Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Copper Basin Railway
The Copper Basin Railway is an Arizona short-line railroad that operates from a connection with the Union Pacific Railroad at Magma to Winkelman, in 54 miles of length. The railroad has a 7-mile branch line that runs from Ray Junction to Ray, Arizona. There was an interchange with the San Manuel Arizona Railroad at Hayden; the CBRY exists to serve a copper mine. L. S. "Jake" Jacobson is Chief Operating Officer. In summer 2006, ASARCO Copper Corporation purchased the entire railroad. 107,000 cars per year copper concentrates ore finished and unfinished copper sulfuric acid lumber military equipment gypsum The Magma-Winkelman line was constructed by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway subsidiary Phoenix and Eastern Railroad between 1902-1904. The Phoenix and Eastern Railroad built the railroad from Phoenix - Winkelman via Florence, it proposed to build to a connection with the Southern Pacific Railroad at Benson but the line was never built past Winkelman. The railroad was leased to Santa Fe upon completion of construction on December 10, 1904, was operated by ATSF subsidiary Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway.
On March 13, 1907, the Phoenix & Eastern became an operating subsidiary of SP. On March 10, 1910, the Phoenix & Eastern was leased and became a non-operating subsidiary of SP and operated by the Arizona Eastern Railroad; the railroad was sold to the Arizona Eastern Railroad on October 31, 1945. The Arizona Eastern Railroad was merged into SP on September 30, 1955; the track at Winkelman was extended 6.35 miles to Christmas, Arizona, in 1911 by the Arizona Eastern Railway. That section of track was abandoned by the SP in 1961. At some point SP sold the line to mine operator Kennecott Copper. On August 15, 1986, the line was sold by Kennecott Copper and the CBRY was started; the CBRY was owned by Rail Management Corporation from 1986-2005. In summer 2006, ASARCO Copper Corporation purchased the entire railroad. ASARCO owns the Ray Mine and Hayden Smelter, CBRY's primary customers; this railway served as the backdrop to Dwight Yoakam’s “A Thousand Miles From Nowhere” music video. He is moving about a train throughout the video.
The route follows the Gila River. Magma - UP/MAA Florence Junction Florence Stanco Barr Munn Price Tunnel 1. Cochran Buttes North across the Gila River can be seen several "beehive" kilns. Made from rock, they were built to make charcoal out of local timber. Zellweger Wooley Ray Junction Tunnel 2 Riverside Erman Tunnel 3 Kearny Branaman Burns Hayden Junction. Location of the operational center for the SP until the system was rebuilt to have ore trains go directly from Ray to Hayden for unloading onto a new conveyor system. Hayden Spur to Kennecott Copper Mill and Smelter KCCX Ore Unload San Manuel Arizona Railroad Junction Winkelman Robertson, Donald B.. Encyclopedia of Western Railroad History: The Desert States: Arizona, New Mexico, Utah. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers. ISBN 0-87004-305-6. Stindt, Fred A.. American Shortline Railway Guide. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-290-9. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - Arizona & New Mexico.
Kent, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. ISBN 1-874745-04-8. Danneman, Mike. "Pride of the Copper Basin". Trains. Vol. 78 no. 4. Pp. 40–47. ISSN 0041-0934
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Gila County, Arizona
Gila County is a county in the central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 53,597; the county seat is Globe. Gila County comprises Arizona Micropolitan Statistical Area. Gila County contains parts of San Carlos Indian Reservation; the county was formed from parts of Maricopa County and Pinal County on February 8, 1881. The boundary was extended eastward to the San Carlos River by public petition in 1889; the original county seat was in the mining community of Globe City, now Globe, Arizona. Popular theory says that the word Gila was derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel, a Yuma word meaning "running water, salty". In the 1880s, a long range war broke out in Gila County that became the most costly feud in American history, resulting in an complete annihilation of the families involved; the Pleasant Valley War matched the cattle-herding Grahams against the sheep-herding Tewksburys. Once partisan feelings became tense and hostilities began, Frederick Russell Burnham, who became a celebrated scout and the inspiration for the boy scouts, was drawn into the conflict on the losing side.
Burnham shot many men in the feud, was himself nearly killed by a bounty hunter. Tom Horn, a famous assassin, was known to have taken part as a killer for hire, but it is unknown as to which side employed him, both sides suffered several murders to which no suspect was identified. In the 1960s, it was home of Gerald Gault, the subject of the 1967 U. S. Supreme Court ruling, in re Gault, that stated juveniles have the same rights as adults when arrested to be notified of the charges against them, the rights to attorneys, for family members to be notified of their arrests and to confront their accusers and to not be punished harsher than adults who are convicted of the same crime if an adult's penalty for the crime would be less than a juvenile convict's. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,795 square miles, of which 4,758 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Yavapai County - northwest Maricopa County - west Pinal County - south Graham County - southeast Navajo County - east, northeast Coconino County - north Coconino National Forest Tonto National Forest Tonto National Monument As of the census of 2000, there were 51,335 people, 20,140 households, 14,098 families residing in the county.
The population density was 11 people per square mile. There were 28,189 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.82% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 12.92% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.59% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 16.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.84 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 20,140 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,917, the median income for a family was $36,593. Males had a median income of $31,579 versus $22,315 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,315. About 12.60% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 53,597 people, 22,000 households, 14,294 families residing in the county; the population density was 11.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,698 housing units at an average density of 6.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.8% white, 14.8% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.9% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.3% were English, 11.4% were Irish, 3.4% were American. Of the 22,000 households, 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 47.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,580 and the median income for a family was $46,292. Males had a median income of $41,698 versus $30,023 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,600. About 11.6% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Gila County has been a Democratic-leaning county in Republican Arizona – for instance it voted for Adlai Stevenson II in 1952, Hubert Humphrey in 1968 and for John W. Davis in 1924.
In much of the “dealignment” period from 1960 to 1980, when Arizona was the only state never carried by a De
Payson is a town in northern Gila County, United States. Its location puts it near to the geographic center of Arizona. Payson has been called "The Heart of Arizona"; the town has many outdoor activities year round. As of the 2010 census, the population of Payson was 15,301. Payson considers its founding year 1882, at which time the town was known as "Green Valley". On March 3, 1884, a post office was established with the help of Illinois Representative Levi Joseph Payson; the first postmaster was Frank C. Hise. In honor of the representative's help, the town's name was changed to "Payson". Payson had its first rodeo in 1884, it considers its rodeo. In 1918 author Zane Grey made his first trip to the area surrounding Payson, he would come back with regularity through 1929, would purchase two plots of land near Tonto Creek, including 120 acres from Sampson Elam Boles under Myrtle Point. Grey wrote numerous books about the area and filmed some movies, such as To the Last Man, in the Payson area in the 1920s.
During Prohibition the manufacture and distribution of liquor was plentiful. The transactions took place on historic Bootleg Alley. During the 1930s an effort began to try to get Payson a better road to connect it to the outside world. At that time the town was isolated, with a trip from Phoenix to Payson taking eight to twelve hours. Throughout the 1950s work on a paved road from Phoenix to Payson progressed, the road was completed in 1958. A few years ago this highway, State Route 87, was expanded to four lanes. Located in northern Gila County at 34°14′22″N 111°19′39″W, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the town has a total area of 19.5 square miles. The Mogollon Rim, the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau, lies to the north of Payson, with elevations exceeding 7,500 feet, they are stocked with fish by the Arizona Fish Department. Payson is bordered to the east by the town of Star Valley. Other nearby communities are Pine, Strawberry and Rye, all within Gila County. Globe, the Gila County seat, is 80 miles to the south via State Routes 87 and 188.
State Route 87, the Beeline Highway, leads southwest 90 miles to Phoenix and northeast 90 miles to Winslow. State Route 260 leads east from Payson 90 miles to Show Low. "Zane Grey Country" is a term for the area around Payson. This term was most used in the 1970s and 1980s, appeared in the header of the local newspaper, the Payson Roundup. In recent times it has fallen somewhat out of favor, as the term "Rim Country" has become more popular among locals. Owing to its elevation of 5,000 feet, Payson has what is classified as a Mediterranean climate, though atypical for this climate with its early-summer drought and late-summer rainfall. While average temperatures do reach the high 80s to mid 90s in summer, the town’s altitude keeps it protected from the 100 °F + temperatures found at Arizona’s lower elevations. Monsoon storms develop in the afternoon, bring heavy rainfall to the area and lower the temperature. Summer nights cool down into the 50s. Winter is mild, with cold nights. January's average nighttime low is 25.3 °F or −3.7 °C with some nights in the teens, but by mid-afternoon, the temperature has risen into the 50s.
There are only a few days of real winter, with 23.3 inches of annual snowfall, but little snow cover. The weather in Payson is as varied as the landscape, a snowstorm is followed by weather so warm that any accumulation melts away within a day or two. In spring the desert blooms with a fiery array of Indian paintbrush and the golds and fuchsias of cactus blossoms and other brightly colored wildflowers. On Monday, November 5, 2001, between about 8 pm and 10:30 pm, Payson was treated to a rare display of the Northern Lights, it is rare and only happens during solar flares because Payson is so far south. The lights appeared in a red color; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,620 people, 5,832 households, 4,070 families residing in the town. The population density was 699.6 people per square mile. There were 7,033 housing units at an average density of 361.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.75% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 1.89% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.34% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races.
5.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,832 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.71. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.1% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 36.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,638, the median income for a family was $38,713. Males had a median income of $30,900 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,513. About 6.5% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of tho