A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. Pigs can consume a wide range of food. Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus used for human medical research; the Online Etymology Dictionary provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. "young pig". Related to Low German bigge, Dutch big.... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow". "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities".
Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages: Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su-, from PIE root *su- imitative of pig noise, it is likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is derived. An adjectival form is porcine. Another adjectival form is suine. A typical pig has a large head with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip; the snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground; the dental formula of adult pigs is 188.8.131.52.1.4.3. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other.
Captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets if they become stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets, it is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet; the ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia and South America, numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar.
The wild pig can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most rise due to the pigs' increased reproduction rate. Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals eating leaves, roots and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish; as livestock, pigs are fed corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day; when kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.
Domesticated pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets. Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are hunted; the short, coarse hairs of the pig are called brist
A head is the part of an organism which includes the ears, forehead, chin, eyes and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing and taste, respectively. Some simple animals may not have a head, but many bilaterally symmetric forms do, regardless of size. Heads develop in animals by an evolutionary trend known as cephalization. In bilaterally symmetrical animals, nervous tissues concentrate at the anterior region, forming structures responsible for information processing. Through biological evolution, sense organs and feeding structures concentrate into the anterior region; the human head is an anatomical unit that consists of hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae. The term "skull" collectively denotes the cranium; the skull can be described as being composed of the cranium, which encloses the cranial cavity, the facial skeleton. There are fourteen in the facial skeleton. Sculptures of human heads are based on a skeletal structure that consists of a cranium and cheekbone.
Though the number of muscles making up the face is consistent between sculptures, the shape of the muscles varies based on the function and expressions reflected on the faces of the subjects. Proponents of identism believe. Philosopher John Searle asserts his identist beliefs, stating "the brain is the only thing in the human head". Dr. Henry Bennet-Clark has stated that the head encloses billions of "miniagents and microagents"; the evolution of a head is associated with the cephalization that occurred in Bilateria some 555 million years ago. In some arthropods trilobites, the cephalon, or cephalic region, is the region of the head, a collective of "fused segments". A typical insect head is composed of eyes and components of mouth; as these components differ from insect to insect, they form important identification links. Eyes in the head found, in several types of insects, are in the form of a pair of compound eyes with multiple faces. In many other types of insects the compound eyes are seen in a "single facet or group of single facets".
In some case, the eyes may be seen as marks on the dorsal or located near or toward the head, two or three ocelli. Antennae on the insect's head is found in the form of segmented attachments, in pairs, that are located between the eyes; these are in varying shapes and sizes, in the form of filaments or in different enlarged or clubbed form. Insects have mouth parts in various shapes depending on their feeding habits. Labrum is the "upper lip", in the front area of the head and is the most exterior part. A pair of mandible is found on backside of the labrum flanking the side of the mouth, succeeded by a pair of maxillae each of, known as maxilliary palp. At the back side of the mouth is lower lip. There is an extra mouth part in some insects, termed as hypopharynx, located between the maxillac. Though invertebrate chordates – such as the tunicate larvae or the lancelets – have heads, there has been a question of how the vertebrate head, characterized by a bony skull separated from the main body, might have evolved from the head structures of these animals.
According to Hyman, the evolution of the head in the vertebrates has occurred by the fusion of a fixed number of anterior segments, in the same manner as in other "heteronomously segmented animals". In some cases, segments or a portion of the segments disappear; the head segments lose most of its systems except for the nervous system. With the progressive development of cephalization, "the head incorporates more and more of the adjacent segments into its structure, so that in general it may be said that the higher the degree of cephalization the greater is the number of segments composing the head". In the 1980s, the "new head hypothesis" was proposed, suggesting that the vertebrate head is an evolutionary novelty resulting from the emergence of neural crest and cranial placodes. In 2014, a transient larva tissue of the lancelet was found to be indistinguishable from the neural crest-derived cartilage which forms the vertebrate skull, suggesting that persistence of this tissue and expansion into the entire headspace could be a viable evolutionary route to formation of the vertebrate head.
The heads of humans and other animals are recurring charges in heraldry. Heads of humans are sometimes blazoned as a "man's head", but are far more described in greater detail, either characteristic of a particular race or nationality, or identified. Several varieties of women's heads occur, including maidens' heads, ladies' heads, nuns' heads, queens' heads; the arms of Devaney of Norfolk include "three nun's heads veiled couped at the shoulders proper," and the bust of a queen occurs in the arms of Queenborough, Kent. Infants' or children's heads are couped at the shoulders with a snake wrapped around the neck. One of the ways of drawing sketches of heads—as Jack Hamm advises—is to develop it in six well-defined
Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, flavorless food ingredient, derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. Brittle when dry and gummy when moist, it is called hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, collagen peptides, it is used as a gelling agent in food, medications and vitamin capsules, photographic films and papers, cosmetics. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are "gelatinous". Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis reduces protein fibrils into smaller peptides. Gelatin is in gelatin desserts. Gelatin for cooking comes as powder and sheets. Instant types can be added to the food. Hydrolysis results in the reduction of collagen protein fibrils of about 300,000 Da into smaller peptides. Depending upon the process of hydrolysis, peptides will have broad molecular weight ranges associated with physical and chemical methods of denaturation; the amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen.
Hydrolyzed collagen contains 19 amino acids, predominantly glycine and hydroxyproline, which together represent around 50% of the total amino acid content. Hydrolyzed collagen contains 8 out of 9 essential amino acids, including glycine and arginine—two amino-acid precursors necessary for the biosynthesis of creatine, it contains no tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine and methionine. The bioavailability of hydrolyzed collagen in mice was demonstrated in a 1999 study. A 2005 study in humans found hydrolyzed collagen absorbed as small peptides in the blood. Ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen may affect the skin by increasing the density of collagen fibrils and fibroblasts, thereby stimulating collagen production, it has been suggested, based on mouse and in vitro studies, that hydrolyzed collagen peptides have chemotactic properties on fibroblasts or an influence on growth of fibroblasts. Some clinical studies report that the oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen decreases joint pain, those with the most severe symptoms showing the most benefit.
Beneficial action is due to hydrolyzed collagen accumulation in the cartilage and stimulated production of collagen by the chondrocytes, the cells of cartilage. Several studies have shown that a daily intake of hydrolyzed collagen increases bone mass density in rats, it seems that hydrolyzed collagen peptides stimulated differentiation and osteoblasts activity - the cells that build bone - over that of osteoclasts. However, other clinical trials have yielded mixed results. In 2011, the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products and Allergies concluded that "a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joints". Four other studies reported benefit with no side effects. One study found that oral collagen only improved symptoms in a minority of patients and reported nausea as a side effect. Another study reported no improvement in disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Another study found that collagen treatment may cause an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.
Hydrolyzed collagen, like gelatin, is made from animal by-products from the meat industry, including skin and connective tissue. In 1997, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, with support from the TSE Advisory Committee, began monitoring the potential risk of transmitting animal diseases bovine spongiform encephalopathy known as mad cow disease. An FDA study from that year stated: "...steps such as heat, alkaline treatment, filtration could be effective in reducing the level of contaminating TSE agents. On March 18, 2016 the FDA finalized three previously-issued interim final rules designed to further reduce the potential risk of BSE in human food; the final rule clarified that "gelatin is not considered a prohibited cattle material if it is manufactured using the customary industry processes specified."The Scientific Steering Committee of the European Union in 2003 stated that the risk associated with bovine bone gelatin is low or zero. In 2006, the European Food Safety Authority stated that the SSC opinion was confirmed, that the BSE risk of bone-derived gelatin was small, that it recommended removal of the 2003 request to exclude the skull and vertebrae of bovine origin older than 12 months from the material used in gelatin manufacturing.
In cosmetics, hydrolyzed collagen may be found in topical creams, acting as a product texture conditioner, moisturizer. Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken and fish. During hydrolysis, the natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily, its chemical composition is, in many aspects similar to that of its parent collagen. P
Lefse is a traditional soft Norwegian flatbread. It is made with potatoes, flour and milk or cream, it is cooked on a flat griddle. Special tools are used to prepare lefse, including long wooden turning sticks and special rolling pins with deep grooves. There are many ways of flavoring lefse; the most common is rolling it up. In Norway, this is known as "lefse-klenning". Other options include adding cinnamon and/or sugar, or spreading jelly, lingonberries or gomme on it. Scandinavian-American variations include rolling it with a thin layer of peanut butter and sugar, with butter and white or brown sugar, with butter and corn syrup, or with ham and eggs. Eaten with beef and other savory items like Ribberull and mustard, it is comparable to a tortilla. Lefse is a traditional accompaniment to lutefisk, the fish is rolled up in the lefse. There are significant regional variations in Norway in the way lefse is made and eaten, but it resembles a flatbread, although in many parts of Norway Valdres, it is far thinner.
Tynnlefse is a variation made in central Norway. Tynnlefse is rolled up with butter and cinnamon. Tjukklefse or tykklefse is thicker and served with coffee as a cake. Potetlefse is similar to and made with potatoes. Potetkake or Lompe being the "smaller-cousin" of the potato lefse, is used in place of a hot-dog bun and can be used to roll up sausages; this is known as pølse med lompe in Norway. Møsbrømlefse is a variation common to Salten district in Nordland in North Norway. Møsbrømmen consists of half water and half the cheese smooth with flour or corn flour to a half thick sauce that greased the cooled lefse. Lefse is ready when møsbrømmen is warm and the butter is melted. Nordlandslefse is a chunky small lefse. Made of butter, sugar and flour. Created in western Norway as a treat to fishermen who were on the Lofoten Fishery. Anislefse is made on the coast of Hordaland, it resembles thin lefse but is thicker, it is stained by large amounts of whole aniseed. Another variety, the Hardangerlefse, is made from yeast-risen Graham flour or a fine ground whole wheat flour.
Additionally, it is made with egg yolks and buttermilk instead of potatoes. The dough is rolled with a conventional rolling pin until it is thin and does not stick to the surface, it is cut with a grooved rolling pin in perpendicular directions, cutting a grid into the dough which prevents it from creating air pockets as it cooks. The grid cut can aid in thinner rolling of the lefse, as the ridges help preserve structural integrity; the lefse is cooked at high temperature until browned, left to dry. It can be freeze dried by freezing and thawing. Dried Hardangerlefse can be stored without refrigeration for six months or more, so long as it is kept dry, it is customarily thought that the bread was a staple on the seagoing voyages as far back as Viking times. The wet lefse is dipped in water, placed within a towel, dipped in water and wrung out. Many people maintain that dipping in seawater enhances the flavor; the dry lefse regains its bread-like texture in about 60 minutes. That time is used to prepare such ingredients as eggs or herring which are wrapped in the lefse once it has softened.
Lefse is a Scandinavian treat, popular around the Christmas holidays. Many Scandinavian-Americans eat lefse around Thanksgiving and Christmas. While the Midwest always makes its lefse with potatoes, this is not the case in Norway; when one uses the term “lefse” in the United States, it more than refers to what Norwegians call potato lefse. Norwegians, however make Hardanger lefse with egg yolks and buttermilk; the tradition of making lefse was brought over by Norwegian Americans, potato lefse itself was made when their potato crop was successful. Due to this, it became more prevalently made than other types in the United States; when lefse was able to be made, it was stored in small storage buildings called bryggehaus. When Norwegian immigrants first arrived in America, they did not have the usual foods they were used to back home, including milk and porridge, dried meat, lefse, but early Norwegian-American immigrants brought folded lefse to eat for the beginning stages of their immigration journey via ship.
After these were eaten, the lack of food they were used to is why they turned back to tradition so quickly. During World War I, Americans were encouraged to eat potatoes to be patriotic, as the front lines needed the wheat grown at home. Lefse, a staple for Norwegian Americans, was eaten with gusto during this time. While lefse is not eaten with day-to-day meals in Norway today, Norwegian Americans traditionally give prominence to having lefse with their supper, considering it their specialty. Furthermore, that some Norwegian Americans still make lefse has been considered by some ethnic Norwegians to be unstylish, as it has fallen so out of tradition to hand-make the dish. Family members gather to cook lefse as a group effort because the process is more enjoyable as a traditional holiday activity; this gathering provides training to younger generations keeping the tradition alive. As the skills and patience to make lefse have been passed down less into the modern generation, the rounds have gotten thicker and smaller, whereas an ideal lefse is thin and large.
The Sons of Norway have lodges to teach making lefse to younger generations. One of these lodges, in Vancouver, Washington
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, is very common in the Western world in Central Europe, it is prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, confit from pig. Intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers; the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard; the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples have been a staple pairing to fresh pork; the year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates. Pigs are the most eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears and feet. According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006. Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China. Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine.
It is consumed in a great many ways and esteemed in Chinese cuisine. China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption. In China, pork is preferred over beef for aesthetic reasons. Domestic pigs feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling; the colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve". Red braised pork, a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong. Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy. Pork may be cured over time. Cured meat products include bacon.
The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner. Pork is common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with smoking. Shoulders and legs are most cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side. Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, their consumption has increased with industrialisation.
Non-western cuisines use preserved meat produc
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant. The whole, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, lemon juice, wine, or other liquids and other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown; the taste of mustard ranges from sweet to spicy. Paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is added to sandwiches, corn dogs, hot dogs, it is used as an ingredient in many dressings, sauces and marinades. As a cream or as individual seeds, mustard is used as a condiment in the cuisine of India and Bangladesh, the Mediterranean and southeastern Europe, the Americas, Africa, making it one of the most popular and used spices and condiments in the world; the English word "mustard" derives from Old French mostarde. The first element is from Latin mustum, —the condiment was prepared by making the ground seeds into a paste with must; the second element comes from Latin ardens. It was first attested in English in the late 13th century, though it was found as a surname a century earlier.
Archeological excavations in the Indus Valley have revealed. That civilization existed until about 1800 BC; the Romans were the first to experiment with the preparation of mustard as a condiment. They mixed unfermented grape juice with ground mustard seeds to make "burning must", mustum ardens — hence "must ard". A recipe for mustard appears in De re coquinaria, the anonymously compiled Roman cookbook from the late fourth or early fifth century; the Romans exported mustard seed to Gaul, by the 10th century, monks of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris absorbed the mustard-making knowledge of Romans and began their own production. The first appearance of mustard makers on the royal registers in Paris dates back to 1292. Dijon, became a recognized center for mustard making by the 13th century; the popularity of mustard in Dijon is evidenced by written accounts of guests consuming 320 litres of mustard creme in a single sitting at a gala held by the Duke of Burgundy in 1336. In 1777, one of the most famous Dijon mustard makers, Grey-Poupon, was established as a partnership between Maurice Grey, a mustard maker with a unique recipe containing white wine.
Their success was aided by the introduction of the first automatic mustard-making machine. In 1937, Dijon mustard was granted an Appellation d'origine contrôlée. Due to its long tradition of mustard making, Dijon is regarded as the mustard capital of the world; the early use of mustard as a condiment in England is attested from the year 1390 in the book The Forme of Cury, written by King Richard II's master cooks. It was prepared in the form of mustard balls—coarse-ground mustard seed combined with flour and cinnamon, rolled into balls, dried—which were stored and combined with vinegar or wine to make mustard paste as needed; the town of Tewkesbury was well known for its high-quality mustard balls made with ground mustard mixed with horseradish and dried for storage, which were exported to London and other parts of the country, are mentioned in William Shakespeare's play King Henry the Fourth, Part II. The use of mustard as a hot dog condiment is said to have been first seen in the US at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, when the bright-yellow French's mustard was introduced by the R.
T. French Company. Mustard is most used at the table as a condiment on cold meats, it is used as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette and barbecue sauce. It is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs and bratwurst. In the Netherlands and northern Belgium, it is used to make mustard soup, which includes mustard, parsley and pieces of salted bacon. Mustard as an emulsifier can stabilize a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids, such as oil and water. Added to Hollandaise sauce, mustard can inhibit curdling; the amounts of various nutrients in mustard seed are to be found in the USDA National Nutrient Database. As a condiment, mustard averages about 5 kcal per teaspoon; some of the many vitamins and nutrients found in mustard seeds are omega 3 fatty acid. The many varieties of prepared mustards have a wide range of strengths and flavors, depending on the variety of mustard seed and the preparation method; the basic taste and "heat" of the mustard are determined by seed type and ingredients. Preparations from the white mustard plant have a less pungent flavor than preparations of black mustard or brown Indian mustard.
The temperature of the water and concentration of acids such as vinegar determine the strength of a prepared mustard. Thus, "hot" mustard is made with cold water, whereas using hot water produces a milder condiment, all else being equal. Mustard oil can be extracted from the meal of the seed; the mustard plant ingredient itself has a sharp, pungent flavor. Mixing ground mustard seeds with water causes a chemical reaction between two compounds in the seed: the enzyme myrosinase and