A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U. S. customary units equal to one eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet, 220 yards, 40 rods, or 10 chains. Using the international definition of the inch as 25.4 millimetres, one furlong is 201.168 metres. However, the United States does not uniformly use this conversion ratio. Older ratios are in use for surveying purposes in some states, leading to variations in the length of the furlong of two parts per million, or about 0.4 millimetres. This variation is too small to have practical consequences in most applications. Five furlongs are about 1.0 kilometre. The name furlong derives from the Old English words lang. Dating back at least to early Anglo-Saxon times, it referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a ploughed open field; the furlong was the distance. This was standardised to be 40 rods or 10 chains; the system of long furrows arose because turning a team of oxen pulling a heavy plough was difficult. This offset the drainage advantages of short furrows and meant furrows were made as long as possible.
An acre is an area, one furlong long and one chain wide. For this reason, the furlong was once called an acre's length, though in modern usage an area of one acre can be of any shape; the term furlong, or shot, was used to describe a grouping of adjacent strips within an open field. Among the early Anglo-Saxons, the rod was the fundamental unit of land measurement. A furlong was forty rods, an acre four by 40 rods, or four rods by one furlong, thus 160 square rods. At the time, the Saxons used the North German foot, 10 percent longer than the foot of today; when England changed to the shorter foot in the late 13th century and furlongs remained unchanged, since property boundaries were defined in rods and furlongs. The only thing that changed was the number of feet and yards in a rod or a furlong, the number of square feet and square yards in an acre; the definition of the rod went from 15 old feet to 16 1⁄2 new feet, or from 5 old yards to 5 1⁄2 new yards. The furlong went from 600 old feet from 200 old yards to 220 new yards.
The acre went from 36,000 old square feet to 43,560 new square feet, or from 4,000 old square yards to 4,840 new square yards. The furlong was viewed as being equivalent to the Roman stade, which in turn derived from the Greek system. For example, the King James Bible uses the term "furlong" in place of the Greek stadion, although more recent translations use miles or kilometres in the main text and give the original numbers in footnotes. In the Roman system, there were 625 feet to the stadium, eight stadia to the mile, three miles to the league. A league was considered to be the distance a man could walk in one hour, the mile consisted of 1,000 passus. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, medieval Europe continued with the Roman system, which the people proceeded to diversify, leading to serious complications in trade, etc. Around the year 1300, by royal decree England standardized a long list of measures. Among the important units of distance and length at the time were the foot, rod and the mile.
The rod was defined as 5 1⁄2 yards or 16 1⁄2 feet, the mile was eight furlongs, so the definition of the furlong became 40 rods and that of the mile became 5,280 feet. A description from 1675 states, "Dimensurator or Measuring Instrument whereof the mosts usual has been the Chain, the common length for English Measures four Poles, as answering indifferently to the Englishs Mile and Acre, 10 such Chains in length making a Furlong, 10 single square Chains an Acre, so that a square Mile contains 640 square Acres." —John Ogilby, Britannia, 1675 The official use of the furlong was abolished in the United Kingdom under the Weights and Measures Act 1985, an act that abolished the official use of many other traditional units of measurement. In Myanmar, furlongs are used in conjunction with miles to indicate distances on highway signs. Mileposts on the Yangon -- Mandalay Expressway use furlongs. In the rest of the world, the furlong has limited use, with the notable exception of horse racing in most English-speaking countries, including Canada and the United States.
The distances for horse racing in Australia were converted to metric in 1972. The city of Chicago's street numbering system allots a measure of 800 address units to each mile, in keeping with the city's system of eight blocks per mile; this means that every block in a typical Chicago neighborhood is one furlong in length. Salt Lake City's blocks are each a square furlong in the downtown area; the blocks become less regular in shape further from the center, but the numbering system remains the same everywhere in Salt Lake County. Blocks in central Logan, in large sections of Phoenix, are a square furlong in extent. City blocks in the Hoddle Grid of Melbourne are one furlong in length. Much of Ontario, was surveyed on a ten-furlong grid, with major roads being laid out alon
Parimutuel betting is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool. In some countries it is known as the Tote after the totalisator, which calculates and displays bets made; the parimutuel system is used in gambling on horse racing, greyhound racing, jai alai, all sporting events of short duration in which participants finish in a ranked order. A modified parimutuel system is used in some lottery games. Parimutuel betting differs from fixed-odds betting in that the final payout is not determined until the pool is closed – in fixed odds betting, the payout is agreed at the time the bet is sold. Parimutuel gambling is state-regulated, offered in many places where gambling is otherwise illegal. Parimutuel gambling is also offered at "off track" facilities, where players may bet on the events without being present to observe them in person. Consider a hypothetical event that has eight possible outcomes, in a country using a decimal currency such as dollars.
Each outcome has a certain amount of money wagered: Thus, the total pool of money on the event is $1028.00. Following the start of the event, no more wagers are accepted; the event is decided and the winning outcome is determined to be Outcome 4 with $110.00 wagered. The payout is now calculated. First the commission or take for the wagering company is deducted from the pool. For example, with a commission rate of 14.25% the calculation is: $1028 × 0.1425 = $146.49. This leaves a remaining amount of $881.51. This remaining amount in the pool is now distributed to those who wagered on Outcome 4: $881.51 / $110.00 = 8.01 ≈ $8 per $1 wagered. This payout includes the $1 wagered plus an additional $7 profit. Thus, the odds on Outcome 4 are 7-to-1. Prior to the event, betting agencies will provide approximates for what will be paid out for a given outcome should no more bets be accepted at the current time. Using the wagers and commission rate above, an approximates table in decimal odds and fractional odds would be: In real-life examples, such as horse racing, the pool size extends into millions of dollars with many different types of outcomes and complex commission calculations.
Sometimes, the amounts paid out are rounded down to a denomination interval—in the United States and Australia, 10¢ intervals are used. The rounding loss is sometimes known as breakage and is retained by the betting agency as part of the commission. In horse racing, a practical example of this circumstance might be when an overwhelming favorite wins; the parimutuel calculation results might call for a small winning payout, but the legal regulation would require a larger payout. In North America, this condition is referred to as a minus pool. In an event with a set of n possible single-winner outcomes, with wagers W1, W2... Wn the total pool of money on the event is W T = ∑ i = 1 n W i. After the wagering company deducts a commission rate of r from the pool, the amount remaining to be distributed between the successful bettors is WR = WT; those who bet on the successful outcome m will receive a payout of WR / Wm for every dollar they bet on it. When there are k possible winners, such as a North American "place" bet which has k = 2 winners, the total amount to be distributed WR is first divided into k equal shares.
If m is one of the k winners, those who bet on outcome m will receive a payout of / Wm for every dollar they bet on it. The parimutuel system was invented by Catalan impresario Joseph Oller in 1867; the large amount of calculation involved in this system led to the invention of a specialized mechanical calculating machine known as a totalisator, "automatic totalisator" or "tote board", invented by the Australian engineer, George Alfred Julius. The first was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse, New Zealand in 1913, they came into widespread use at race courses throughout the world; the U. S. introduction was in 1927, which led to the opening of the suburban Arlington Racetrack in Arlington Park, near Chicago and Sportsman's Park in Cicero, Illinois, in 1932. Unlike many forms of casino gambling, in parimutuel betting the gambler bets against other gamblers, not the house, which implies that the bank cannot be broken; the science of predicting the outcome of a race is called handicapping. Independent off-track bookmakers have a smaller take and thus offer better payoffs, but they are illegal in some countries.
However, the introduction of Internet gambling led to "rebate shops". These off-shore betting shops promise to return some percentage of every bet made to the bettor, they may reduce their take from 15-18% to as little as 1 or 2%, while still generating a profit by operating with minimal overhead. There may be several different types of bets; the basic bets involve predicting the order of finish for a single participant, as follows: In Canada and the United States, the most common types of bet on horse races include: Single raceWin: to succeed the bettor must pick the horse that wins the race. Place: the bettor must pick a horse that finishes either first or second. Show: the bettor must pick a horse that finishes first, second or third. Across the board: the bettor places three separate bets to place or show. Exacta, perfecta, or exactor: the bettor must p
Arlington International Racecourse is a horse race track in the Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights, Illinois. Horse racing in the Chicago region has been a popular sport since the early days of the city in the 1830s, at one time Chicago had more horse racing tracks than any other major metropolitan area. Arlington International was the site of the first thoroughbred race with a million-dollar purse in 1981, it is located near the Illinois Route 53 expressway. The premier event at Arlington Park is the International Festival of Racing, held in early August, which features three Grade 1 races on turf: the Arlington Million Stakes, Beverly D. Stakes and Secretariat Stakes. Arlington International Racecourse was founded as Arlington Park by California businessman Harry D. "Curly" Brown who would serve as president of Oriental Park Racetrack in Havana, Cuba. The track opened in 1927 to 20,000 spectators. Jockey Joe Bollero, who became a successful trainer, rode Luxembourg to victory in the first race run at Arlington.
Benjamin F. Lindheimer acquired control of Arlington Park in 1940 and owned it until his death in 1960. Long involved with the business, adopted daughter Marjorie Lindheimer Everett took over management of the racetrack. Respected Hall of Fame trainer Jimmy Jones of Calumet Farms was quoted by Sports Illustrated as saying that Lindheimer "was the savior of Chicago racing" and that "Arlington Park became the finest track in the world—certainly the finest I've been on." Benjamin Lindheimer is well remembered as the person who promoted the 1955 match race broadcast by CBS Television in which Preakness and Belmont Stakes winner Nashua defeated Kentucky Derby winner, Swaps. Arlington was the first track to install a public-address system and employed the pioneering race caller Clem McCarthy to describe the action, it added the first electric totalisator which allowed a credible tote board and decreased time between races, in 1933. In 1936 it added a photo finish camera, it introduced the first electric starting gate in 1940 and the largest closed circuit TV system in all of sports in 1967.
In June 1973, Arlington organized a race for 3-year-olds, the Arlington Invitational, to lure Secretariat to the mid-west. Secretariat won and Arlington created the Secretariat Stakes for 3-year-olds but on the turf, in his honor. In 1981 Arlington was the home of the world's first million dollar thoroughbred race: The Arlington Million; the result of that race is immortalized in bronze at the top of the paddock at Arlington, where a statue of jockey Bill Shoemaker riding John Henry to a thrilling come-from-behind victory over 40-1 long shot The Bart celebrates Thoroughbred racing's inaugural million dollar race. Arlington entered a new era when Richard L. Duchossois led an Illinois investment group to purchase the track from its former owners and made a pledge to continue presenting championship racing; that was tested on July 31, 1985, when a small fire spread out of control and destroyed the grandstand and clubhouse. Unsure of the future of Arlington, the meet, yet it was announced. On August 25, 1985 they did just that by using temporary bleachers.
The track reopened in 1989. It used the name "Arlington International Racecourse" before reverting to the old name, "Arlington Park". Arlington Park reverted to using Arlington International Racecourse starting in 2013. In 2000, Arlington reopened after a two-year shutdown. In September of that year, Churchill Downs Incorporated completed its purchase of the track. Arlington hosted the 2002 Breeders' Cup World Thoroughbred Championships at their track. On May 14, 2010, Lee DeWyze, a citizen of Mount Prospect, Illinois and a contestant on American Idol, performed a concert at Arlington Park for 41,000 fans. A year on May 14, 2011, Haley Reinhart, of Wheeling, Illinois made the top 3 on American Idol. She, like DeWyze, had a hometown concert at the track for nearly 30,000 of her own fans and supporters; the track has a one-mile turf oval. The track is capable of seating at least 50,000 with extension. There is stabling on the backstretch for over 2,000 horses. Arlington replaced its dirt course with a synthetic track prior to the opening of the 2007 season.
Caton Bredar Lynne Snierson Christine Gabriel John G. Dooley Molly Ryan Liane Davis Zoe Cadman Lauren Massarella Joe Kristufek Jessica Pacheco Alyssa Ali Gabby Gaudet Arlington's live racing season runs from the first Friday in May to the second to last Saturday in September. Since 2001, races at Arlington have been commentated by Karl Ravech; the following graded stakes are run at Arlington Park: Grade I Arlington Million Beverly D. Stakes Secretariat StakesGrade II American DerbyGrade III Arlington Classic Stakes Arlington Handicap Arlington Oaks Arlington-Washington Futurity Stakes Arlington-Washington Lassie Stakes Chicago Handicap Hanshin Cup Handicap Modesty Handicap Pucker Up Stakes Sea o'Erin Stakes Stars and Stripes Turf Handicap Washington Park HandicapListed Arlington Sprint Handicap Isaac Mu
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Hawthorne Works was a large factory complex of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. Named after the original name of the town, Hawthorne, it opened in 1905 and operated until 1983. At its peak of operations, Hawthorne employed 45,000 workers, producing large quantities of telephone equipment, but a wide variety of consumer products; the facility is well-known for the industrial studies held there in the 1920s and the Hawthorne effect is named for the works. The Hawthorne Works complex was built at the beginning of the 20th century, was opened in 1905. Hawthorne Works was named for Hawthorne, Illinois, a small town, incorporated as Cicero; the facility consisted of several buildings and contained a private railroad, Manufacturers Junction Railroad, to move shipments through the plant to the nearby Burlington Northern Railroad freight depot. In the first decades, the factory complex was expanded; the Hawthorne Works produced a large output of telephone equipment. In addition, Western Electric produced a wide variety of consumer products and electrical equipment, such as refrigerators and electric fans.
The works employed up to 45,000 employees at the height of operations. Workers used bicycles for transit within the plant; the Hawthorne Works was in operation until 1983, when it was closed as a result of the divestiture of AT&T and the breakup of the Bell System. It was purchased in the mid-1980s by the late Donald L. Shoemaker and replaced with a shopping center. One of the original towers remained at the corner of 22nd Street and Cicero Ave. Due to its significance in industrial manufacturing in the United States, the Hawthorne Works was the site of well-known industrial studies; the Hawthorne effect is named for the works. North American Quality pioneer Joseph Juran referred to the Hawthorne Works as "the seed bed of the Quality Revolution"; the career arcs of other notable quality professionals such as Walter Shewhart and Edwards Deming intersected at the Hawthorne Works. Paul Mattick, the Marxist theorist worked here as a mechanic from 1928/9 until 1932.220 employees of the Hawthorne works, many of them Czech immigrants, were among those killed in the capsizing of the SS Eastland in Chicago on July 24, 1915.
The term "Hawthorne Effect" refers to the type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. It was first observed in data from the Hawthorn Works collected by psychologist Elton Mayo and reinterpreted by Henry A. Landsberger, who coined the term; the Hawthorne Works Museum, operated by Morton College, tells the story of the Hawthorne Works facility - its products and its employees. Exhibits show Western Electric products, such as telephones and electronics equipment, inventions by Bell Laboratories, local immigrant workers and local history. Western Electric History Western Electric Co. from Encyclopedia of Chicago Hawthorne Works Museum
The Kentucky Derby is a horse race, held annually in Louisville, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings fillies 121 pounds; the race is called "The Run for the Roses" on account of the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration, it is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912 the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875; the Derby and Belmont all were run every year throughout the Great Depression and both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.
In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races. The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, the Breeders' Cup. In 1872, Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, traveled to England, visiting Epsom in Surrey where The Derby had been running annually since 1780. From there, Clark went on to Paris, where in 1863, a group of racing enthusiasts had formed the French Jockey Club and had organized the Grand Prix de Paris at Longchamp, which at the time was the greatest race in France. Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside the city; the track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who provided the land for the racetrack.
The racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937. The Kentucky Derby was first run at 1 1/2 miles the same distance as the Epsom Derby; the distance was changed in 1896 to its current 1 1/4 miles. On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides, trained by future Hall of Famer Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby; that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes. Although the first race meeting proved a success, the track ran into financial difficulties and in 1894 the New Louisville Jockey Club was incorporated with new capitalization and improved facilities. Despite this, the business floundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility. Under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America.
Thoroughbred owners began sending their successful Derby horses to compete in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. The three races offered large purses and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races. However, the term Triple Crown didn't come into use for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a "superhorse" that could win the Triple Crown began in the weeks leading up to the Derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby.
On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day. On eleven occasions the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes. On May 16, 1925, the first live radio broadcast of the Kentucky Derby was originated by WHAS and was carried by WGN in Chicago. On May 7, 1949, the first television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, produced by WAVE-TV, the NBC affiliate in Louisville; this coverage was aired live in the Louisville market and sent to NBC as a kinescope newsreel recording for national broadcast. On May 3, 1952, the first national television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, aired from then-CBS affiliate WHAS-TV. In 1954, the purse exceeded $100,000 for the first time. In 1968, Dancer's Image became the first horse to win the race and be disqualified after traces of phenylbutazone, an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, were found in the horse's urinalysis. Forward Pass thus became the eighth winner for Calumet Farm. Unexpectedly, the regulations at Kentucky thoroughbred race tracks were changed some years allowing horses to run on phenylbutazone.
In 1970, Diane Crump became the first female jockey to ride in the Derby, finishing 15th aboard Fathom. The fastest time run in the Derby was set in 1973 at 1