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Head of the Commonwealth

The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation that comprises 54 sovereign states. There is no set term of office or term limit and the role itself involves no part in the day-to-day governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth. By 1949, the British Commonwealth was a group of eight countries. India, desired to become a republic, but not to leave the Commonwealth by doing so; this was accommodated by the creation of the title Head of the Commonwealth for the King, India became a republic in 1950. Subsequently, many other nations including Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Singapore ceased to recognise the monarch of the United Kingdom as their respective head of state, but as members of the Commonwealth of Nations recognised the British monarch as Head of the Commonwealth; the title is held by Queen Elizabeth II, George VI's eldest daughter. Charles, Prince of Wales, was appointed her designated successor at the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.

The title was devised in the London Declaration as a result of discussions at the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. It is rendered in Latin as Consortionis Populorum Princeps; the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, is recognised by the members of the Commonwealth of Nations as the "symbol of their free association" and serves as a leader, alongside the Commonwealth Secretary-General and Commonwealth Chair-in-Office. The Head of the Commonwealth does not, have any role in the governance of any Commonwealth state; the Head of the Commonwealth or a representative attends the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, held at locations throughout the Commonwealth. This is a tradition begun by the monarch on the advice of Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1973, when the CHOGM was first held in Canada. During the summit, the Head of the Commonwealth has a series of private meetings with Commonwealth countries' leaders, attends a CHOGM reception and dinner, makes a general speech.

The Queen or a representative is present at the quadrennial Commonwealth Games and on every Commonwealth Day, the second Monday in March, broadcasts a message to all member countries. In 1949, King George VI was king of each of the countries that comprised the British Commonwealth: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India and Ceylon. However, the Indian Cabinet desired the country to become a republic, but not to leave the Commonwealth as a consequence of no longer having George VI as king, as happened to Ireland. To accommodate this, the London Declaration, devised by Canadian prime minister Louis St. Laurent, stated that the King, as the symbol of the free association of the countries of the Commonwealth, was the Head of the Commonwealth; when India adopted a republican constitution on 26 January 1950, George VI ceased to be its monarch, but it did regard him as Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth II became Head of the Commonwealth on her accession in 1952, stating at the time, "he Commonwealth bears no resemblance to the empires of the past.

It is an new conception built on the highest qualities of the spirit of man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace." The following year, a Royal Style and Titles Act was passed in each of the Commonwealth realms, adding for the first time the term Head of the Commonwealth to the monarch's titles. In December 1960, the Queen had a personal flag created to symbolise her as Head of the Commonwealth and not associated with her role as queen of any particular country. Over time, the flag has replaced the British Royal Standard when the Queen visits Commonwealth countries of which she is not head of state and on Commonwealth occasions in the United Kingdom; when the Queen visits the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat in London, this personal standard—not any of her royal standards—is raised. Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid in South Africa. By 2018, with the Queen in her 90s, the position of "Head of the Commonwealth" not technically hereditary, talks as to whether or not Prince Charles or someone else should become the third person to hold it had been going on for some time.

The London Declaration states that "The King as the symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth", whereby both republics and kingdoms that are not Commonwealth realms can recognise the monarch as Head of the Commonwealth without accepting the person as the country's head of state. However, though each Commonwealth realm's laws on royal titles and styles make Head of the Commonwealth part of the reigning monarch's full title, Queen Elizabeth II declared in 1958, through the Letters Patent creating her son, Prince Charles, as Prince of Wales, that Charles and his heirs and successors shall be future Heads of the Commonwealth, there have been conflicting statements on how successors to the position of Head of the Commonwealth are chosen; the Commonwealth Secretariat asserts any successor will be chosen collectively by the Commonwealth heads of government. Commonwealth heads of government, such as the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, had referred to Prince Charles as "the future

Puzzled (video game)

Puzzled is a falling-block puzzle video game developed and published by SNK, released for Neo Geo arcades in 1990, on the Neo Geo home console in 1991, the Neo Geo CD in 1994. The game was ported to mobile phones in 2005 was re-published by D4 Enterprise on the Wii Virtual Console in June 2011, it is one of the twenty games that came pre-loaded on the Neo Geo X console released in 2012, it was ported in August 2017 to Nintendo Switch, Xbox One and PlayStation 4 as part of Hamster Corporation's ACA Neo Geo series. The visuals of Puzzled look a lot like Tetris and the core gameplay is the same: the player controls tetriminos falling from the top of the screen, filling a horizontal lines clears it. However, the objective is to clear a vertical path for a hot air balloon trapped at the bottom of each level, enabling it to fly off the top of the playing field and moving up to the next level of a tower; the tower is divided with 10 levels per floor, totaling 60 different puzzles. Some levels feature varied obstacles like robots floating around the puzzle to attack the balloon, regenerating blocks, gold blocks that need to be cleared multiple times before disappearing.

The player can use a power-up called an "L-Ball": a meter fills up as lines are cleared, once ready, the player can trigger a lightning ball to explode outwards from the balloon's current location, removing surrounding blocks. The graphics of Puzzled were described as being simplistic and unremarkable but well-designed and efficient; the sound effects were considered minimalistic but enjoyable for a game of this type. The game's multiplayer portion was criticized for not featuring any interactions between the two simultaneous players. Official website Puzzled at the Killer List of Videogames Puzzled at MobyGames

List of National Football League head coaches

The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL was founded in 1920. In the course of its existence, it has merged with the All-America Football Conference and the American Football League to create the current NFL; the AAFC merged with the NFL in 1950, the AFL merged with the NFL in 1970. The history and records of the AFL were incorporated into the NFL. In the 100-year history of the NFL, there have been 500 head coaches, 29 of which are active as head coach. George Halas has the longest tenure of any NFL head coach, with a career spanning 40 years. Don Shula, who had a 33-year coaching career spanning from 1963 to 1995, has coached the most overall games with 509. Note: Statistics are correct as of the end of the 2019 NFL season.

List of current National Football League head coaches List of National Football League head coaches with 50 wins