Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is used synonymously for outside northern Europe, for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus; the Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia. It refers to the final period of hunter-gatherer cultures in Europe and Western Asia, between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution. In Europe it spans 15,000 to 5,000 BP; the term is less used of areas further east, not at all beyond Eurasia and North Africa. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, the development of more sophisticated and smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic. Depending on the region, some use of pottery and textiles may be found in sites allocated to the Mesolithic, but indications of agriculture are taken as marking transition into the Neolithic.
The more permanent settlements tend to be close to the sea or inland waters offering a good supply of food. Mesolithic societies are not seen as complex, burials are simple; the terms "Paleolithic" and "Neolithic" were introduced by John Lubbock in his work Pre-historic Times in 1865. The additional "Mesolithic" category was added as an intermediate category by Hodder Westropp in 1866. Westropp's suggestion was controversial. A British school led by John Evans denied any need for an intermediate: the ages blended together like the colors of a rainbow, he said. A European school led by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet asserted that there was a gap between the earlier and later. Edouard Piette claimed to have filled the gap with his naming of the Azilian Culture. Knut Stjerna offered an alternative in the "Epipaleolithic", suggesting a final phase of the Paleolithic rather than an intermediate age in its own right inserted between the Paleolithic and Neolithic. By the time of Vere Gordon Childe's work, The Dawn of Europe, which affirms the Mesolithic, sufficient data had been collected to determine that a transitional period between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic was indeed a useful concept.
However, the terms "Mesolithic" and "Epipalaeolitic" remain in competition, with varying conventions of usage. In the archaeology of Northern Europe, for example for archaeological sites in Great Britain, Scandinavia and Russia, the term "Mesolithic" is always used. In the archaeology of other areas, the term "Epipaleolithic" may be preferred by most authors, or there may be divergences between authors over which term to use or what meaning to assign to each. In the New World, neither term is used. "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes used alongside "Mesolithic" for the final end of the Upper Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic. As "Mesolithic" suggests an intermediate period, followed by the Neolithic, some authors prefer the term "Epipaleolithic" for hunter-gatherer cultures who are not succeeded by agricultural traditions, reserving "Mesolithic" for cultures who are succeeded by the Neolithic Revolution, such as the Natufian culture. Other authors use "Mesolithic" as a generic term for post-LGM hunter-gatherer cultures, whether they are transitional towards agriculture or not.
In addition, terminology appears to differ between archaeological sub-disciplines, with "Mesolithic" being used in European archaeology, while "Epipalaeolithic" is more common in Near Eastern archaeology. The Balkan Mesolithic begins around 15,000 years ago. In Western Europe, the Early Mesolithic, or Azilian, begins about 14,000 years ago, in the Franco-Cantabrian region of northern Spain and southern France. In other parts of Europe, the Mesolithic begins by 11,500 years ago, it ends with the introduction of farming, depending on the region between c. 8,500 and 5,500 years ago. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate; such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures.
Such conditions delayed the coming of the Neolithic until some 5,500 BP in northern Europe. The type of stone toolkit remains one of the most diagnostic features: the Mesolithic used a microlithic technology – composite devices manufactured with Mode V chipped stone tools, while the Paleolithic had utilized Modes I–IV. In some areas, such as Ireland, parts of Portugal, the Isle of Man and the Tyrrhenian Islands, a macrolithic technology was used in the Mesolithic. In the Neolithic, the microlithic technology was replaced by a macrolithic technology, with an increased use of polished stone tools such as stone axes. There is some evidence for the beginning of construction at sites with a ritual or astronomical significance, including Stonehenge, with a short row of large post holes aligned east-west, a possible "lunar calendar" at Warren Field in Scotland, with pits of post holes of varying sizes, thought to reflect the lunar phases. Both are dated to before c. 9,000 BP. As the "Neolithic package" (including farming, polished stone axes, timber longhouses and pot
Churchkhela is a traditional Georgian candle-shaped candy. The main ingredients are grape must and flour. Almonds, walnuts and chocolate and sometimes raisins are threaded onto a string, dipped in thickened grape juice or fruit juices and dried in the shape of a sausage; the traditional technology of churchkhela in the Kakheti region was inscribed on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Georgia list in 2015. Churchkhela and its varieties are popular in several countries besides Georgia, such as Iran, Cyprus, Russia and Turkey. In Persian, it's known as "Lævascæck Adjili". In Armenian and Turkish it is known as "sujuk", a dry sausage. To distinguish the two, it is sometimes referred to as "sweet sujukh" in Armenian and cevizli sucuk in Turkish, it is known as soutzouki in Greece. The Cypriot variety is made by dipping strings of almonds into jelly, called palouzes. Churchkhela is a homemade Georgian product. Georgians make Churchkhela in Autumn when the primary ingredients and nuts, are harvested, it is a string of walnut halves that have been dipped in grape juice called Tatara or Phelamushi, dried in the sun.
No sugar is added to make real Churchkhela. Instead of walnuts, sometimes hazelnuts or almonds are used in the regions of west Georgia; the shape of Churchkhela looks like a candle. Georgian warriors carried Churchkhelas with them; the best Churchkhela is made in Kakheti region, renowned as the motherland of wine. The juice is heated slowly. A small amount of a special white earth called asproi is added to the boiling must and causes impurities to rise to the surface, where they are collected and removed, it is possible to substitute asproi, when not available, with lager beer, which has a similar result. Once the cleansing process is complete, the liquid is left to cool. Next, flour is added while heating the mixture; when it reaches the right consistency, based on the rate of steam bubbles and the viscosity of the mixture, it is removed from the heat. The mix, called Badagi, is now ready for use in the next step in the process of making Churchkhelas, which consists of preparing the nuts for dipping.
Before they are threaded, the nuts have to be dipped into water in order to soften them. Once soft enough, they are strung onto 2-3 meter-long threads; the strings are dipped in the Badagi mixture until covered. This process is repeated several times. Churchkhelas strings are left to dry for 5–6 days, they are ready for consumption or storage though some people like to eat it fresh. Churchkhela is a snack for in-between and is served as a dessert during the New Year and Christmas celebrations. Gozinaki List of grape dishes Pestil Media related to Churchkhela at Wikimedia Commons
Turkish cuisine is the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including those of Southeast Europe, Central Europe, Western Europe; the Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Levantine cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia, creating a vast array of specialities—many with strong regional associations. Turkish cuisine varies across the country; the cooking of Istanbul, Bursa and rest of the Asia Minor region inherits many elements of Ottoman court cuisine, with a lighter use of spices, a preference for rice over bulgur, koftes and a wider availability of vegetable stews, stuffed dolmas and fish. The cuisine of the Black Sea Region uses fish extensively the Black Sea anchovy and includes maize dishes; the cuisine of the southeast is famous for its variety of kebabs and dough-based desserts such as baklava, şöbiyet, kadayıf, künefe.
In the western parts of Turkey, where olive trees grow abundantly, olive oil is the major type of oil used for cooking. The cuisines of the Aegean and Mediterranean regions are rich in vegetables and fish. Central Anatolia has many famous specialties, such as keşkek, gözleme. Food names directly cognate with mantı are found in Chinese and Korean cuisine. A specialty's name sometimes includes that of a city or region, either in or outside of Turkey, may refer to the specific technique or ingredients used in that area. For example, the difference between Urfa kebap and Adana kebap is the thickness of the skewer and the amount of hot pepper that the kebab contains. Urfa kebap is less thicker than Adana kebap. Although meat-based foods such as kebabs are the mainstay in Turkish cuisine as presented in foreign countries, native Turkish meals center around rice and bread. Turks prefer a rich breakfast. A typical Turkish breakfast consists of cheese, olives, tomatoes, jam and kaymak, pastırma, börek, simit, poğaça and soups are eaten as a morning meal in Turkey.
A specialty for breakfast is called menemen, prepared with tomatoes, green peppers, olive oil and eggs. Invariably, Turkish tea is served at breakfast; the Turkish word for breakfast, kahvaltı, means "before coffee". Homemade food is still preferred by Turkish people. Although the newly introduced way of life pushes the new generation to eat out. A typical meal starts with soup, followed by a dish made of vegetables or legumes boiled in a pot with or before rice or bulgur pilav accompanied by a salad or cacık. In summertime many people prefer to eat a cold dish of vegetables cooked with olive oil instead of the soup, either before or after the main course, which can be a chicken, meat or fish plate. Although fast food is gaining popularity and many major foreign fast food chains have opened all over Turkey, Turkish people still rely on the rich and extensive dishes of Turkish cuisine. In addition, some traditional Turkish foods köfte, döner, kokoreç, kumpir midye tava börek and gözleme, are served as fast food in Turkey.
Eating out has always been common in large commercial cities. Esnaf lokantası are widespread. In the hot Turkish summer, a meal consists of fried vegetables such as eggplant and peppers or potatoes served with yogurt or tomato sauce. Menemen and çılbır are typical summer dishes, based on eggs. Sheep cheese, tomatoes and melons make a light summer meal; those who like helva for dessert prefer summer helva, lighter and less sweet than the regular one. Used ingredients in Turkish specialties include: lamb, rice, eggplants, green peppers, garlic, beans and tomatoes. Nuts pistachios, almonds and walnuts, together with spices, have a special place in Turkish cuisine, are used extensively in desserts or eaten separately. Semolina flour is used to make a cake called irmik helvasi. Olives are common on various breakfasts and meze tables frequently. Beyaz peynir and yogurt are part of many dishes including börek, manti and cacik. Butter or margarine, olive oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, corn oil are used for cooking.
Sesame, hazelnut and walnut oils are used as well. Kuyruk yağı is sometimes used in kebabs and meat dishes; the rich and diverse flora of Turkey means that fruit is varied and cheap. In Ottoman cuisine, fruit accompanied meat as a side dish. Plums, pomegranates, apples and figs, along with many kinds of citrus are the most used fruit, either fresh or dried, in Turkish cuisine. For example, komposto or hoşaf are among the main side dishes to pilav. Dolma and pilaf contain currants or raisins. Etli yaprak sarma used to be cooked with sour plums in
A torte or is a rich multilayered, cake, filled with whipped cream, mousses, jams, or fruits. Ordinarily, the cooled torte is garnished. Tortes are baked in a springform pan. Sponge cake is a common base, but a torte's cake layers may instead be made with little to no flour, using ingredients such as ground nuts or breadcrumbs; the best-known of the typical tortes include the Austrian Sachertorte and Linzertorte, the German Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte, the many-layered Hungarian Dobos torte. But other well-known European confections are tortes, such as the French Gâteau St. Honoré. In Poland and Russia cakes are called tortes without differentiating between cake and torte. In Polish, as an example, the English word torte is translated into Polish as tort, but tort can be translated as layer cake or cream cake. Birthday cake is tort wedding cake is tort weselny; the diminutive of tort, torcik is translated as gateau. An element common to some tortes is sweet icing When the cake is layered, a thick covering of icing is placed between the layers, there is always icing on the tops and sides of the torte.
An example is the whiskey cake. A number of European tortes do not have layers. Some, for instance German-style "Käsesahnetorte", are unbaked. Torta Cakes portal torte recipe at The Times Nov. 24 2007 Torte
Corylus colurna, the Turkish hazel or Turkish filbert, is a deciduous tree native to southeast Europe and southwest Asia, from the Balkans through northern Turkey to northern Iran. It is found grown wildly in the forests of Western Himalayan range in the north Indian state of Himachal Pradesh in the temperate regions of districts of Kullu, Kinnaur district and Chamba district, it is the largest species of hazel. The bark is pale grey-buff, with a corky texture; the leaves are deciduous, rounded, 6–15 cm long and 5–13 cm across hairy on both surfaces, with a coarsely double-serrate to shallowly lobed margin. The main limbs are quite small in diameter in relationship to the straight trunk, arise at a 90-degree angle. Making the tree quite durable to urban conditions and helps maintain a symmetrical crown which landscape architects love so much; the flowers bloom in early spring before the leaves, are dioecious, with single-sex catkins. The flowers on female trees are not visible. On male trees, the flowers are visible.
The fruit is a nut sometimes called "Turkish nuts" about 1–2 cm long, surrounded by a thick spiny and bristly involucre 3 cm diameter, which encloses all but the tip of the nut. The fruit matures in September and is edible, with a taste, similar to common hazels. However, their small size and hard, thick nut shell makes them of little or no commercial value. Corylus colurna is however important in commercial hazelnut orchards, as it does not sucker, making it the ideal rootstock on which to graft the nut-bearing common hazel cultivars; the nut can only be found on female trees. Nut production occurs every two to three years Corylus colurna have fibrous roots; the roots of Corylus colurna are not adventitious. This makes Corylus colurna desirable for grafting on the rootstock over a single stemmed trees; this allows Corylus colurna to be grown in rocky soils. Corylus colurna has a medium growth rate, it is drought tolerant and alkaline soil tolerant. However, it prefers well-drained soil, as well as full sun.
Once established Corylus colurna is tolerant of heat and drought. There are no serious problems with Corylus colurna. Corylus colurna is not transplantable and will need extra watering in summer after transplanting, it will take about two years after transplant for the tree to become established and survive on its own. The most common form of propagation for Corylus colurna is by seed, it is best sown as soon. The seed will germinate in late spring. If you are starting with a stored seed, the seed should be pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and given 2 weeks warm followed by 3 to 4 months cold stratification; this will allow the seed to germinate in 1 to 6 months if kept at 20 °C. Once the seed is large enough to handle, pick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or sheltered place outdoors for their first winter. You can plant the seed into their permanent positions in early summer. There are a couple distinct features to identify Corylus colurna. Leaves are alternate, simple,broadly ovate to obovate, doubly serrate, glabrous above, pubescent veins below.
Corylus colurnas buds are green tinted brown. And pubescent. Young trees have gray stems. Corylus colurna is cultivated as an ornamental tree in Europe and North America, it is tolerant of difficult growing conditions in urban situations, which has increased its popularity in civic planting schemes in recent decades. Turkish hazel makes a wonderful shade tree since it produces dense shade, its narrow crown and ability to withstand air-pollution make it well suited for use as a street tree in urban areas, it makes a rather formal statement in the landscape due to the tight, consistently-shaped, narrow crown. It is well suited for areas. Corylus colurna is used in different sized parking lot islands and a variety of wide lawns, it is recommended for a buffer strip around parking highways. It is used as a street tree, specimen tree, or in sidewalk cut outs. Other landscape uses for Corylus colurna are for fruit and dry sites, naturalistic areas, street trees. Corylus colurna - information, genetic conservation units and related resources.
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To