fishball noodles, popiah and fried oyster omelette. CCTVs have been installed. Spaces have been created so buskers can perform and entertain the patrons. Small flea markets can be set up. More than 50 species of flowers, including pink frangipani, wedelia creepers and several species of palms, have been planted around the food centre area at the main entrance and around the seats in the middle section of the hawker centre.
These plants had been incorporated into the landscape to re-create a plantation feel. Despite being promoted by the STB for sampling Singaporean cuisine, the food sellers at Newton Food Centre are criticised by locals for overpricing and mediocre food quality; the food centre is infamous for incessant touting and harassment of customers by over-zealous stall owners. On March 14, 2009 six American tourists were charged S$491 for a meal at Tanglin's Best BBQ Seafood. In this case of flagrant overcharging, The National Environment Agency imposed a 3-month ban on the stall and banned his assistant from working there for five years. "Newton Food Centre". The Economist. Retrieved 2006-09-19. "Newton Food Centre closes For Makeover, Re-opens Next Year". National Environment Agency. 2005-09-21. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-09-19. "Newton Food Centre". Uniquely Singapore. Retrieved 2007-09-14. "NEA suspends Newton hawker stall's licence for overcharging tourist". Channel News Asia. Retrieved 2009-03-23
Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle
Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle is a street food stall in Kallang, Singapore. It is run by Tang Chay Seng. In 2016, it became one of the first two street food locations in the world to be awarded a star in the Michelin Guide. Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle is one of 6,000 such stalls within Singapore, it was founded in the 1930s by Tang Joon Teo, but after he fell ill during the 1960s, his second son Chay Seng took over its management. When Tang Joon Teo died in 1995, he left the stall to his three sons. Tang Chay Seng continues to run the stall, located at Hill Street, it moved in the 1990s to Marina Square and again in 2004 to Crawford Lane; the stall serves bak chor mee, with the noodle component tossed through black vinegar, chilli paste and other ingredients, a recipe created by Tang Joon Teo. There are other affiliated stalls within Singapore, with his brother Tang Chai Chye running High Street Tai Wah, his two sons now run two separate stalls under that brand name. Tang Chay Seng's nephew, Arthur Tung Yang Wee, runs the Lau Dai Hua stall within Terminal 2 of Singapore Changi Airport.
These stalls resulted in a legal claim in 2008 by Tang Chay Seng when Arthur Tung Yang Wee ran an advertisement saying that his stall had moved from the original location of Hill Street. This resulted in a loss of business for Tang Chay Seng, as some customers believed that it was his stall which had moved. Tang Chay Seng was awarded a sum as a goodwill gesture. Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle became one of the first two street food stalls in the world to be awarded a Michelin Star, alongside Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle, gaining the recognition in the 2016 list for Singapore; the award has resulted in the usual queue increasing from around 30 minutes to up to two hours
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. While the term bus depot refers to a bus station, it can refer to a bus garage. A bus station is larger than a bus stop, simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop, it may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue. Bus station platforms may be assigned to fixed bus lines, or variable in combination with a dynamic passenger information system; the latter requires fewer platforms, but does not supply the passenger the comfort of knowing the platform well in advance and waiting there. An accessible station is a public transportation passenger station which provides ready access, is usable and does not have physical barriers that prohibit and/or restrict access by people with disabilities, including those who use wheelchairs. At 37 acres, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus in Chennai, India, is the largest bus station in Asia.
As of 2010, the terminus handled more than 501 buses at a time, 3,000 buses and 250,000 passengers a day. The largest underground bus station in Europe is Kamppi Centre of Helsinki, Finland completed in 2006; the terminal took 3 years to design and build. Today, the bus terminal, is the busiest bus terminal in Finland; every day, the terminal has around 700 bus departures. Bus depot Bus stop Bus terminus Intermodal passenger transport Railway station Ticket