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Hayling Island

Hayling Island is an island off the south coast of England, in the borough of Havant in the county of Hampshire, east of Portsmouth. An Iron Age shrine in the north of Hayling Island was developed into a Roman temple in the 1st century BC and was first recorded in Richard Scott's Topographical and Historical Account of Hayling Island, published in 1826; the site was excavated between 1897 and 1907 and again from 1976 to 1978. Remains are buried beneath cultivated farmland; the first coin credited to Commius, found in an excavated context was found at the temple. This Commius was the son of the Commius mentioned by Julius Caesar in his writings although its possible the coin was issued by the original Commius. Salt production was an industry on the island from the 11th century until the late 19th century. Construction of Northwode Chapel by the monks of Jumièges, began in about 1140, it has been claimed that St Peter's three bells, cast in about 1350, have one of the oldest peals in England. St Mary's Church is a standard design of the churches of its era, but upon close examination, the walls have been constructed from a mortar of local shells and beach pebbles.

The ancient yew tree in the churchyard is believed to be the oldest yew in the country, with a girth of some nine metres. Although estimates as to its age vary, they range from over a thousand to nearly two thousand years old; the grave of Princess Yourievsky, a member of the ill-fated Russian Royal family and who lived in North Hayling for many years, may be found in St. Peter's churchyard; the island was the location of a mock invasion during the military Exercise Fabius in May 1944, rehearsing the preparations for D-Day. In 1982, British courts recognised prior art by Peter Chilvers, who as a young boy on Hayling Island assembled his first board combined with a sail, in 1958, it incorporated all the elements of modern windsurfer. The courts found that innovations were "merely an obvious extension" and upheld the defendant's claim based on film footage; this court case set a significant precedent for patent law in the United Kingdom, in terms of Inventive step and non-obviousness. The case, Hayling, a replica of Chilvers' original board were featured on an episode of the BBC's The One Show in 2009.

On 20 October 2013, at least one hundred properties on the island were damaged when it was hit by a tornado. No injuries were reported. Hayling Island is a true island surrounded by sea. Looking at its north to south orientation, it is shaped like an inverted T, about 6.5 km long and 6.5 km wide. A road bridge connects its northern end to the mainland of England at Langstone; the Hayling Ferry is a small pedestrian ferry connecting to the Eastney area of the city of Portsmouth on the neighbouring Portsea Island. To the west is Langstone Harbour and to the east is Chichester Harbour; the natural beach at Hayling was predominantly sandy, but in recent years it has been mechanically topped with shingle dredged from the bed of the Solent in an effort to reduce beach erosion and reduce the potential to flood low-lying land. At low tide, the East Winner sandbank is visible, extending a mile out to sea; the coastline in this area has changed since Roman times: it is believed much land has been lost from the coasts of Hayling and Selsey by erosion and subsequent flooding.

As with the rest of the British Isles and Southern England, Hayling Island experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. Temperatures have never fallen into double figures below freezing, illustrating the relative warmth of the island – comparable to the far southwest of England and its neighbour, the Isle of Wight. Temperature extremes between 1960 and 2010 have ranged from −9.4 °C during January 1963, up to 32.1 °C during June 1976. Hayling Island has a non-League football club, Hayling United F. C. which plays at Hayling Park. Although residential, Hayling is a holiday and sailing centre, the site where windsurfing was invented. In summer 2010, the Hayling Island Sailing Club hosted the 2010 World Laser Standard Senior and Junior Championships; the Senior championship was won by Australian Tom Slingsby, whilst Dane Thorbjoern Schierup won the Junior competition. Today it is home to many different types including a growing Fireball fleet; as a consequence of the island's popularity for water activities, there are two lifeboat services: Hayling Island Lifeboat Station, run by the RNLI and Hayling Island Rescue Service, an independent service run by retired RNLI helmsman, Frank Dunster.

The island hosts one of the few active Real Tennis courts in the UK. Founded in 1911, Seacourt Tennis club is one of only a handful in the UK where it is possible to play every recognised racquet sport; the racquets court itself was opened by Sir Colin Cowdrey. Seacourt Tennis Club hosts a weekly fencing club featuring all ages and weapons. Hayling Golf Club has been voted in the top 100 golf courses in the UK. A traditional links course, although short by modern standards, the strong prevailing south-westerly winds, fast greens, gorse bushes and traditional deep links bunkers make this a stern test for any golfer. Funland, an amusement park situated at Beachlands, is open year-round, as is the East Hayling Light Railway which runs from the funfair to Eastoke corner

Valdis Valters

Valdis Valters is a retired Latvian professional basketball player. He played at the point guard position for the senior USSR national team, he is regarded as one of the greatest players to have played the game in Europe in the 1980s. Considering his lengthy work and deep connection to the sport, Valters has been one of the most influential people in Latvian basketball history, he was elected to the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2017. Valters spent most of his club career playing with the Latvian club VEF Rīga. In 1982, he set the USSR Premier League's all-time record for points scored in a single game, when he scored 69 points against Dynamo Moscow. Valters first made his name in European basketball when he was named the MVP of EuroBasket 1981, after he averaged 16.7 points per game, to lead his USSR national team to the gold medal. He was on the All-Tournament Team of EuroBasket 1985. Valters played a key role on the USSR national team that won the gold at the 1982 FIBA World Championship, in Colombia, where he was a starting point guard, averaged 14.0 points per game.

At the 1986 FIBA World Championship, Valters helped the Soviet Union to rally from a nine-point deficit, in the final minute of the game, by hitting a three-pointer at the end of regulation, to send the semifinal game against Yugoslavia to overtime, earn a 91–90 win. In 1992, after he had stopped playing basketball at the pro level, Valters returned to the court, represented the senior Latvian national team at the 1992 Summer Olympic Games Qualifying Tournament. After his basketball playing career ended, Valters worked as a basketball coach and general manager, he founded his own basketball school, the Valtera Basketbola Skola, now known as Keizarmezs, whose alumni includes former NBA player Andris Biedriņš, as well as other top Latvian players. He helped to create the basketball league for Latvian youth players, the LJBL. In 2013, Valters released his autobiographical book, called "Dumpinieks ar ideāliem", he is working as an analyst for the Latvian TV channel, TV6, as a host of the weekly sports show Overtime.

Both of his sons and Sandis, are professional basketball players. FIBA Profile FIBA Hall of Fame Profile FIBA Europe Profile

Punishment (psychology)

In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings which, occurring after a given behavior or response, reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. As with reinforcement, it is the behavior, not the human/animal, punished. Whether a change is or is not punishing is determined by its effect on the rate that the behavior occurs, not by any "hostile" or aversive features of the change. For example, a painful stimulus which would act as a punisher for most people may reinforce some behaviors of masochistic individuals. There are two types of punishment in operant conditioning: positive punishment, punishment by application, or type I punishment, an experimenter punishes a response by presenting an aversive stimulus into the animal's surroundings. Negative punishment, punishment by removal, or type II punishment, a valued, appetitive stimulus is removed; as with reinforcement, it is not necessary to speak of positive and negative in regard to punishment.

Punishment is not a mirror effect of reinforcement. In experiments with laboratory animals and studies with children, punishment decreases the likelihood of a reinforced response only temporarily, it can produce other "emotional" behavior and physiological changes that have no clear equivalents in reinforcement. Punishment is considered by some behavioral psychologists to be a "primary process" – a independent phenomenon of learning, distinct from reinforcement. Others see it as a category of negative reinforcement, creating a situation in which any punishment-avoiding behavior is reinforced. Positive punishment occurs when a response produces a stimulus and that response decreases in probability in the future in similar circumstances. Example: A mother yells at a child when he or she runs into the street. If the child stops running into the street, the yelling ceases; the yelling acts as positive punishment because the mother presents an unpleasant stimulus in the form of yelling. Example: A barefoot person walks onto a hot asphalt surface, creating pain, a positive punishment.

When the person leaves the asphalt, the pain subsides. The pain acts as positive punishment because it is the addition of an unpleasant stimulus that reduces the future likelihood of the person walking barefoot on a hot surface. Negative punishment occurs when a response produces the removal of a stimulus and that response decreases in probability in the future in similar circumstances. Example: A teenager comes home after curfew and the parents take away a privilege, such as cell phone usage. If the frequency of the child coming home late decreases, the privilege is restored; the removal of the phone is negative punishment because the parents are taking away a pleasant stimulus and motivating the child to return home earlier. Example: A child throws a temper tantrum because they want ice cream. His/her mother subsequently ignores him/her, making it less the child will throw a temper tantrum in the future when they want something; the removal of attention from his mother is a negative punishment because a pleasant stimulus is taken away.

Put, reinforcers serve to increase behaviors whereas punishers serve to decrease behaviors. The table below illustrates the adding and subtracting of stimuli in relation to reinforcement vs. punishment. Aversive stimulus and punishing stimulus are somewhat synonymous. Punishment may be used to mean An aversive stimulus The occurrence of any punishing change The part of an experiment in which a particular response is punished; some things considered. In addition, some things that are aversive may not be punishing if accompanying changes are reinforcing. A classic example would be mis-behavior that is'punished' by a teacher but increases over time due to the reinforcing effects of attention on the student. Pain, loud noises, foul tastes, bright lights, exclusion are all things that would pass the "caveman test" as an aversive stimulus, are therefore primary punishers; the sound of someone booing, the wrong-answer buzzer on a game show, a ticket on your car windshield are all things you have learned to think about as negative, are considered secondary punishers.

Contrary to suggestions by Skinner and others that punishment has weak or impermanent effects, a large body of research has shown that it can have a powerful and lasting effect in suppressing the punished behavior. Furthermore, more severe punishments are more effective, severe ones may produce complete suppression. However, it may have powerful and lasting side effects. For example, an aversive stimulus used to punish a particular behavior may elicit a strong emotional response that may suppress unpunished behavior and become associated with situational stimuli through classical conditioning; such side effects suggest restraint in the use of punishment to modify behavior. One variable affecting punishment is contingency, defined as the dependency of events. A behavior may be dependent on a response; the purpose of punishment is to reduce a behavior, the degree to which punishment is effective in reducing a targeted b


Jelsi is a comune in the Province of Campobasso in the Italian region Molise, located about 12 kilometres southeast of Campobasso. Jelsi borders the following municipalities: Campodipietra, Gildone, Riccia, Toro; each year, the feast of Saint Anne is held here. It is referred to as the feast of grain. Villagers are free to enter the float competition, in which case they must create a float out of grain, which can or cannot have to do with Saint Anne. If it is pulled by a cow, it is a traglia. John CiacciaItalian-Canadian politician and cabinet minister best known for being the lead government negotiator in the Oka Crisis, born in Jelsi in 1933 and immigrated to Canada in 1937 Official website Jelsi Feast of the corn Wheat community museum


Trigona is the largest genus of stingless bees, comprising over 80 species occurring in the New World, including many more subgenera than the present assemblage. Trigona species occur throughout the Neotropical region, including South and Central America, the Mexican lowlands, the Caribbean islands, they can occur in forests and man made environments. Trigona bees are active all year round. Trigona nests are constructed from plant resins they collect, they nest in tree cavities and underground. Vulture bees comprise three Trigona species, are the only bees known to be scavengers; these bees feed on dead animal flesh. Some species of Trigona bees use saliva to lay scent trails guiding nest mates to a food source; some species of Trigona use eavesdropping which help them detect food sources being exploited by competitors. Trigona barrocoloradensis Trigona branneri—Mato Grosso Trigona chanchamayoensis—Mato Grosso Trigona cilipes—América Trigona corvina - Central and South America Trigona ferricauda—América Trigona fulviventris—México.

Trigona fuscipennis—México to Brasil. Trigona hyalinata—Mato Grosso Trigona nigerrima—América. Trigona nigra—México. Trigona pallens—América Trigona recursa—Mato Grosso Trigona silvestriana—América Trigona spinipes—arapuá,%2071-74.pdf

The Def Dames

Def Dames were an American female rap duo from Bakersfield, California. The duo consisted of Marilyn Smith, known as "Kandy Kane" she gose by her Sacramento alias "Touch," and Yolanda Sugart, known as "Special T" or "The Ace Senorita." She was replaced by Petrina Walker known as "Larissa" in 1991, now residing in Nv. The Def Dames are best known for their first album, 2-4-The Bass, their three top singles: "976 Boom," "Set it Off," and "The King of Romance," from the late 1980s and early 1990s; the Def Dames was founded in Bakersfield, California by former "Black Diamond" and "Uncle Famous Band" member, Stephen Ewers, he is best known by his stage name DJ Sparkle, in the mid-to-late 1980s. The original Def Dames duo consisted of Marilyn Smith, best known by her stage name Kandy Kane. who generated a local buzz at the time and caught the attention of local hip hop music producer DJ Sparkle. The other member of the duo was Yolanda Sugart, known, or by her alias the Ace Senorita. Due to monetary disputes Special T quit the Def Dames, was replaced by Petrina Walker aka known as Pretty Poizon, who made her first appearance with the Def Dames filling in for Special T, in "The King of Romance" video in 1991.

The Def Dames is among the first female rap duo's from the Central Valley, the first from Bakersfield to make the Top 20 on the Billboard's Hot Rap Singles chart. The Def Dames is known for their six releases and remixes they did of popular Top-40 hits in the late 80s and early 90s; the group released two albums: 2-4-The Bass, 2-Large. They released four singles: "Set it Off," "976 Boom," "The King of Romance," and "Whip It," a remake of Devo's popular song, they released "Irresistible Bitch," a remix of the original track by Prince. In 1989 the Def Dames signed a deal with the "Sedona Recording Company" a division of the Bertelsmann Music Group, recorded their debut album, 2-4-The Bass; the 2-4-The bass album was produced by Stephen "DJ Sparkle" Ewers. The "2-4-The Bass," album was the only album by the Def Dames that made the Billboards R&B Albums Charts to date; the "2-4-The Bass," album debuted at No. #76. The album's first single, "976-Boom," peaked at No. #19 on Billboard's Hot Rap Singles chart, their highest chart appearance to date.

The follow-up single, "Set it Off," peaked at No. #20. That same year, DJ Sparkle and The Def Dames performed live in concert at the Throw Down Fest 89 Dance Concert; the event was presented by North Side Records and Mix-Tapes, powered by radio stations B95, KUFW. The concert was held at the Visalia Convention Center; the Def Dames shared the stage with artist such as Bay Area performer Colin, Fresno freestyle performer Timmy T and Bakersfield's DJ. Sparkle was among the performing acts. In 1991, the duo released their sophomore album, 2-Large, written by the Def Dames and produced by DJ Gil, it did not make Billboard's R&B albums chart. The only single to chart from 2-Large was "The King of Romance," which peaked at #26 on Billboard's Hot Rap Singles chart; the other single release from the album, "Whip It," didn’t chart. In October of that year the Def Dames had performed at the pay-per-view concert event called Sisters In The Name of Rap they performed "Set it Off " live. Featured at the historic rap event were some of hip hop's legendary female artists from both the east and west coasts, including Salt-N-Pepa, Queen Latifah, Yo-Yo, MC Lyte, Roxanne Shante, Tam Tam, Shelly Thunder.

The event was a pay-per-view TV concert directed by Chris Balton Productions. The show was hosted by Dee Barnes, taped in front of live audience at The Ritz in New York City. In 1992 the Def Dames' single "Set it Off" appeared on the Various Artists: – 1st Ladies Of Rap CD compilation. Featured were other popular hits by early female rap artists such as:"Ladies First" by, featuring Monie Love. Make You Mine by. Get Busy" by Get Fresh Girls; the Def Dames single "Set it Off," along with Tony! Toni! Toné!'s smash hit, "Feels Good," were featured on the TV sitcom In Living Color's Season 2 episode 1-4, titled Fly Girls. The Def Dames are west coast hip hop pioneers, in terms of being female rappers and is among the first female rap duo's from Central California to chart on the mainstream rap Billboard's "r&b albums" and "hot rap singles" charts; the Def Dames is arguably the first female rap duo to emerge from the Central Valley coming out of Kern County. 2-4-The Bass 2-Large Various artists: – 1st Ladies Of Rap CD compilation SDR Compilation Pay-per-view concert - "Sisters In The Name of Rap" Living Color - "Fly Girls," Season 2.

Episode 1-4 The Def Dames: "2-4-The Bass" album 1989 July 3, 2015 YouTube - "The King Of Romance" Pay-per-view concert - "Sisters In The Name of Rap"