A classification yard or marshalling yard is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks. First the cars are taken to a track, sometimes called a lead or a drill. From there the cars are sent through a series of switches called a ladder onto the classification tracks. Larger yards tend to put the lead on an artificially built hill called a hump to use the force of gravity to propel the cars through the ladder. Freight trains that consist of isolated cars must be made into trains and divided according to their destinations, thus the cars must be shunted several times along their route in contrast to a unit train, which carries, for example, cars from the plant to a port, or coal from a mine to the power plant. This shunting is done at the starting and final destinations and in classification yards. Flat yards are constructed on a gentle slope. Freight cars are pushed by a coast to their required location. Hump yards are the largest and most effective classification yards, with the largest shunting capacity several thousand cars a day.
The heart of these yards is the hump—a lead track on a small hill over which an engine pushes the cars. Single cars, or a block of coupled cars, are uncoupled just before or at the crest of the hump, roll by gravity onto their destination tracks in the tracks where the cars are sorted, called the classification bowl; the speed of the cars rolling down from the hump into the classification bowl must be regulated according to whether they are full or empty, heavy or light freight, varying number of axles, whether there are few or many cars on the classification tracks, varying weather conditions, including temperature, wind speed and direction. As concerns speed regulation, there are two types of hump yards—without or with mechanisation by retarders. In the old non-retarder yards braking was done in Europe by railroaders who laid skates onto the tracks; the skate or wheel chock was manually placed on one or both of the rails so that the treadles or rims of the wheel or wheels caused frictional retardation and resulted in the halting of the railway car.
In the United States this braking was done by riders on the cars. In the modern retarder yards this work is done by mechanized "rail brakes" called retarders, which brake the cars by gripping the wheels, they are operated either pneumatically or hydraulically. Pneumatic systems are prevalent in the United States, Belgium and China, while hydraulic systems are used in Germany and the Netherlands. Classification bowls in Europe consist of 20 to 40 tracks, divided into several fans or balloons of tracks with eight classification tracks following a retarder in each one 32 tracks altogether. In the United States, many classification bowls have more than 40 tracks, which are divided into six to ten classification tracks in each balloon loop. Bailey Yard in North Platte, United States, the world's largest classification yard, is a hump yard. Other large American hump yards include Argentine Yard in Kansas City, the second-largest in the world, Robert Young Yard in Elkhart, Clearing Yard in Chicago, Englewood Yard in Houston and Waycross Rice Yard in Waycross, Georgia.
Notably, in Europe and China, all major classification yards are hump yards. Europe's largest hump yard is that of Maschen near Germany; the second largest is in the port of Belgium. Most hump yards are single yards with one classification bowl, but some very large, hump yards have two of them, one for each direction, thus are double yards, such as the Maschen, Antwerp and Bailey yards. According to the PRRT&HS PRR Chronology, the first hump yard in the United States was opened May 11, 1903 as part of the Altoona Yards at Bells Mills. Other sources report the PRR yard at Youngwood, PA which opened in the 1880s to serve the Connellsville coke fields as the first U. S. hump yard. Gravity yards are operated to hump yards but, in contrast to the latter, the whole yard is set up on a continuous falling gradient; when they were invented in the 19th century, saving shunting engines and instead letting the cars roll by gravity was seen as a major benefit, whereas the larger amount of manual work required to stop the rolling cars in the classification tracks was judged to be not that important.
Gravity yards were a historical step in the development of classification yards and were judged as inferior to hump yards, because it became clear that shunting engines were needed anyway, because manual labour was getting more and more expensive. Thus, only few gravity yards were built, sometimes requiring massive earthwork. Most gravity yards were built in Germany and Great Britain, a few in some other European countries, for example Łazy yard near Zawiercie on the Warsaw-Vienna Railway. In the USA, there were only few old gravity yards. All gravity yards have been retrofitted with humps and are worked as hump yards. Examples include Nürnberg Rbf, both in Germany. Goods station List of rail yards Rail yard Siding Shunting Refuge Sidings, Exchange S
A siding, in rail terminology, is a low-speed track section distinct from a running line or through route such as a main line or branch line or spur. It may connect to other sidings at either end. Sidings have lighter rails, meant for lower speed or less heavy traffic, few, if any, signals. Sidings connected at both ends to a running line are known as loops. Sidings may be used for marshalling, storing and unloading vehicles. Common sidings store stationary rolling stock for loading and unloading. Industrial sidings go to factories, quarries, warehouses, some of them are links to industrial railways; such sidings can sometimes be found at stations for public use. Sidings may hold maintenance of way equipment or other equipment, allowing trains to pass, or store helper engines between runs; some sidings have occasional use, having been built, for example, to service an industry, a railway yard or a stub of a disused railway that has since closed. It is not uncommon for an infrequently-used siding to fall into disrepair.
A particular form of siding is passing loop. This is connected to it at both ends by switches. Passing sidings allow trains travelling in opposite directions to pass, for fast, high priority trains to pass slower or lower priority trains going the same direction, they are important for efficiency on single track lines, add to the capacity of other lines. Single-ended siding with similar purpose to passing loop. A team track is a small siding or spur track intended for the use of area merchants, manufacturers and other small businesses to load and unload products and merchandise in smaller quantities; the term "team" refers to the teams of horses or oxen delivering wagon-loads of freight transferred to or from railway cars. Team tracks may be owned by the railroad company or by customers served by the railroad, or by industrial parks or freight terminals that encompass many customers. In some jurisdictions, the operation and construction of team tracks is regulated by legal authorities. Earliest rail service to an area provided a team track on railroad-owned property adjacent to the railroad agent's train station.
As rail traffic became more established, large-volume shippers extended owned spur tracks into mines and warehouses. Small-volume shippers and shippers with facilities distant from the rail line continued using team tracks into the early part of the 20th century. Throughout the mid to latter portion of the 20th century, improved highway systems and abandonment of low-volume rail lines made full-distance truck shipments more practical in North America and avoided delays and damage associated with freight handling during transfer operations. However, as a result of higher fuel costs, greater traffic jams on Interstate Highways, the growing movement towards sustainable development, there has been recent upward trend towards moving long-distance freight traffic off highways and onto rail lines; this has resulted in local communities and rail lines seeking construction of new team track and intermodal facilities. Some railroads publish detailed specifications for the design and construction of many elements of team tracks.
For example, the Union Pacific Railroad has standards and guidelines for many aspects of spur track construction including track layout, clearance standards and turnout and switch stand designs. Team tracks do not have road or pedestrian crossings across them. Marshalling yard or classification yard Rail yard Jackson, Alan A.. The Railway Dictionary, 4th ed. Sutton Publishing, Stroud. ISBN 0-7509-4218-5. Ellis, Iain. Ellis' British Railway Engineering Encyclopaedia. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-8472-8643-7. Riley, Joseph E. and Strong, James C. "Basic Track", AREMA, 2003 Solomon, Brian, "Railway Signalling", 1st Edition, Voyageur Press
A railroad switch, turnout, or points is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another, such as at a railway junction or where a spur or siding branches off. The switch consists of the pair of linked tapering rails, known as points, lying between the diverging outer rails; these points can be moved laterally into one of two positions to direct a train coming from the point blades toward the straight path or the diverging path. A train moving from the narrow end toward the point blades is said to be executing a facing-point movement. Unless the switch is locked, a train coming from either of the converging directs will pass through the points onto the narrow end, regardless of the position of the points, as the vehicle's wheels will force the points to move. Passage through a switch in this direction is known as a trailing-point movement. A switch has a straight "through" track and a diverging route; the handedness of the installation is described by the side.
Right-hand switches have a diverging path to the right of the straight track, when coming from the point blades, a left-handed switch has the diverging track leaving to the opposite side. In many cases, such as rail yards, many switches can be found in a short section of track, sometimes with switches going both to the right and left. Sometimes a switch divides one track into two. In many cases, where a switch is supplied to leave a track, a second is supplied to allow the train to reenter the track some distance down the line. A straight track is not always present. A railroad car's wheels are guided along the tracks by coning of the wheels. Only in extreme cases does it rely on the flanges located on the insides of the wheels; when the wheels reach the switch, the wheels are guided along the route determined by which of the two points is connected to the track facing the switch. In the illustration, if the left point is connected, the left wheel will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will diverge to the right.
If the right point is connected, the right wheel's flange will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will continue along the straight track. Only one of the points may be connected to the facing track at any time. A mechanism is provided to move the points from one position to the other; this would require a lever to be moved by a human operator, some switches are still controlled this way. However, most are now operated by a remotely controlled electric motor or by pneumatic or hydraulic actuation, called a point machine; this both allows for remote control and for stiffer, strong switches that would be too difficult to move by hand, yet allow for higher speeds. In a trailing-point movement, the flanges on the wheels will force the points to the proper position; this is sometimes known as running through the switch. Some switches are designed to be forced to the proper position without damage. Examples include variable switches, spring switches, weighted switches. If a switch becomes worn or the operating rods become damaged, it is possible for the flange to split the switch, go through the switch in the direction other than what was expected.
This happens when the flange strikes a small gap between the set switch point. This can either happen to the locomotive, in which case the whole train can be directed onto the wrong track, with dangerous results, or it can occur at any point through the train, when a random truck is directed down a different track from the rest of the train. If it happens to the trailing truck of a car, the front truck will follow one track, while the trailing truck follows a parallel line; this can have disastrous results if there is any obstacle between the lines, as the car will be propelled into it sideways, such as happened in the 1928 Times Square derailment. In some cases, the whole train behind the car will follow the errant car onto the other track.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
A courthouse is a building, home to a local court of law and the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English-speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are called "courts" or "court buildings". In most of Continental Europe and former non-English-speaking European colonies, the equivalent term is a palace of justice. In most counties in the United States, the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may house county governmental offices; the courthouse is located in the county seat, although large metropolitan counties may have satellite or annex offices for their courts. In some cases this building may be renamed in some way or its function divided as between a judicial building and administrative office building. Many judges officiate at civil marriage ceremonies in their courthouse chambers. In some places, the courthouse contains the main administrative office for the county government, or when a new courthouse is constructed, the former one will be used for other local government offices.
Either way, a typical courthouse will have one or more courtrooms and a court clerk's office with a filing window where litigants may submit documents for filing with the court. Each United States district court has a federally owned building that houses courtrooms and clerk's offices. Many federal judicial districts are further split into divisions, which may have their own courthouses, although sometimes the smaller divisional court facilities are located in buildings that house other agencies or offices of the United States government; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California has a courthouse in Yosemite to hear misdemeanors and petty crimes for Yosemite National Park. The courthouse is part of the iconography of American life and is equivalent to the city hall as the symbol of the municipium in European free cities. Courthouses are shown in American cinema, they range from small-town rural buildings with a few rooms to huge metropolitan courthouses that occupy large plots of land.
The style of American architecture used varies, with common styles including federal, Greek Revival and modern. Due to concerns over potential violence, many courthouses in American cities have security checkpoints where all incoming persons are searched for weapons through the use of an X-ray machine for all bags and a walk-through metal detector, much like those found at airports. For example, the Los Angeles Superior Court added such checkpoints to all entrances to its main courthouse in Downtown Los Angeles after a woman was shot and killed by her ex-husband in open court in September 1995; the Supreme Court of California ruled in 2002 that Los Angeles County was not liable to her three children under the California Government Tort Claims Act. After the Oklahoma City bombing, the federal government proceeded to fortify all large federal buildings, including many urban courthouses; some courthouses in areas with high levels of violent crime have redundant layers of security. For example, when the Supreme Court of California hears oral argument in San Francisco or Los Angeles, visitors must pass through one security checkpoint to enter the building, another to enter the courtroom.
In Canada each municipality constructs several in the case of large cities. In smaller communities the court is in the same building as the city hall and other municipal offices. In the past many courthouses included the local prison. One well-known court house in Canada is the Romanesque Revival Old City Hall in Ontario. Designed by E. J. Lennox, Old City Hall was completed in 1899 and has been functioning as a municipal building since, it was constructed to facilitate Toronto’s City Council and municipal offices and the city's courts however following the construction of the fourth city hall the building's purpose was limited to being a courthouse for the Ontario Court of Justice. This building can be described as Romanesque Revival due to multiple characteristics it shares with Romanesque architecture; these characteristics include the materiality in terms of large stone construction, the repetitive rhythmic use of windows containing various sized arches and barrel vaults directing attention towards them, decorated spandrels and the inclusion of gabled walls.
Old City Hall has been designated a National Historical Site since 1989. Court Courts of England and Wales List of courthouses
Union Station (St. Louis)
St. Louis Union Station, a National Historic Landmark, was a passenger intercity train terminal in St. Louis, Missouri. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the early 1980s into a hotel, shopping center, entertainment complex. Today, an adjacent station serves light-rail passengers on MetroLink's Red and Blue Lines, while the city's intercity train station sits a quarter-mile to the east; the station opened on September 1, 1894, was owned by the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis; the station was designed by Theodore Link, included three main areas: the Headhouse and the Midway, the 11.5-acre Train Shed designed by civil engineer George H. Pegram; the headhouse housed a hotel, a restaurant, passenger waiting rooms and railroad ticketing offices. It featured a gold-leafed Grand Hall, Romanesque arches, a 65-foot barrel-vaulted ceiling and stained-glass windows; the clock tower is 280 feet high. Union Station's headhouse and midway are constructed of Indiana limestone and included 42 tracks under its vast trainshed terminating in the stub-end terminal.
Its Grand Hall, which cost around $6.5 million and was about 75 by 125 feet large, was considered to be one of the most beautiful, public lobbies. At its opening, it was the world's largest and busiest railroad station and its trainshed was the largest roof span in the world. In 1903, Union Station was expanded to accommodate visitors to the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. In the 1920s, it remained the largest American railroad terminal. At its height, the station combined the St. Louis passenger services of 22 railroads, the most of any single terminal in the world. In the 1940s, it handled 100,000 passengers a day; the famous photograph of Harry S. Truman holding aloft the erroneous Chicago Tribune headline, "Dewey Defeats Truman", was shot at the station as Truman headed back to Washington, D. C. from Independence, after the 1948 Presidential election. The 1940s expansion added a new ticket counter designed as a half-circle and a mural by Louis Grell could be found atop the customer waiting area which depicted the history of St. Louis with an old fashion steam engine, two large steamboats and the Eads Bridge in the background.
As airliners became the preferred mode of long-distance travel and railroad passenger services declined in the 1950s and 1960s, the massive station became obsolete and too expensive to maintain for its original purpose. With the takeover of national rail passenger service by Amtrak in 1971, passenger train service to St. Louis was reduced to only three trains a day. Amtrak stopped using Union Station on October 31, 1978; the last train to leave Union Station was a Chicago-bound Inter-American. Passenger service shifted to a temporary-style "Amshack" one block east. Amtrak has since moved its St. Louis service to the Gateway Transportation Center; the station was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970, as an important surviving example of large-scale railroad architecture from the late 19th century. In August 1985, after a $150 million renovation designed by HOK, Union Station was reopened with a 539-room hotel, shopping mall and food court. Federal historic rehabilitation tax credits were used to transform Union Station into one of the city's most visited attractions.
The station rehabilitation by Conrad Schmitt Studios remains one of the largest adaptive re-use projects in the United States. The hotel is housed in the headhouse and part of the train shed, which houses a lake and shopping and dining establishments. Omni Hotels was the original hotel operator, followed by Hyatt Regency Hotel chain and Marriott Hotels. In 2010-11, the station's Marriott Hotel in the main terminal building was expanded, it took over the station's Midway area. In 2012, Lodging Hospitality Management bought Union Station and rebranded the hotel as a DoubleTree. In August 2016, Lodging Hospitality Management announced plans to renovate Union Station once again; the renovations will include $45 million aquarium. The St. Louis Aquarium is to be completed by fall 2018; as of November 2017, no stores or restaurants remain inside the building. The Memories Museum features artifacts and displays about the history of St. Louis Union Station and rail travel in the United States. Located on the upper level of the train shed, the museum is a joint project of Union Station Associates and the Museum of Transportation.
Admission is free. The original architectural drawings and blueprints for Union Station and the original hotel are available to researchers at the Washington University Archives at Washington University in St. Louis; some architectural elements from the building have been removed in renovations and taken to the Sauget, storage site of the St. Louis Building Arts Foundation. Union Station was the venue for the FIRST Tech Challenge World Championship component of the FIRST Championship, hosted in St. Louis every April until 2017, after which it was moved to Detroit. MetroLink, the St. Louis light rail mass transit system, serves Union Station from its station directly below the trainshed in the Union Station subway tunnel; the St. Louis Union Station serves the Red Blue Line, it takes about 30 minutes to travel to Lambert-St. Louis International Airport's Main Terminals via the Metro Red Line. Megabus provided express intercity bus service to Memphis, Kansas City and Chicago from Union Station. Megabus moved to the Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center in December, 2014.
St. Louis Union Station has 24-hour taxi service a
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py